Christopher Lee (United Kingdom)

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Sir
Christopher Lee
CBE, CStJ, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Christopher Lee at the Berlin International Film Festival 2013.jpg
KelahiranChristopher Frank Carandini Lee
(1922-05-27)27 Mei 1922
Belgravia, London, England
Meninggal dunia7 Jun 2015(2015-06-07) (umur 93)
Chelsea, London, England
WarganegaraBritish
Pekerjaan
  • Pelakon
  • Penyanyi
  • Penulis
Tahun aktif1939–2015
PasanganBirgit Krøncke (k. 1961)
Anak1
SaudaraMarie Carandini (great-grandmother)
Harriet Walter (niece)
Kerjaya ketenteraan
Kesetiaan Finland (1939)
 United Kingdom (1940–1946)
PerkhidmatanTentera Darat Finland (1939)
British Home Guard (1940)
Tentera Udara Diraja British (1941–1946)
Tahun perkhidmatan1939–1946
PangkatFlight Lieutenant
Pertempuran

Sir Christopher Frank Carandini Lee CBE, CStJ, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (27 Mei 1922 – 7 Jun 2015) merupakan seorang pelakon,[1] penyanyi dan penulis dari England, United Kingdom. Beliau terlibat dalam bidang lakonan ini selama hampir 70 tahun: beliau sering digandingkan bersama Peter Cushing dan banyak filem seram serta tampil dalam beberapa filem utama karya Tim Burton.[2] Sejak kemunculannya sebagai watak Dracula dalam beberapa filem produksi Hammer Horror, beliau semakin diberikan watak penjahat[3] termasuk Saruman dalam siri-siri filem Lord of the Rings dan Hobbit (2012–2014) serta Count Dooku dalam trilogi prekuel Star Wars(2002–2005).

Beliau diberikan kehormatan diraja oleh kerajaan United Kingdom atas jasa dan sumbangannya kepada bidang hiburan dan alam kebajikan pada tahun 2009. Beliau menerima kefeloan BAFTA pada tahun 2011 serta Kefeloan BFI pada tahun 2013.[4]

Beliau turut terlibat dalam Tentera Udara Diraja British sebagai seoranf pegawai perisikan dalam Skuadron RAF No. 260 serta juga Special Operations Executive, duluan kepada Special Air Service yang wujud kini; beliau bersara dengan pangkat flight lieutenant tahun 1946.

Awal hidup[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lee was born in Belgravia, London pada 27 Mei 1922,[5] beliau anak kedua kelahiran keluarga selepas Xandra Carandini Lee (1917–2002).[6] Ayahnya Leftenan Kolonel Geoffrey Trollope Lee (1879–1941) seorang anggota dalam King's Royal Rifle Corps ke-60 yang berkhidmat dalam Perang Boer Pertama dan Perang Dunia Pertama[7] sementara ibunya Countess Estelle Marie (née Carandini di Sarzano; 1889–1981).[8] seorang model lukisan dan ukiran yang pernah dijadikan rujukan para pengkarya seni zaman Edward dari Sir John Lavery, Oswald Birley, Olive Snell dan Clare Sheridan;[9][10] - susur galur Estelle keturunan Charlemagne.[11] Ibu bapa Lee bercerai ketik beliau berusia enam tahun,[12] dia dan kakaknya dibawa ke Wengen, Switzerland untuk dibesarkan di sana.[13]

Keluarga Lee kemudiannya kembali ke London untuk menghadiri sebuah sekolah swasta di Queen's Gate. Ibunya mejalinkan hubungan dengan seorang pekerja bank bernama Harcourt George St-Croix Rose sehingga berkahwin dengannya. Harcourt juga merupakan bapa saudara Ian Fleming,[14] pengkarya siri novel James Bond seterusnya menjadi sepupu tiri Lee.

