Bantuan:Citation Style 1

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
(Dilencongkan dari Bantuan:Ralat CS1)
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Notice This help page has testcases demonstrating various uses.
A link to this page can be created by using {{cs1}} to create Citation Style 1.

Citation Style 1 (CS1) ialah himpunan templat yang dapat diubah suai untuk mencipta pelbagai gaya. Dalam bentuk asalnya, ia merupakan kaedah yang sering digunakan buat membuat rujukan rencana-rencana Wikipedia. CS1 menggunakan satu siri templat yang menggunakan sama ada templat meta {{Citation/core}} ataupun modul Lua Module:Citation/CS1 yang lebih kini.

Penggunaan CS1 atau templat tidak wajib. Lihat en:WP:CITEVAR:

"Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style."

CS1 menggunakan unsur-unsur The Chicago Manual of Style dan Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, dengan beberapa pengesuaian.

Gaya atau Style[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat beberapa templat yang menggunakan nama bermula dengan cite ataupun, buat yang diterjemahkan, petik; banyak yang dibangunkan berasingan daripada CS1 dan tidak mematuhi kehendak gaya CS1. Terdapat juga templat yang menggunakan salah satu templat guna am sebagai templat meta untuk memetik sumber tertentu.

Untuk mematuhi CS1, sesebuah templat perlu:

  • Berlandaskan {{citation/core}}, Modul:Citation/CS1 ataupun salah satu daripada templat yang disenaraikan di bawah.
  • Menggunakan titik/noktah untuk mengasingkan medan dan menamatkan petikan.
  • Menggunakan koma bernoktah sebagai tanda untuk mengasingkan penulis dan penyunting.
  • Memformat judul karya-karya yang panjang dengan tulisan sendeng.
  • Memformat judul karya-karya pendek seperti bab dalam tanda petikan.

Templat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kegunaan am[sunting | sunting sumber]

Berikut senarai templat yang melaksanakan Citation Style 1 buat satu atu lebih petikan, akan tetapi tidak terbatas pada mana-mana sumber tertentu.

Legenda
  Menunjukkan templat menggunakan Modul:Citation/CS1; yang lain menggunakan {{citation/core}}
Ya Menunjukkan yang peralatan ataupun gajet sepadan dapat menjana templat setiap kali yang diperlukan. Walau bagaimanapun, ini tidak bermakna alat atau gajet menyokong semua parameter sepenuhnya ataupun menyediakan antara muka untuk alat-alat/gajet ini. Malah, tiada yang menyediakan antara muka.
Kadang kala Menunjukkan yang peralatan ataupun gajet sepadan mungkin atau mungkin tidak menjana templat sepadan. Untuk maklumat lanjut,lihat nota kaki berkaitan.
Templat CS1 kegunaan am
Template Use Citation expander gadget RefToolbar 1.0 RefToolbar 2.0 ProveIt SnipManager Cite4Wiki
{{Cite AV media}} audio and visual sources - -
{{Cite AV media notes}} liner notes from albums, DVDs, CDs and similar audio-visual media
{{Cite book}} buku Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya
{{Cite conference}} conference papers Ya
{{Cite DVD notes}} DVD liner notes
{{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections Ya
{{Cite episode}} television or radio programs and episodes Ya
{{Cite interview}} interviews
{{Cite journal}} magazines, journals, academic papers Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya Sometimes[lower-alpha 1]
{{Cite mailing list}} archived public mailing lists
{{Cite map}} maps
{{Cite news}} news articles in print, video, audio or web Sometimes
[penjelasan lanjut diperlukan]
Ya Ya Ya Ya Sometimes
[penjelasan lanjut diperlukan]
{{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast
{{Cite press release}} press releases Ya
{{Cite report}} Unpublished reports by government departments, instrumentalities, operated companies, etc
{{Cite serial}} audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}} signs, plaques and other visual sources
{{Cite speech}} speeches
{{Cite techreport}} technical reports
{{Cite thesis}} theses
{{Cite web}} web sources not characterized by another template Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya
  1. ^ Cite4Wiki uses {{Cite web}} by default, but has been customized to use {{Cite news}}, etc., for certain specific sources, and can be further customized in this manner.

