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Euforia ialah pengalaman atau mempengaruhi keseronokan atau kegembiraan dan perasaan sihat dan kebahagiaan. [1] [2] Ganjaran semulajadi dan aktiviti sosial tertentu, seperti latihan aerobik, ketawa, mendengar atau membuat muzik, dan menari, boleh menyebabkan keadaan euforia. [3] [4] Euforia juga merupakan gejala penyakit neurologi atau neuropsychiatrik tertentu, seperti mania. [5] Cinta cinta dan komponen kitaran tindak balas seksual manusia juga dikaitkan dengan induksi euforia. [6] [7] [8] Dadah tertentu, banyak yang ketagihan, boleh menyebabkan euforia, yang sekurang-kurangnya sebahagiannya memotivasi kegunaan rekreasi mereka.[9]

Titik panas hedonik - iaitu, pusat kenikmatan otak  - berkaitan secara fungsian. Pengaktifan satu keputusan hotspot dalam pengambilan orang lain. Menghalang satu keputusan hotspot dalam merobohkan kesan mengaktifkan hotspot lain. [10] [11] Oleh itu, pengaktifan serentak setiap hotspot hedonik dalam sistem ganjaran dipercayai diperlukan untuk menjana sensasi euforia yang sengit. [12]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Bearn J, O'Brien M (2015). "Addicted to Euphoria": The History, Clinical Presentation, and Management of Party Drug Misuse. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. International Review of Neurobiology. 120. m/s. 205–33. doi:10.1016/bs.irn.2015.02.005. ISBN 9780128029787. PMID 26070759. Eating, drinking, sexual activity, and parenting invoke pleasure, an emotion that promotes repetition of these behaviors, are essential for survival. Euphoria, a feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness, is an amplification of pleasure, aspired to one's essential biological needs that are satisfied. People use party drugs as a shortcut to euphoria. Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine fall under the umbrella of the term "party drugs," each with differing neuropharmacological and physiological actions.
  2. ^ "The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 35 (9): 1805–1820. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.03.002. PMID 21396397. Recent human data have demonstrated that the SEEKING brain circuitry, as predicted, is involved in the emergence of a characteristic appetitive affective state, which may be described as “enthusiastic positive excitement” or “euphoria” (Drevets et al., 2001; Volkow and Swanson, 2003) and that do not resemble any kind of sensory pleasure (Heath, 1996; Panksepp et al., 1985) ... However, in our view, cognitive processes, are only one “slice of the pie”, and gamma oscillations may be more globally viewed as the overall emotional–motivational neurodynamics through which the SEEKING disposition is expressed, accompanied by a feeling of excitement/eurphoria (not ‘pleasure’) that is evolutionarily designed to achieve a diversity of useful outcomes
  3. ^ "Key DSM-IV Mental Status Exam Phrases". Gateway Psychiatric Services. Mood and Affect. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 13 November 2013. Dicapai pada 17 February 2014. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (bantuan)
  4. ^ "Rowers' high: behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds". Biol. Lett. 6 (1): 106–8. 2010. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0670. PMC 2817271. PMID 19755532. This heightened effect from synchronized activity may explain the sense of euphoria experienced during other social activities (such as laughter, music-making and dancing) that are involved in social bonding in humans and possibly other vertebrates.
  5. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Sydor A, Brown RY (penyunting). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (ed. 2nd). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. m/s. 191, 350–351, 367–368, 371–375. ISBN 9780071481274. Changes in appetite and energy may reflect abnormalities in various hypothalamic nuclei. Depressed mood and anhedonia (lack of interest in pleasurable activities) in depressed individuals, and euphoria and increased involvement in goal-directed activities in patients, who experience mania, may reflect opposing abnormalities in the nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, or other structures. ... Although short-term administration of glucocorticoids often produces euphoria and increased energy, the impact of long-lasting increases in endogenous glucocorticoids produced during depression can involve complex adaptations such as those that occur in Cushing syndrome (Chapter 10). ... Exposure to addictive chemicals not only produces extreme euphoric states that may initially motivate drug use, but also causes equally extreme adaptations in reinforcement mechanisms and motivated behavior that eventually lead to compulsive use. Accordingly, the evolutionary design of human and animal brains that has helped to promote our survival also has made us vulnerable to addiction.