Kerjaya ketenteraan (1939-1947)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lee segera memasuki tentera relawan bersama Tentera Darat Finland memerangi pihak Soviet apabila Perang Musim Sejuk tahun 1939, sewaktu dengan Perang Dunia Kedua.[15] Beliau dan beberapa rakan senegara lain diberikan tugas mengawal persekitaran luar jauh daripada medan perang, mereka pulang ke tanah air mereka dua minggu kemudian.[16] Lee returned to work at United States Lines and found his work more satisfying, feeling that he was contributing. In early 1940, he joined Beecham's, at first as an office clerk, then as a switchboard operator.[17] When Beecham's moved out of London, he joined the Home Guard.[18] Ayahnya menghidap pneumonia bilateral pada muzim sejuk 1940, dia meninggal dunia pada tahun kemudian tanggal 12 Mac 1941. Beliau menyertai Tentera Udara Diraja British sebagai seorang anggota relawan.[19]

Kerjaya lakonan (sejak 1947)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beliau memlilih menceburi bidang lakonan atas cadangan sepupunya Nicolò Carandini yang juga duta Itali untuk Britain ketika mereka sedang berbual sambil menjamu makan maalm pada suatu hari.[20] Ibunya pada asalnya membantah, namun berubah fikiran setelah Lee mengingatkannya kepada kerjaya keluarga mereka sebagai penghibur (termasuk nenek moyangnya Marie Carandini, seorang penyanyi opera di Australia). Beliau diperkenalkan kepada seorang kawan Nicolò iaitu Filippo Del Giudice, seorang penerbit filem untuk Two Cities Films. Giudice pula membawanya berjumpa Josef Somlo yang ada hubungan dengan David Henley dan Olive Dodds, pengurus syarikat induk Two Cities iaitu Rank Organisation, mereka akhirnya dapat menandatangi suatu kontrak tujuh tahun bersama Lee.[21] Beliau muncul pertama kali dalam filem Corridor of Mirrors (1947) arahan Terence Young.[22]

Beliau pertama kali muncul di Hollywood dengan filem Airport '77 (1977). Beliau menjadi tetamu jemputan dalam rancangan sketsa langsug Saturday Night Live pada tahun berikutnya.[23] Steven Spielberg merupakan salah satu penonton persembahan ini, sehingga memberinya peranan dalam filem 1941 (1979).[23] Meanwhile, Lee co-starred with Bette Davis in the Disney film Return from Witch Mountain (1978).[24]

Kematian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lee meninggal dunia di Chelsea and Westminster Hospital pada 7 Jun 2015 jam 8:30 pagi setelah menhgalami masalah pernafasandan sakit jantung tidak lama selepas maeraikan hari lahirnya ke-93. Kematiannya tidak begitu diumumkan sehingga 11 Jun oleh isterinya agar dapat memaklumkan kepada lkeluarga mereka terlebih dahulu..[25][26][27]

Filemografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Filem[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Tajuk Watak Catatan
1948 Corridor of Mirrors Charles
One Night with You Pirelli's Assistant
Hamlet Spear Carrier Tidak tercatat
Penny and the Pownall Case Jonathan Blair
A Song for Tomorrow Auguste
My Brother's Keeper Second Constable Scenes deleted
Saraband for Dead Lovers Bit Part Tidak tercatat
Scott of the Antarctic Bernard Day
1949 Trottie True Bongo
1950 They Were Not Divided Chris Lewis
Prelude to Fame Newsman
1951 Valley of Eagles Det. Holt
Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N. Spanish Captain
Quo Vadis Chariot Driver Tidak tercatat[28]
1952 The Crimson Pirate Joseph (attache)
Top Secret Russian Agent Tidak tercatat
Paul Temple Returns Sir Felix Raybourne
Babes in Bagdad Slave Dealer
Moulin Rouge Georges Seurat
1953 Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot Sebagai penyumbang suara Tidak tercatat
Innocents in Paris Lieutenant Whitlock
1954 Destination Milan Svenson
1955 Man in Demand
Cross-Roads Harry Cooper
Final Column
That Lady Captain
Police Dog Johnny, a constable
The Dark Avenger French Patrol Captain at Tavern Tidak tercatat
The Cockleshell Heroes Lt. Cdr. Dick Raikes, RN (Submarine Commander)
Storm Over the Nile Karaga Pasha
1956 Alias John Preston John Preston
Private's Progress Gen. von Linbeck's aide Tidak tercatat
Port Afrique Franz Vermes
Beyond Mombasa Gil Rossi
The Battle of the River Plate Manolo
1957 Ill Met by Moonlight German officer at dentist's
Fortune Is a Woman Charles Highbury
The Traitor Dr. Neumann
The Curse of Frankenstein The Creature
Manuela Sebagai penyumbang suara Tidak tercatat
Bitter Victory Sgt. Barney
The Truth About Women François
1958 A Tale of Two Cities Marquis St. Evremonde
Dracula Count Dracula Tajuk lain: Horror of Dracula
Battle of the V-1 Labor Camp Captain, Men's Section
Corridors of Blood Resurrection Joe
1959 The Hound of the Baskervilles Sir Henry Baskerville
The Man Who Could Cheat Death Pierre Gerard
The Treasure of San Teresa Jaeger
The Mummy Kharis, the Mummy
Uncle Was a Vampire Baron Roderico da Frankurten
1960 Too Hot to Handle Novak
Beat Girl Kenny
The City of the Dead Prof. Alan Driscoll Tajuk lain: Horror Hotel
The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll Paul Allen Tajuk lain: House of Fright and Jekyll's Inferno
The Hands of Orlac Nero
1961 The Terror of the Tongs Chung King
Taste of Fear Doctor Pierre Gerrard
The Devil's Daffodil Ling Chu
Ercole al centro della terra King Lico (Licos) Tajuk lain: Hercules in the Haunted World
1962 Stranglehold
The Puzzle of the Red Orchid Captain Allerman
The Pirates of Blood River Captain LaRoche
The Devil's Agent Baron von Staub
Sherlock Holmes and the Deadly Necklace Sherlock Holmes
1963 Katarsis Mephistoles
The Virgin of Nuremberg Erich Tajuk lain: Castle of Terror and La vergine di Norimberga
La frusta e il corpo Kurt Menliff Tajuk lain: The Whip and the Body and Night Is the Phantom
1964 Il castello dei morti vivi Count Drago Tajuk lain: Castle of the Living Dead
Terror in the Crypt Count Ludwig Karnstein Tajuk lain: Crypt of the Vampire and Crypt of Horror
The Devil-Ship Pirates Captain Robeles
The Gorgon Prof. Karl Meister
1965 Dr Terror's House of Horrors Franklyn Marsh
She Billali
The Skull Sir Matthew Phillips
Ten Little Indians "Mr. Owen" Sebagai penyumbang suara