Templat kegunaan Bot[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat-templat berikut menggunakan {{cite journal}} sebagai metatemplat. Bot akan menjana petikan dengan memasukkan pengenal pasti.

Templat petikan yang diguna Bot+
Templat Pengenal pasti
{{Cite doi}} Digital object identifier
{{Cite hdl}} Handle System
{{Cite pmid}} PubMed

Dari segi teknikal, sebuah bot akan membuat pembalut untuk {{cite journal}}. Pembalut mengandungi maklumat petikan yang diperoleh daripada pangkalan data yang ditetapkan.

Sumber spesifik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat beberapa templat yang patuh CS1 akan tetapi terikat dengan sumber spesifik; ini disenaraikan dalam Kategori:Templat Citation Style 1 sumber spesifik.

Istimewa:

Pracetak rencana
templat petikan
Templat Pengenal pasti
{{Cite arXiv}} pracetak arXiv

Bagaimana templat bekerja[sunting | sunting sumber]

CS1 menggunakan satu siri templat yang menyediakan output paparan konsisten. Perbezaan utama terletak dalam parameter-parameter yang dioptimumkan buat sesuatu subjek. Misalnya, {{cite book}} memiliki medan untuk judul dan bab, sementara {{cite journal}} memiliki medan untuk jurnal dan judul.

Laman bantuan ini menggunakan nama-nama yang sering diketemu dalam siri templat; lihat dokumentasi setiap templat untuk mendapatkan perincian.

Secara amnya templat-templat CS1 menyediakan petikan begini:

  • Dengan penulis (author):
Author (Date). "Title". Work. Publisher. Identifiers. 
  • Tanpa penulis:
"Title". Work. Publisher. Date. Identifiers. 

Pengarang/Penulis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seseorang pengarang boleh dipetik dengan menggunakan beberapa parameter berasingan untuk nama akhir dan nama sebenar dengan menggunakan |last= and |first=. Jika sesuatu sumber petikan memiliki lebih daripada satu pengarang, pengarang-pengarang lain boleh disenaraikan dengan menggunakan |last2= dan |first2=, |last3= dan |first3=, dan seterusnya, seperti ditonjolkan dalam contoh ini:[Nota 1]

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe. 

Jika sesuatu sumber petikan memiliki bilangan pengarang yang besar, penyunting boleh mengehadkan bilangan pengarang yang dipapar dengan menggunakan parameter |display-authors= seperti dihuraikan dengan terperinci dalam Opsyen paparan laman ini.

If a cited author is notable and the author has a Wikipedia article, the author's name can be linked with |authorlink=. If a citation includes multiple notable authors, one may use |authorlink2=, |authorlink3=, etc. This method is used because |last= and |first= do not allow wikilinking. Please note that |authorlink= cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly. Below is an example of a wikilinked author credit:

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |authorlink=Stephen Hawking |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe. 

When an author is cited, the date of the cited work is displayed after the author's name, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |authorlink=Stephen Hawking |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |year=2007}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy (2007). George's Secret Key to the Universe. 

If no author is cited, the date appears after the title, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |year=2007}}
George's Secret Key to the Universe. 2007. 

If the cited source does not credit an author, as is common with newswire reports, press releases or company websites use:

|author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.-->

This HTML comment alerts both fact-checking and citation-fixing editors and bots that the cited source specifically did not name an author and therefore an author credit wasn't accidentally omitted from the citation. Without this entry editors and bots would waste time researching cited sources in an attempt to improve existing citations only to find that there is no author to credit.

When using |author= avoid citations like {{cite news |work=Weekday Times|author=Weekday Times editors|title=...}}, unless the article is on a field in which the majority of professional journals covering that field use such a redundant citation style.

