Harlow Shapley

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Harlow Shapley
HarlowShapley-crop.jpg
Gambar dari arkib Smithson
Kelahiran2 November 1885
Nashville, Missouri,
Amerika Syarikat
Meninggal dunia20 Oktober 1972(1972-10-20) (umur 86)
WarganegaraAmerika Syarikat
Pusat pendidikanUniversiti Missouri, Universiti Princeton
Terkenal keranaPengukuran Bima Sakti
Kerjaya saintifik
BidangAstronomi
Penasihat kedoktoranHenry Norris Russell

Harlow Shapley (2 November 1885 – 20 Oktober 1972) adalah seorang ahli astronomi Amerika Syarikat. Beliau banyak menulis buku tentang sains astronomi; beliau khusus terkenal kerana melakukan pengukuran jarak Bima Sakti serta kedudukan Matahari dan planet-planet edaran dalam galaksi ini.[1][2]

Beliau turut menceburi bidang aktivisme: beliau terlibat dalam pengasasan UNESCO melalui pengutamaan bidang sains sebagai antara objektif pertubuhan tersebut.[3]

Kerjaya penyelidikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kajian angkasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Debat Hebat melawan Heber Curtis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Shapley bertanding dalam suatu debat mengenai jarak nebula dan galaksi diutarakan Heber D. Curtis di Akademi Sains Kebangsaan Amerika Syarikat, Washington, D.C. pada 26 April 1920.

Soal siasat zaman McCarthy[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beliau hadir dibicarakan Jawatankuasa Kegiatan Tidak Amerika Dewan (House Un-American Activities Committee, HUAC) atas pertuduhan mengikuti fahaman "Rusofil" melalui penganggotaan beliau dalam Jawatankuasa Seni, Sains dan Kepakaran Bebas Rakyat yang membangkang pelantikan semula seorang wakil negeri Massachusetts. Beliau menempelak tuduhan yang dilontarkan ke atasnya serta pendekatan HUAC yang dilihat sembarangan serta berasaskan cuba menakutkan rakyat awam;[2][4] beliau tidak sahaja digugurkan dari pembicaraan ini malah dilantik sebagai presiden pertama Persatuan Kemajuan Sains Amerika Syarikat hasil sokongan para saintis terhadapnya.[2]

Usia tua[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penulisan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Galaxies. The Harvard books on astronomy. Harvard University Press. 1972. ISBN 978-0674340510.
  • Through Rugged Ways to the Stars. Scribner. 1969.
  • Beyond the Observatory. Scribner. 1967.
  • The View from a Distant Star: Man's Future in the Universe. Dell Publishing, Co. 1964.
  • Source book in astronomy, 1900–1950. Source books in the history of the sciences. Harvard University Press. 1960.
  • Of Stars and Men: The Human Response to an Expanding Universe. Beacon Press. 1958.
  • Shapley, Harlow (1958). A Census of Northern Galaxies in an Area of 3600 Square Degrees. Harvard College Observatory. Annals, v. 88, no. 7. Beacon Press.
  • Climatic Change. Harvard University Press. 1953.
  • Galactic and Extragalactic Studies, XVIII. Volume 36. National Academy of Sciences. 1948.
  • Time and Its Mysteries. Series 1:Lectures given on the James Arthur Foundation, New York University. New York University Press. 1936.
  • The Angular Diameters of Bright Galaxies. The Observatory. 1934.
  • Flights from Chaos: A Survey of Material Systems from Atoms to Galaxies, Adapted from Lectures at the College of the City of New York, Class of 1872 Foundation. Whittlesey House, McGraw–Hill Book Company, Inc. 1930. Bibcode:1930fcsm.book.....S.
  • Starlight. George H. Doran Co. 1926.
  • Descriptions and Positions of 2,829 New Nebulae ... Harvard College Observatory. Annals, v. 85, no. 6. The Observatory. 1924.

Anugerah dan kehormatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Bart J. Bok. Harlow Shapely 1885–1972 A Biographical Memoir. National Academy of Sciences
  2. ^ a b c "Dr. Harlow Shapley Dies at 86. Dean of American Astronomers. Dr. Harlow Shapley, Dean of American Astronomers, Dies at 86". New York Times. October 21, 1972. Dicapai pada 2014-01-15.
  3. ^ Mather, Kirtley Fletcher (1888–1978) (Summer 1971). "Harlow Shapley, Man of the World". The American Scholar (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Phi Beta Kappa Society. 40 (3): 475–481. JSTOR 41209873. Dicapai pada April 22, 2021 ("it was Shapley who almost singlehandedly prevented the deletion of the "S" from UNESCO." p. 478)CS1 maint: postscript (link). ISSN 0003-0937 (publication); OCLC 38258794 and 5543369091 (article).
  4. ^ Goodman, Walter (1968). The Committee: The Extraordinary Career of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. m/s. 187. ISBN 9780374126889. Dicapai pada January 7, 2018.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]