Tidak tercatat

The Face of Fu Manchu Dr. Fu Manchu
1966 Theatre of Death Philippe Darvas
Dracula: Prince of Darkness Count Dracula
Rasputin, the Mad Monk Grigori Rasputin
Circus of Fear Gregor Tajuk lain: Psycho Circus
The Brides of Fu Manchu Dr. Fu Manchu
1967 The Vengeance of Fu Manchu
Night of the Big Heat Godfrey Hanson
Five Golden Dragons Dragon #4
The Blood Demon Count Frederic Regula, Graf von Andomai Tajuk lain: Die Schlangengrube Und Das Pendel, The Snakepit and the Pendulum, The Torture Chamber of Dr. Sadism, Castle of the Walking Dead
1968 Curse of the Crimson Altar Morley Tajuk lain: The Crimson Cult
The Devil Rides Out Duc de Richleau Tajuk lain: The Devil's Bride
Eve Colonel Stuart Tajuk lain: The Face of Eve
The Blood of Fu Manchu Dr. Fu Manchu
Dracula Has Risen from the Grave Count Dracula
1969 The Castle of Fu Manchu Dr. Fu Manchu
The Oblong Box Dr J. Neuhart
The Magic Christian Ship's vampire
1970 Scream and Scream Again Fremont
Umbracle The Man
The Bloody Judge Lord George Jeffreys Tajuk lain: Night of the Blood Monster
Count Dracula Count Dracula
Taste the Blood of Dracula Count Dracula
One More Time Count Dracula Cameo
Julius Caesar Artemidorus
Eugenie Dolmance Tajuk lain: Eugenie - The Story of Her Journey into Perversion
The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes Mycroft Holmes
Scars of Dracula Count Dracula
1971 The House That Dripped Blood John Reid Segment: "Sweets to the Sweet"
Cuadecuc, vampir Count Dracula/Himself
I, Monster Dr. Charles Marlowe / Mr. Edward Blake
Hannie Caulder Bailey
1972 Death Line Stratton-Villiers, MI5 Tajuk lain: Raw Meat
Nothing But the Night Col. Charles Bingham
Dracula A.D. 1972 Count Dracula
1973 Dark Places Dr. Mandeville
The Creeping Flesh James Hildern
The Satanic Rites of Dracula Count Dracula
Horror Express Sir Alexander Saxton
The Three Musketeers Rochefort
The Wicker Man Lord Summerisle [28]
1974 The Four Musketeers Rochefort
The Man with the Golden Gun Francisco Scaramanga
1975 Diagnosis Murder Stephen Hayward
Le boucher, la star et l'orpheline Van Krig / Himself
The Story of Heidi Additional Voices 1979 dub
1976 The Keeper The Keeper
Killer Force Major Chilton Tajuk lain: The Diamond Mercenaries
To the Devil, A Daughter Father Michael Rayner
Dracula père et fils The Prince of Darkness Tajuk lain: Dracula and Son
Albino Bill Tajuk lain: Whispering Death and Death in the Sun
1977 Airport '77 Martin Wallace
Meatcleaver Massacre Pencerita Tajuk lain: Evil Force and Revenge of the Dead
End of the World Father Pergado / Zindar
Starship Invasions Captain Rameses
1978 Return from Witch Mountain Victor Gannon
Caravans Sardar Khan
Circle of Iron Zetan Tajuk lain: The Silent Flute
1979 The Passage Gypsy
Arabian Adventure Alquazar
Nutcracker Fantasy Uncle Drosselmeyer / Street Singer / Watchmaker Voices
Jaguar Lives! Adam Caine
Bear Island Lechinski
1941 Capt. Wolfgang von Kleinschmidt
Captain America II: Death Too Soon Miguel
1980 Serial Luckman Skull
1981 The Salamander Prince Baldasar
Desperate Moves Carl Boxer
An Eye for an Eye Morgan Canfield
Time Bandits Oswald
1982 Safari 3000 Count Borgia
The Last Unicorn King Haggard Sebagai penyumbang suara
1983 New Magic Mr. Kellar
The Return of Captain Invincible Mr. Midnight
House of the Long Shadows Corrigan
1984 The Rosebud Beach Hotel Clifford King
1985 Mask of Murder Chief Supt. Jonathan Rich
Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf Stefan Crosscoe
1986 The Girl Peter Storm
1987 Jocks President White
Mio min Mio Kato
1988 Dark Mission Luis Morel
1989 Murder Story Willard Hope
La chute des aigles Walter Strauss
The Return of the Musketeers Rochefort
1990 The Rainbow Thief Uncle Rudolf
L'avaro Cardinale Spinosi
Honeymoon Academy Lazos
Panga -
Gremlins 2: The New Batch Doctor Catheter
1991 Curse III: Blood Sacrifice Doctor Pearson Tajuk lain: Panga
1992 Jackpot Cedric
Kabuto King Philip
1994 Police Academy: Mission to Moscow Cmndt. Alexandrei Nikolaivich Rakov
Funny Man Callum Chance
Flesh and Blood Pencerita/Himself Documentary
1995 A Feast at Midnight V. E. Longfellow
1996 Welcome to the Discworld Death Sebagai penyumbang suara