Editors should use an |author= organizational citation when the cited source, such as a committee report, specifically names an official body or a sub-unit of the publisher as the collective author of the work, e.g. |author=Commission on Headphone Safety or |author=Rules Sub-committee. Do not use |author= to assert what you think was probably the collective author when the source itself does not specifically specify a collective author; doing so is original research and falsification of source verifiability and reliability.

You may also use |author=, |author2=, |author3=, etc. to cite authors when first last order style is used in an article or the national or ethnic name style is not first last. Note that |author= may not create the expected anchor for Shortened footnotes and parenthetical referencing.

Editors[sunting | sunting sumber]

An editor may be cited using separate parameters for the editor's last and first name. A single or first editor would use |editor-last= and |editor-first=; subsequent editors would use |editor2-last= and |editor2-first=, |editor3-last= and |editor3-first=, etc.[Note 1]

If an editor is notable and has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that editor's Wikipedia article using |editor-link=. If a cited work has multiple editors, you may use |editor2-link=, |editor3-link=, etc. to wikilink to each editor's Wikipedia article. This method is used because |editor-last= and |editor-first= do not allow wikilinking. Please note that |editor-link= cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly.

If a cited source has a large number of editors, one can limit the number of editors displayed when the citation is published using the |display-editors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.

Others[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • others: Parameter ini digunakan untuk mengiktiraf penyumbang-penyumbang selain daripada seorang pengarang atau penyunting, seperti ilustrator atau penterjemah. Anda perlu memuatkan kedua-dua jenis sumbangan dan nama penyumbang, misalnya:|others=Illustrated by John Smith atau |others=Trans. Jones

Dates[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dates are generally included by three parameters:

  • date: Full date of publication edition being referenced, in the same format as other dates in citations in the same article. Must not be wikilinked.
  • OR: year: Year of publication edition being referenced.
    • Templat:Bxtd: (deprecated) Name of the month of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead. Must not be wikilinked. Use date instead.
    • origyear: Original publication year, for display alongside the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics, for instance origyear=First published 1859 or origyear=Composed 1904. This parameter only displays if there is a value for year or date.

Acceptable date formats are shown in the "Acceptable date formats" table of the Manual of Style/Dates and numbers, Dates and years section. Further points:

  • Prescriptions about date formats only apply when the date is expressed in terms of Julian or Gregorian dates, or which use one of the seasons spring, summer, autumn or fall, winter. Sources are at liberty to use other ways of expressing dates, such as "spring-summer" or a date in a religious calendar; editors should report the date as expressed by the source. Although the seasons are not normally capitalized, they are capitalized when used as dates in CS1 templates, and the capitalization of the season stated by the source may be altered to follow this rule.
  • Do not wikilink.
  • Access and archive dates in references should be in either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD.

CS1 compliance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style[sunting | sunting sumber]

CS1 uses Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers §§Dates and years (WP:DATESNO) as the reference for all date format checking performed by Module:Citation/CS1. For various reasons, CS1 is not fully compliant WP:DATESNO. This table indicates CS1 compliance with the listed sections of WP:DATESNO.

CS1 compliance with Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers
section compliant comment
Acceptable date formats table yes Exceptions: linked dates not supported;
sortable dates not supported ({{dts}} etc);
proper name dates not supported;
Unacceptable date formats table yes
Consistency no article level restrictions are beyond the scope of CS1
Strong national ties to a topic no
Retaining existing format no
Era style no dates earlier than 100 not supported;
Julian and Gregorian calendars limited Module:Citation/CS1 cannot know if a date is Julian or Gregorian; assumes Gregorian
Ranges yes Exceptions: does not support the use of &ndash; or &nbsp;
does not support dates prior to 100;
does not support solidus separator (/)
does not support " to " as a date separator
does not support YYYY–YY where the two-digit year is less than 13 (change to YYYY–YYYY to eliminate the error message);
Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates yes Exceptions: does not support {{circa}} or {{floruit}};
does not support dates prior to 100;
Supports c. only with a single year value (no ranges or day/month combinations).
Days of the week no
Months yes Exceptions: shortened month names longer than three characters or with terminating periods are not supported;
Seasons no CS1 capitalizes seasons used as dates in citations, in line with external style guides;
Decades no
Centuries and millennia no
Abbreviations for long periods of time no