  6. ^ "The human sexual response cycle: brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures" (PDF). Prog. Neurobiol. 98 (1): 49–81. July 2012. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.05.004. PMID 22609047. Strong feelings of pleasure and euphoria, as well as marked alterations in cognitive processing, self-referential thought, and physiological arousal are defining features of sexual consummation, especially during orgasm (Mah and Binik, 2001).
  7. ^ "Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 44 (1): 38–55. March 2012. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.662112. PMC 4040958. PMID 22641964. Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. ... Under normal conditions, it is not surprising that sexual activity is physiologically regulated by the reward circuitry of the brain, specifically by dopaminergic pathways (see Figure 1). Moreover, the early stages of a new, romantic relationship can be a powerful and absorbing experience. Individuals in new romantic relationships report feeling euphoric and energetic. They also become emotionally dependent on, desire closeness with, and have highly focused attention on their partner (Reynaud et al. 2010; Young 2009). Human neuroimaging studies have shown that feelings experienced during the early stages of a romantic relationship are associated with neural activations in several reward-system and affect-processing regions of the brain (Young 2009; Aron et al. 2005; Bartels & Zeki 2000; Mashek, Aron & Fisher 2000).
  8. ^ Jankowiak, William; Paladino, Thomas (2013). "Chapter 1. Desiring Sex, Longing for Love: A Tripartite Conundrum". Dalam Jankowiak, William R. (penyunting). Intimacies: Love and Sex Across Cultures (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Columbia University Press. m/s. 13. ISBN 9780231508766. These emotional states may also be manifested behaviorally as "labile psychophysical responses to the loved person, including exhilaration, euphoria, buoyancy, spiritual feelings, increased energy, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, shyness, awkwardness ... in the presence of the loved person" (Fisher 1998:32). The presence of similar neurological mechanisms and brain patterns may account for the ability to readily identify when someone is romantically involved or erotically excited (Fisher 1998:32; Fisher 1995).
  9. ^ Johnson BA (2010). Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Springer Science & Business Media. m/s. 133. ISBN 9781441903389. It has been observed that drugs of abuse as diverse as alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, and psychomotor stimulants all share a profile of psychoactive effects characterized as euphoria. It is generally accepted that euphoria is at least a partial explanation why these drugs are abused.
  10. ^ "Pleasure systems in the brain". Neuron. 86 (3): 646–664. May 2015. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.018. PMC 4425246. PMID 25950633.
  11. ^ Castro, DC; Berridge, KC (24 October 2017). "Opioid and orexin hedonic hotspots in rat orbitofrontal cortex and insula". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (43): E9125–E9134. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705753114. PMC 5664503. PMID 29073109.
  12. ^ Kringelbach ML, Berridge KC (2012). "The Joyful Mind" (PDF). Scientific American: 44–45. Dicapai pada 17 January 2017. So it makes sense that the real pleasure centers in the brain – those directly responsible for generating pleasurable sensations – turn out to lie within some of the structures previously identified as part of the reward circuit. One of these so-called hedonic hotspots lies in a subregion of the nucleus accumbens called the medial shell. A second is found within the ventral pallidum, a deep-seated structure near the base of the forebrain that receives most of its signals from the nucleus accumbens. ...
         On the other hand, intense euphoria is harder to come by than everyday pleasures. The reason may be that strong enhancement of pleasure – like the chemically induced pleasure bump we produced in lab animals – seems to require activation of the entire network at once. Defection of any single component dampens the high.
         Whether the pleasure circuit – and in particular, the ventral pallidum – works the same way in humans is unclear.