Filem pendek

The Stupids Evil Sender
1998 Tale of the Mummy Sir Richard Turkel
Jinnah Muhammad Ali Jinnah [29]
1999 Sleepy Hollow Burgomaster
2001 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Saruman
2002 Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones Count Dooku / Darth Tyranus
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers Saruman
2003 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Extended Edition only
2004 Crimson Rivers II: Angels of the Apocalypse Heinrich von Garten
2005 The Adventures of Greyfriars Bobby The Lord Provost
Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith Count Dooku / Darth Tyranus
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Dr. Wilbur Wonka
Corpse Bride Pastor Galswells Sebagai penyumbang suara
2007 The Golden Compass First High Councillor
2008 Star Wars: The Clone Wars Count Dooku / Darth Tyranus Sebagai penyumbang suara
2009 Boogie Woogie Alfred Rhinegold
Triage Joaquín Morales
Glorious 39 Walter
Professor Layton and the Eternal Diva Pip English version
2010 Alice in Wonderland Jabberwock Sebagai penyumbang suara
Burke & Hare Joseph
The Heavy Mr. Mason
2011 Season of the Witch Cardinal d’Ambroise
The Resident August
The Wicker Tree Old Gentleman
Grave Tales Himself Cameo
Hugo Monsieur Labisse
2012 Dark Shadows Silas Clarney
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Saruman
2013 Extraordinary Tales Pencerita Sebagai penyumbang suara

Segment: "The Fall of the House of Usher"

Night Train to Lisbon Father Bartolomeu
Necessary Evil Pencerita Sebagai penyumbang suara

Documentary

The Girl from Nagasaki Old Officer Pinkerton
2014 The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies Saruman
2016 Angels in Notting Hill God / Mr. President Voices

Posthumous release

2017 The Hunting of the Snark Pencerita Sebagai penyumbang suara

Filem pendek Posthumous release

TBA The Time War Pencerita Sebagai penyumbang suara

Posthumous release

Televisyen[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Film Watak Catatan
1953–56 Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Presents Pelbagai watak 13 episod
1955 Moby Dick—Rehearsed A Stage Manager/Flask Telefilem
The Vise Pelbagai watak Episod "Stronghold", "Price of Vanity", and "The Final Column"
Tales of Hans Anderson Pelbagai watak Episod "Wee Willie Winkie" and "The Cripple Boy"
1956 Chevron of Fallen Stars Governor Episod "Captain Kidd"
The Scarlet Pimpernel Louis Tidak tercatat

Episod "The Elusive Chauvelin"

Colonel March of Scotland Yard Jean-Pierre Episod "At Night All Cats Are Grey"
Sailor of Fortune Pelbagai watak Episod "The Desert Hostages" and "Stranger in Danger"
The Adventures of Aggie Inspector Hollis Episod "Cut Glass"
1956–1957 Assignment Foreign Legion Pelbagai watak Episod "As We Forgive" and "The Anaya"
1957 The Errol Flynn Theatre Pelbagai watak 4 episod
The Gay Cavalier Colonel Jeffries Episod "The Lady's Dilemma"
1958 O.S.S. Dessinger Episod "Operation Firefly"
Ivanhoe Sir Otto Episod "The German Knight"
White Hunter Mark Caldwell Episod "This Hungry Hell"
1959 The Adventures of William Tell Prince Erik Episod "Manhunt"
1960 Tales of the Vikings Norman Knight Episod "The Bull"
1961 Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond Wilhelm Reitlinger Episod "The Sorcerer"
1964 The Alfred Hitchcock Hour Karl Jorla Episod "The Sign of Satan"
1967 The Avengers Professor Stone Episod "Never, Never Say Die"
1969 The Avengers Colonel Mannering Episod "The Interrogators"
Light Entertainment Killers Telefilem
1973 Poor Devil Lucifer
Orson Welles' Great Mysteries Arnaud Episod "The Leather Funnel"
1976 Space: 1999 Captain Zandor Episod "Earthbound"
1978 How the West Was Won The Grand Duke 2 episod
The Pirate Samir Al Fay Telefilem
Saturday Night Live Himself (host) Episod "Christopher Lee/Meat Loaf"
1979 Captain America II: Death Too Soon Miguel Telefilem
1980 Once Upon a Spy Marcus Valorium
Charlie's Angels Dale Woodman Episod "Angel in Hiding"
1981 Evil Stalks This House Host Telefilem
Goliath Awaits John McKenzie
1982 Massarati and the Brain Victor Leopold
Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story Prince Philip
1984 The Far Pavilions Kaka-ji Rao 3 episod
Faerie Tale Theatre King Vladimir V Episod "The Boy Who Left Home to Find Out About the Shivers"
1986 Un métier du seigneur Fog Telefilem
The Disputation King James of Aragon
Shaka Zulu Lord Bathurst 10 episod
1989 Around the World in 80 Days Stuart 3 episod
La Révolution française Sanson Segmen: "Les Années Terribles"
1990 The Care of Time Karlis Zander Telefilem
Treasure Island Blind Pew
1991 Sherlock Holmes and the Leading Lady Sherlock Holmes
1992 Incident at Victoria Falls Sherlock Holmes
Beauty and the Beast Monsieur Renard Sebagai penyumbang suara