Date range, multiple sources in same year[sunting | sunting sumber]

If dates are used with the ref=harv parameter, the year range is 100 to present without era indication (AD, BC, CE, BCE). In the case where the same author has written more than one work in the same year, a lower-case letter may be appended to the year in the date parameter (Templat:Xt – Module:Citation/CS1 supported templates only) or the year parameter (Templat:Xt – all CS1 templates).

Titles and chapters[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • title The title of the cited source. Titles are displayed in italics, except for short works such as a {{cite press release}} and cited articles in {{cite news}}, {{cite journal}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite conference}}, and {{cite podcast}}, where the title is shown in quotation marks. Use title case unless the cited source covers a scientific, legal or other technical topic and sentence case is the predominant style in journals on that topic. Use either title case or sentence case consistently throughout the article. Do not omit a leading "The" from the title. Subtitles are typically separated from titles with ": " though " – " is also used. As with trademarks, Wikipedia Templat:Em attempt to emulate any stylistic flourishes used by the cited source's publisher, such as ALL-CAPS, all-lower-case, Small Caps, etc.; use either standard title case or sentence case consistently. If the cited source is itself notable and has a Wikipedia article, the title can be wikilinked. Wikilinking the title will make it impossible to use the "url" parameter to link to an external copy of the cited source, so only do this when citing works that do not need to be externally linked. A link to the actual source is preferred to a link to a Wikipedia article about the source.
  • script-title: Languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet, Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, etc., should not be italicized and may also read right-to-left (rtl). To include titles in these languages, use script-title. Titles in script-title are wrapped in special HTML markup to isolate rtl script from adjacent left-to-right text. Part of that special markup is a language attribute that browsers can use to assist in the proper display of the script. Editors may add a prefix to the script that will identify the language. The prefix is an ISO 639-1 two-character language code followed by a colon: |script-title=ar:العربية. Unrecognized codes are ignored and will display in the rendered citation.
  • trans-title: If the cited source is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. This field will be displayed in square brackets after the title and will be linked to |url= if used.
  • chapter The title of the cited chapter from the source, written in full. Displayed in quotes before the title. For websites arranged in sections the "at" parameter serves a similar function: |at=Featured News
  • trans-chapter: If the cited source is in a foreign language, an English translation of the cited chapter title can be given here. This field will be displayed in square brackets within the quotation marks which enclose the chapter field.

Titles containing certain characters will both display and link incorrectly unless those characters are replaced or encoded.

newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;

Type[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • type: Specifies the type of work cited. Appears in parentheses immediately after the title. Some templates use a default that can be overridden; example: {{cite press release}} will show (Press release) by default. Other useful values are Review, Systemic review, Meta-analysis or Original article.

Language[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • language: The language the work is written in, if it is not English. Displayed before the title, enclosed in parentheses and prefixed with in. Do not use icons in this field.

