Emanuel Swedenborg

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Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg.PNG
Potret Swedenborg by Carl Frederik von Breda
KelahiranEmanuel Swedberg
(1688-01-29)29 Januari 1688
Stockholm, Empayar Sweden
Meninggal dunia29 Mac 1772(1772-03-29) (umur 84)
London, England
EraAbad ke-18
Kepentingan utama
  • Teologi
  • Sains
  • Falsafah
Idea cemerlang

Emanuel Swedenborg (/ˈswdənˌbɔːrɡ/;[1] Mengenai audio ini Swedish pronunciation ; lahir Emanuel Swedberg; 29 Januari 1688[2] – 29 Mac 1772)[3] ialah seorang ahli teologi dan filsuf Lutheran dari Sweden.[4] Beliau terkenal dengan bukunya mengenai akhirat, De Caelo et Ejus Mirabilibus et de inferno. Ex Auditis et Visis (1758).[5][6]

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Swedenborg mempunyai kerjaya yang prolifik sebagai pencipta dan saintis. Pada tahun 1741, pada usia 53, dia memasuki fasa rohani di mana dia mula mengalami mimpi dan penglihatan, bermula pada Hujung Minggu Paskah, pada 6 April 1744. Ia memuncak dalam 'kebangkitan rohani' di mana dia menerima wahyu bahawa dia telah dilantik oleh Tuhan Yesus Kristus untuk menulis Doktrin Syurgawi untuk memperbaharui Kekristianan.[7] Menurut Doktrin Surgawi, Tuhan telah membuka mata rohani Swedenborg sehingga sejak itu, dia dapat dengan bebas melawat surga dan neraka untuk bercakap dengan malaikat, iblis dan roh lain dan Pengadilan Terakhir telah terjadi tahun sebelumnya, pada 1757.[8]

Selama 28 tahun terakhirnya, Swedenborg menulis 18 karya teologi yang diterbitkan-dan beberapa lagi yang tidak diterbitkan. Beliau menamakan dirinya "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" dalam True Christian Religion,[9] yang diterbitkan sendiri.[10] Sesetengah pengikut Doktrin Syurgawi percaya bahawa karya-karya teologinya, hanya orang-orang yang diterbitkan oleh Swedenborg sendiri sepenuhnya diilhamkan sepenuhnya.[11] Lain-lain telah menganggap semua karya teologi Swedenborg sebagai terinspirasi sama, dengan mengatakan misalnya bahawa hakikat bahawa beberapa karya "tidak ditulis dalam bentuk akhir edited untuk penerbitan tidak membuat satu pernyataan yang kurang dapat dipercaya daripada pernyataan dalam mana-mana karya lain".[12] Gereja Baru, pergerakan keagamaan baru yang terdiri daripada beberapa denominasi Kristian yang berkaitan dengan sejarah, menghormati tulisan Swedenborg sebagai wahyu.[13][14]