Telefilem

The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles Count Ottokar Graf Czerin Episod "Austria, March 1917"
Double Vision Mr. Bernard Telefilem
1993 Death Train General Konstantin Benin Telefilem
1995 The Tomorrow People Rameses 5 episod
Moses Ramesses II Telefilem
Tales of Mystery and Imagination Himself (host) 2 episod
1996 Sorellina e il principe del sogno Azaret Telefilem
1997 Ivanhoe Lucas de Beaumanoir 4 episod
Soul Music Death Sebagai penyumbang suara

7 episod

Wyrd Sisters Death Sebagai penyumbang suara

6 episod

The Odyssey Tiresias 2 episod
1997–1998 The New Adventures of Robin Hood Olwyn 6 episod
2000 Gormenghast Flay 4 episod
In the Beginning Rameses I Telefilem
Ghost Stories for Christmas M. R. James Episod "The Stalls of Barchester"
2001 Les Redoutables Death Segment: "Confession"
2005 Pope John Paul II Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński 2 episod
2008 The Colour of Magic Death Sebagai penyumbang suara

2 episod

Permainan video[sunting | sunting sumber]

Year Title Voice role Notes
1994 Ghosts Dr. Marcus Grimalkin / Himself
1999 The Rocky Interactive Horror Show Narrator
2001 Conquest: Frontier Wars Anvil / Headquarters
2003 Freelancer
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Saruman
2004 EverQuest II Lucan D'Lere
GoldenEye: Rogue Agent Francisco Scaramanga
2005 The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age Saruman
The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth Saruman
2006 Kingdom Hearts II DiZ / Ansem the Wise
The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II Saruman
2007 Kingdom Hearts II Final Mix DiZ / Ansem the Wise Archived footage
2008 The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II: The Rise of the Witch-king Saruman
2009 Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days DiZ
2014 Lego The Hobbit Saruman / Narrator
Kingdom Hearts HD 2.5 Remix DiZ/Ansem the Wise Archived footage
2015 Deus Ex Machina 2 The Programmer / Narrator

Diskografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Album studio[sunting | sunting sumber]

EP[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • A Heavy Metal Christmas (2012)
  • A Heavy Metal Christmas Too (2013)
  • Metal Knight (2014)