Work and publisher[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • work: Used by some templates such as {{cite web}}, {{cite news}} (where it is also aliased to newspaper and magazine), {{cite journal}} (aliased to journal), and others where the citation is usually to a specific item in a larger work, most commonly an article in a website or print periodical, or an episode in a TV series. Do not confuse this with the "publisher" parameter, which is for the publishing company. If the work is notable and has an article, it should be wiki-linked at first appearance in citations in the article. If the "title" is already linked to externally, do not externally link to the "work".
On websites, in most cases "work" is the name of the website (as usually given in the logo/banner area of the site), otherwise the site's domain name. If the "work" as given by the site/publication would be exactly the same as the name of the publisher, use the domain name; do not falsify the work's name by adding descriptive verbiage like "website of [Publisher]" or "[Publisher]'s Homepage". Capitalize for reading clarity, and omit "www.", e.g. convert "www.veterinaryresourcesuk.com" to "VeterinaryResourcesUK.com". Many journals use highly abbreviated titles when citing other journals (e.g. "J Am Vet Med" for "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association") because specialists in the field the journal covers usually already know what these abbreviations mean. Our readers do not, so these abbreviations should always be expanded. If the titled item being cited is part of some other larger work, such as a book, periodical or sub-organization, forming a sub-site at a domain name (e.g., the law school's section of a university's website system), it is usually better to use the name of that more specific work than that of the entire site/system. If the nature of the work and its relation to the site, book or other context in which it is found is complicated or confusing, simply explain the situation after the citation template and before the </ref> that closes the citation.
  • publisher: the name of the company that actually published the source. The field should not include the corporate designation such as "Ltd" or "Inc.", unless some ambiguity would result or the company is usually known with that designation even in everyday use. "Publisher", "Publishing" and "Publications" can be abbreviated "Pubr.", "Pubg." and "Pubs." respectively, but some templates in this series include a period (full-stop) immediately after this parameter, so the period may have to be omitted; check the output if you abbreviate here. These words are usually safe to omit, but are usefully included where the publisher's name might be confusing. This is most often the case when the publisher's name is something like "Joshua Martin Publications", which without the designation might be mistaken for a co-author. A leading "The" can generally be omitted, again unless confusion might result (e.g., for The International Cat Association, "The" is part of their official acronym, TICA). If the publisher is notable and has an article independent of the "work", the "publisher" parameter can include a wiki-link to that article, but should never externally link to the publisher's website. The "publisher" parameter should not be included for mainstream newspapers or where it would be the same or mostly the same as the work/site/journal/etc., for example, the "publisher" parameter should be omitted in these examples:
|work=Amazon.com    and   |publisher=Amazon
|newspaper=The New York Times    and   |publisher=The New York Times Company
|newspaper=USA Today    and   |publisher=Gannett Company

Whether the publisher needs to be included depends on the type of work. Wikipedia:Citing sources suggest it should be for books, but not necessarily other works. If the work is self-published, this is a very important fact about potential reliability of the source, and needs to be specified; no consensus exists for the exact value of |publisher=, but some printed style guides suggest "author". When an exhaustive attempt to discover the name of the publisher (try whois for websites) fails, use |publisher=<!--Unspecified by source.--> to explicitly indicate that this was checked, so other editors do not waste time duplicating your fruitless efforts. Do not guess at the publisher when this information isn't clear.

  • location: Geographical place of publication, usually City, Country, or City, U.S. State; simply the city name by itself can be used for world-recognized cities like New York, London (except in articles about Canadian topics), Paris, Tokyo. Simply having a unique name doesn't mean it's globally recognizable; e.g., many people do not know where Mumbai is, especially if they are old enough that it was called Bombay for much of their lives. If in doubt, be more not less specific, since "Toronto, Canada" and "San Francisco, California" do not actually hurt anything. The |location= parameter should be omitted when it is implied by the name of the work, e.g. The New York Times. The |location= parameter should be used when the location is part of the common name but not the actual name of a newspaper. For example, the newspaper commonly known as the New York Daily News is actually Daily News (New York) and can be entered with |newspaper=Daily News |location=New York, which yields Daily News (New York).
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via (optional): Name of the content deliverer (when they are not the publisher) who presents the source in a format other than the original, or when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, or where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if(!) the deliverer requests attribution, or as suggested in WP:The Wikipedia Library, e.g. WP:Credo accounts/Citations. |via= permits adding a level of detail of "say where you found it" within the syntax of Citation Style 1, without requiring external templates like {{HighBeam}} or {{subscription required}}. |via= is not intended to replace |publisher=, so citations of books (say, ebooks) published and sold by Google Books wouldn't use it.