Karya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • 1716–1718, (Daedalus Hyperboreus) Swedish: Daedalus Hyperboreus, eller några nya mathematiska och physicaliska försök. (English: The Northern inventor, or some new experiments in mathematics and physics)
  • 1721, (Principles of Chemistry) Latin: Prodromus principiorum rerum naturalium: sive novorum tentaminum chymiam et physicam experimenta geometrice explicandi
  • 1722, (Miscellaneous Observations) Latin: Miscellanea de Rebus Naturalibus
  • 1734, (Principia) Latin: Opera Philosophica et Mineralia (English: Philosophical and Mineralogical Works), three volumes
    • (Principia, Volume I) Latin: Tomus I. Principia rerum naturlium sive novorum tentaminum phaenomena mundi elementaris philosophice explicandi
    • (Principia, Volume II) Latin: Tomus II. Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de ferro
    • (Principia, Volume III) Latin: Tomus III. Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de cupro et orichalco
  • 1734, (The Infinite and Final Cause of Creation) Latin: Prodromus Philosophiz Ratiocinantis de Infinito, et Causa Finali Creationis; deque Mechanismo Operationis Animae et Corporis.
  • 1744–1745, (The Animal Kingdom) Latin: Regnum animale, 3 volumes
  • 1745, (The Worship and Love of God) Latin: De Cultu et Amore Dei, 2 volumes
  • 1749–1756, (Arcana Cœlestia (or Caelestia) (Heavenly Mysteries) Latin: Arcana Cœlestia, quae in Scriptura Sacra seu Verbo Domini sunt, detecta, 8 volumes
  • 1758, (Heaven and Hell) Latin: De Caelo et Ejus Mirabilibus et de inferno. Ex Auditis et Visis.
  • 1758, (The Last Judgment) Latin: De Ultimo Judicio
  • 1758, (The White Horse) Latin: De Equo Albo de quo in Apocalypsi Cap. XIX.
  • 1758, (Earths in the Universe) Latin: De Telluribus in Mundo Nostro Solari, quæ vocantur planetæ: et de telluribus in coelo astrifero: deque illarum incolis; tum de spiritibus & angelis ibi; ex auditis & visis.
  • 1758, (The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine) Latin: De Nova Hierosolyma et Ejus Doctrina Coelesti
  • 1763, (Doctrine of the Lord) Latin:Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Domino.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Scriptura Sacra.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of Life) Latin: Doctrina Vitæ pro Nova Hierosolyma ex præceptis Decalogi.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of Faith) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Fide.
  • 1763, (Continuation of The Last Judgement) Latin: Continuatio De Ultimo Judicio: et de mundo spirituali.
  • 1763, (Divine Love and Wisdom) Latin: Sapientia Angelica de Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia. Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia.
  • 1764, (Divine Providence) Latin: Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia.
  • 1766, (Apocalypse Revealed) Latin: Apocalypsis Revelata, in quae detegunter Arcana quae ibi preedicta sunt.
  • 1768, (Conjugial Love, or Marriage Love) Latin: Deliciae Sapientiae de Amore Conjugiali; post quas sequumtur voluptates insaniae de amore scortatorio.
  • 1769, (Brief Exposition) Latin: Summaria Expositio Doctrinæ Novæ Ecclesiæ, quæ per Novam Hierosolymam in Apocalypsi intelligitur.
  • 1769, (Interaction of the Soul and the Body) Latin: De Commercio Animæ & Corporis.
  • 1771, (True Christian Religion) Latin: Vera Christiana Religio, continens Universam Theologiam Novae Ecclesiae
  • 1859, Drömboken, Journalanteckningar(Journal of Dreams), 1743–1744
  • 1983–1997, (Spiritual Diary) Latin: Diarum, Ubi Memorantur Experientiae Spirituales.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Swedenborg". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ 29 January 9 Old Style 8 February New Style
  3. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Emanuel Swedenborg. Encyclopædia Britannica (edisi ke-11). 1911. 
  4. ^ Swedenborg, Emanuel. Encyclopædia Britannica. Dicapai 9 September 2011.  and the Encyclopedia of Religion (1987), which starts its article with the description that he was a "Swedish scientist and mystic". Others have not used the term such as Williams-Hogan, Jane (2005) in Encyclopedia of Religion Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Swedenborg, E. Heaven and its Wonders and Hell. From Things Heard and Seen (Swedenborg Foundation, 1946)". Swedenborgdigitallibrary.org. Dicapai 2012-08-16. 
  6. ^ Bergquist, Preface (pp. 15–16)
  7. ^ See Swedenborg, E. The Heavenly Doctrine
  8. ^ Swedenborg, E. The Last Judgment and Babylon Destroyed. All the Predictions in the Apocalypse are at This Day Fulfilled. (Swedenborg Foundation 1952, Paragraphs 1–74) Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  9. ^ "The True Christian Religion, Containing the Universal Theology of The New Church Foretold by the Lord in Daniel 7; 13, 14; and in Revelation 21; 1, 2, by Emanuel Swedenborg". Swedenborgdigitallibrary.org. Dicapai 2012-08-16. 
  10. ^ "Which of Swedenborg's books are Divine revelation?". Swedenborgdigitallibrary.org. Dicapai 2013-08-16. 
  11. ^ See "Which of Swedenborg's books are Divine revelation?"
  12. ^ Odhner, Carl Theophilus (1912). ""Diary" and the Spiritual Body". New Church Life: 298. 
  13. ^ "Swedenborgianism (New Church)". September 2013. Dicapai 6 February 2019. 
  14. ^ Church., New Jerusalem (1788). Reasons for separating from the old church. : In answer to a letter received from certain persons in Manchester, who profess to believe in the heavenly doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church, as contained in the theological writings of the Late Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg, and yet remain in the external forms of doctrine and worship now in use in old church, not withstanding their direct opposition to the heavenly doctrines of the new church. To which are added, sundry passages from E. Swedenborg, on which the expediency, and even necessity, of a complete separation from the former church, is founded. By the Members of the New Jerusalem Church, who assemble in Great East-Cheap, London. Printed by R. Hindmarsh, printer to the Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, No. 32, Clerkenwell-Close. OCLC 508967814. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

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