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Russ Jones (ed.), Christopher Lee's Treasury of Terror, illustrated by Mort Drucker & others, Pyramid Books, 1966
  • Christopher Lee's New Chamber of Horrors, London: Souvenir Press, 1974
  • Christopher Lee's Archives of Terror, Warner Books, Volume I, 1975; Volume 2, 1976
  • Tall, Dark and Gruesome (autobiography), W.H. Allen, 1977 and 1997
  • Marcus Hearn and Alan Barnes, The Hammer Story: The Authorised History of Hammer Films, Titan Books, 1997 and 2007 – Foreword by Christopher Lee
  • Jonathan Rigby, Christopher Lee: The Authorised Screen History, Reynolds & Hearn, 2001 and 2003
  • Chris Smith, The Lord of the Rings: Weapons and Warfare, HarperCollins, 2003 – Foreword by Christopher Lee
  • Lee, Christopher (2003) [1977]. Lord of Misrule: The Autobiography of Christopher Lee. London: Orion Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-7528-5770-1. 
  • Nicolas Stanzick, Dans les griffes de la Hammer, Paris: Le Bord de l'eau Editions, 2010.
  • Laurent Aknin, Sir Christopher Lee, Paris: Nouveau Monde Éditions, 2011.
  • Monsters in the Movies: 100 Years of Cinematic Nightmares, by John Landis, DK Publishing, 2011 – Interview with Christopher Lee

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Christopher Lee's memorable movie roles: 'I dreamed of being a character actor'". 
  2. ^ "Christopher Lee filmography". AllMovie. AllRovi. Dicapai 18 December 2015. 
  3. ^ Landis, John (2011). Monsters in the Movies: 100 Years of Cinematic Nightmares. Dorling Kindersley. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4053-6697-7.
  4. ^ * "Hammer Horror star Lee knighted". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2012
  5. ^ "Biography – Christopher Lee – Official Website". Christopherleeweb.com. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 24 February 2014. Dicapai 16 March 2014. 
  6. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 3.
  7. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 6-7.
  8. ^ * "Christopher Lee Biography (1922–)". Filmreference.com. Dicapai 4 October 2010. 
  9. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 13.
  10. ^ "Christopher Lee – Biography". Talk Talk. Dicapai 26 August 2013. 
  11. ^ James E. Wise; Scott Baron (January 2002). International Stars at War. Naval Institute Press. m/s. 118. ISBN 978-1-55750-965-9. "Christopher Lee honoured by UCD Law Society". UCD News. University College Dublin. November 2011. Dicapai 12 June 2015. The Carandini family is one of the oldest in Europe and traces itself back to the first century AD. It is believed to have been connected with the Emperor Charlemagne, and as such was granted the right to bear the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Exshaw, John (12 June 2015). "Sir Christopher Lee: 'Crown Prince of Terror' whose work with Hammer Horror led the postwar revival of Gothic fantasy". The Independent. United Kingdom. Dicapai 12 June 2015. He inherited his father's dark looks, and from his mother a lineage stretching back possibly to Ancient Rome, and including Charlemagne, along the way to the first Count Carandini in 1184. 
  12. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 7.
  13. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 21.
  14. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 22-23.
  15. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 59.
  16. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 60.
  17. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 62-63.
  18. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 64.
  19. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 65.
  20. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 110.
  21. ^ Lee 2003, m/s. 111.
  22. ^ "Christopher Lee- Biography" Diarkibkan 19 May 2012 di Wayback Machine.. Yahoo.com. Retrieved 7 May 2012
  23. ^ a b Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan TFInterview tidak disediakan
  24. ^ "Return from Witch Mountain". Turner Classic Movies. Dicapai 15 August 2015. 
  25. ^ 'Sir Christopher Lee: Screen legend dies aged 93'. BBC News. Published 12 June 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  26. ^ "Christopher Lee dead: Legendary actor passes away at the age of 93". Independent. 11 June 2015. 
  27. ^ * "Christopher Lee dies at the age of 93". The Guardian. 11 June 2015. 
  28. ^ a b "The Total Film Interview - Christopher Lee". Total Film. 1 May 2005. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2007-06-12. Dicapai 25 August 2013. 
  29. ^ Lindrea , Victoria (11 October 2004). "Christopher Lee on the making of legends & Jinnah". BBC. Dicapai 5 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "Charlemagne Music Samples | Christopher Lee – Official Website". Christopherleeweb.com. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 19 September 2010. Dicapai 4 October 2010. 

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