Pages[sunting | sunting sumber]

An editor may use any one of the following parameters in a given citation to refer to the specific page(s) or place in a cited source that contains the information that supports the article text. If more than one of the following parameters are used in the same citation, the error message Extra |pages= or |at= (help) will display in the published citation. When more than one of the following parameters is used in error, |page= overrides both |pages= and |at=; |pages= overrides |at=. To resolve the error, remove extra parameters of this type until only one remains in the affected citation.

  • page: page in the cited source containing the information that supports the article text, for example |page=52 .
  • pages: pages in the cited source containing the information that supports the article text. Separate page ranges with an en dash: – , for example |pages=236–239 . Separate non-sequential pages with a comma, for example |pages=157,159 . The form |pages=461,466–467 is used when you are citing both non-contiguous and sequential pages. Note: CS1 citations do not record the total number of pages in a cited source; do not use this parameter for that purpose.
  • at: place in the cited source containing the information that supports the article text when a page number is not given, is inappropriate or is insufficient. Common examples include column or col., paragraph or para. and section or sec. Depending on the source being cited, other indicators may be appropriate to use with the |at= parameter including, but not limited to, track, hours, minutes and seconds, act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, etc. Examples include |at=Column 2 or |at=Paragraph 5 or |at=Back cover or |at=Act III, Scene 2.

Edition identifiers[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • edition: Identifies the particular edition of a cited source when the source has more than one edition, such as "2nd", "Revised", etc. Note that this parameter automatically displays " ed." after your entry. For example |edition=Revised third displays as: Revised third ed. The edition parameter can be omitted if there is no content difference between two editions of the same work; e.g. if a book was identically published in the UK and the US except, for example, ISBN number and cover art, it is not necessary to indicate either "UK" or "US" edition; or if citing minute:seconds of a film available in both a regular edition and a "Special Limited Collector's Edition", if the running time and cut are the same, it is not necessary to cite the particular edition.
  • series: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.[Note 2]
  • volume: For a source published in several volumes. This field is displayed in bold after the title and series parameters. An alternative is to include the volume information in the title parameter after the main title.
  • issue: When the source is part of a series that is published periodically. Aliases: number.

External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • url: Adds a link to the title
  • chapterurl: Adds a link to the chapter.
  • format: Format of the document at its URL (e.g., PDF, xls, etc.) Do not specify for HTML as it is implied as the default. Several URI schemes and filename extensions will show an icon— these icons have no alt text and do not meet accessibility standards. Do not use this parameter for completely different purposes, with annotations such as "fee required" or "reprint"; its intent is to notify readers what the file format is (e.g. in case some browsers might have trouble with it, or some might prefer to save the link to disk rather than open it in the browser). Access restrictions can be shown using |subscription= or |registration=, see Registration or subscription required. Other notes about reprintings, etc., should be placed after the template, and before </ref>.

Online sources[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana–rencana utama: WP:External links dan WP:Citing sources

Links to sources are regarded as conveniences and are not required, except when citing Web-only sources. There are many digital libraries with works that may be used as sources.

  • Links should be to full versions of the source.
  • Online sources that require payment or subscription may be included per the verifiability policy.

Do not link to:

Rencana utama: WP:LINKSTOAVOID
  • Sites that do not have permission to republish the work or which otherwise violate copyright.
  • Commercial sites such as Amazon.
  • Reviews of the work.
  • Very short extracts such as Google Books snippet view where there is not enough context to verify the content, unless the entire work is also freely available there. (See WP:BOOKLINKS)

Link formats[sunting | sunting sumber]

Links should be kept as simple as possible. For example, when performing a search for a Google Book, the link for Monty Python and Philosophy would look like:

http://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC&lpg=PP1&dq=monty%20python&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

But can be trimmed to:

http://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC

Pages[sunting | sunting sumber]

A direct link to a specific page may be used if supported by the host. For example, the link to page 173 of Monty Python and Philosophy on Google Books:

http://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC&l&pg=PA173

If the same source is reused with different pages, separate citations must be created. A way around this problem is to use {{rp}} to provide linked page number citations.

Aksara khas[sunting | sunting sumber]

URL perlu bermula dengan skema URI yang disokong.
http:// dan https:// disokong oleh semua pelayar; walau bagaimanapun, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: dan news: akan memerlukan palam atau aplikasi luar dan penggunaannya sepatutnya dielak. Nama hos IPv6 tidak disokong buat masa ini.
Jika URL dalam templat petikan mengandungi aksara tertentu, aksara-aksara tersebut mungkin tidak akan dipapar dan dipautkan dengan betul. Aksara-aksara tersebut perlu menggunakan pengekodan peratus. Misalnya, ruang perlu diganti dengan %20. Untuk mengekod URL, gantikan aksara-aksara berikut dengan:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Tanda koma atas tidak perlu dikod; walau bagaimanapun, koma atas berganda akan dihuraikan sebagai penanda sendeng atau tebal. Tanda kurungan keriting tunggal juga tidak perlu dikodkan; walau bagaimanapun, sepasang tanda kurungan keriting akan dihurai sebagai tanda kurungan duaan untuk transklusi templat.

Access date[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • accessdate: The date the web link was accessed; only shows when a link is included.

Icons[sunting | sunting sumber]

URLs with certain filename extensions or URI schemes will apply an icon specific to that file type. This is done through MediaWiki CSS, not these templates.

Web archives[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • archiveurl
  • archivedate

The original link may become unavailable. When an archived version is located, the original URL is retained and |archiveurl= is added with a link to an archived copy of a web page, usually from services like WebCite and the Internet Archive. |archivedate= must be added to show the date the page was archived, not the date the link was added. When |archiveurl= is used, |url= and |archivedate= are required, else an error will show. When an archived link is used, the citation displays with the title linked to the archive and the original link at the end:

"Monty Python and Philosophy". Diarkibkan daripada original pada October 12, 2011. 
  • deadurl: To change the order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end, set |deadurl=no:
"Monty Python and Philosophy". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada October 12, 2011. 

Identifiers[sunting | sunting sumber]

Most templates support these identifiers:

Registration or subscription required[sunting | sunting sumber]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, if a cited online source requires registration, add |registration=yes to the citation; if a cited online source requires a subscription, add |subscription=yes to the citation. If both parameters are added to the same citation, |subscription=yes will override |registration=yes and the "registration required" note will not display in the published citation.

Quote[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source; enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.

Anchors[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • ref: Creates an anchor for use with Shortened footnotes and parenthetical referencing. These styles use in-text cites with a link that will jump to an anchor created by the CS1 template. Anchors are not enabled by default, they are created by use of |ref=
  • |ref=harv: Creates an anchor of the format CITEREFauthorslastnameyear suitable for a {{harv}}, {{sfn}} etc. Examples:
{{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |year=2006 |ref=harv}}
Creates an anchor named CITEREFHardcastle2006 which may be linked from {{harv|Hardcastle|2006|pp=12-34}}.
{{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |first2=George A. |last2=Reisch |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |year=2006 |ref=harv}}
Creates an anchor named CITEREFHardcastleReisch2006 which may be linked from {{harv|Hardcastle|Reisch|2006|pp=12-34}}.
  • |ref=ID: Creates a custom anchor defined by ID. This is useful where the author and/or date is unknown. The {{harvid}} template may be used here to create an anchor suitable for a {{harv}}, {{sfn}} etc. For example, |ref={{harvid|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006}} creates an anchor which may be linked from {{harv|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006|pp=12-34}}

Opsyen paparan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ciri-ciri ini jarang digunakan, akan tetapi boleh mengubah paparan yang digunakan bersama-sama gaya lain Templat:Csdoc documentation/display

et al.[sunting | sunting sumber]

et al. is the abbreviation of the Latin et alii (and others). It is used to complete a list of authors of a published work, where the complete list is considered overly long. The term is widely used in English, thus it is not italicized per MOS:FOREIGN.

Printing[sunting | sunting sumber]

When viewing the page, CS1 templates render the URL to the title to create a link; when printing, the URL is printed. External link icons are not printed.

Elements not included[sunting | sunting sumber]

Not all factually accurate pieces of information about a source are used in a Citation Style 1 citation. Examples of information not included:

  • The total number of pages in a cited source
  • The name of the library that provided access to an electronic copy of a cited source
  • The name of the library that owns a physical copy of a cited work
  • The library record and/or shelf location of a physical copy of a cited work

Tools[sunting | sunting sumber]

Laman utama: Help:Citation tools

CS1 templates may be inserted manually or by use of tools:

Error checking:

Masalah-masalah yang sering diketemu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jalan pintas:
|accessdate= tidak dipaparkan.
Jika |url= tidak diberikan, |accessdate= tidak dipaparkan. Ini ditetapkan sedemikian.
URL kasar dipaparkan sebelum judul.
Jika medan |title= mengandungi barisan baharu (newline) ataupun aksara tidak sah, pautan akan kelihatan janggal; lihat Pautan web.
Judul kelihatan merah.
Jika URL diberikan, judul tidak boleh dipautkan sebagai wikilink.
URL tidak dipaut dan dipaparkan dalam kurungan.
URL perlu mengandungi skema URI agar dapat dikendalikan MediaWiki sebagai sebuah pautan. Misalnya:www.example.org (tidak betul) lawan http://www.example.org (betul).
Medan dipendekkan.
Paip | dalam nilai akan memendekkannya.
Tanda penanda dapat dilihat.
Tanda kurungan duaan [[ digunakan dalam medan tanpa tanda kurungan sepadan ]].
Penulis dalam dilihat dalam kurungan dengan ikon pautan luar.
Penggunaan URL dalam |authorlink= akan merosakkan pautan; medan ini ialah untuk nama rencana Wikipedia tentang penulis, bukan tapak web.
Lebih daripada satu nama penulis ataupun penyunting diberikan tetapi satu atau lebih nama tidak dipaparkan.
Parameter-parameter perlu mengikut urutan, yakni jika |last= atau |last1= tidak diberikan, |last2= tidak akan dipaparkan. Ditetap sedemikian.
|page=, |pages= atau |at= tidak dipaparkan.
Parameter-parameter ini saling menyingkir, dan hanya satu akan dipaparkan; Ditetap sedemikian.
Noktah yang mengasingkan siri medan tiada.
Jika |separator= hadir tetapi kosong, tiada tanda pengasingan akan digunakan.
Petikan rosak merentas baris, baris-baris yang menyusul diinden dan diberi tanda titik ataupun dinomborkan.
Jika |separator= ditetapkan sebagai asterisk (*), kolon (:) ataupun cincangan (#) tanda pengasingan ini akan ditafsir sebagai penanda wiki.
Penggunaan terlalu banyak tempat dalam sesebuah laman juga boleh menyebabkan masalah susul pelayan yang akan menyebabkan laman dimuatkan dengan perlahan ataupun disimpan dengan perlahan selepas sesuatu suntingan.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ In Lua coded templates, the number of editors that can be listed in the citation and displayed when published is unlimited. In older templates that have not yet been converted to Lua coding, any number of editors may be listed in the citation, however only the first three will display, followed by "et al."
  2. ^ "Some numbered series have gone on so long that, as with certain long-lived journals, numbering has started over again, preceded by n.s. (new series), 2nd ser. (second series), or some similar notation, usually enclosed in commas. (A change of publisher may also be the occasion for a change in series designation.) Books in the old series may be identified by o.s., 1st ser., or whatever complements the notation for the new series."[1] :14.132

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ University of Chicago (2010). The Chicago Manual of Style (edisi 16th). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226104201. 


Ralat petik: Tag <ref> untuk kumpulan "Nota" ada tetapi tag <references group="Nota"/> yang sepadan tidak disertakan