Kaca berwarna

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Sebuah tingkap gaya tegak lurus Gothik besar daripada lapan cahaya di Katedral Canterbury, sek. 1400, yang mengandungi kaca zaman pertengahan.

Istilah kaca berwarna dapat merujuk kepada bahan kaca berwarna atau ketukangan bekerja dengannya. Sepanjang sejarah seribu tahunnya, istilah "kaca berwarna" telah digunakan hampir secara khusus terhadap tingkap gereja, katedral, gereja kecil, dan bangunan penting lain. Walaupun secara tradisional diperbuat dalam panel leper dan digunakan sebagai tingkap, penciptaan artis kaca berwarna moden juga termasuk struktur dan arca tiga dimensi.

Penggunaan vernakular moden sering memanjangkan istilah "kaca berwarna" untuk memasukkan leadlight rumah dan karya seni dicipta dari lead came and copper foil glasswork yang dicontohkan dalam lampu Louis Comfort Tiffany yang terkenal.

Sebagai bahan, kaca berwarna ialah kaca yang diwarna dengan menambah garam logam sewaktu pengilangannya. Kaca berwarna ditukangkan ke dalam tingkap kaca berwarna di mana kepingan kecil kaca disusun untuk membentuk corak atau gambar, dipegang bersama (secara tradisional) dengan jalur-jalur plumbum dan disokong oleh sebuah bingkai keras. Perincian bercat dan kesan kotoran kuning sering digunakan untuk menambah menarik reka bentuk. Istilah kaca berwarna juga digunakan pada tingkap di mana warnanya telah dicat pada kaca dan kemudian dilakurkan pada kaca dalam sebuah tanur.

Kaca berwarna, sebagai suatu seni dan suatu pertukangan, memerlukan kemahiran seni untuk memikirkan reka bentuk sesuai dan dapat dikerjakan, dan kemahiran kejuruteraan untuk memasang kepingan. Sekeping tingkap harus muat dengan selesa ke dalam ruang yang mana yang ia diperbuatkan, harus tahan angin dan hujan dan juga khususnya di tingkap-tingkap lebih besar, harus menyokong beratnya. Banyak tingkap besar telah tahan ujian zaman dan kekal dalam keadaan baik sebahagian besarnya sejak akhir Zaman Pertengahan. Di Eropah Barat mereka merupakan bentuk utama seni bergambar yang kekal. Dalam konteks ini, tujuan sebuah kaca berwarna ialah untuk tidak membenarkan orang di dalam bangunan untuk melihat dunia luar atau juga bukan tujuan utama tingkap membenarkan cahaya masuk tetapi lebih kepada mengawalnya. Untuk tujuan ini tingkap kaca berwarna telah diperikan sebagai 'hiasan dinding bercahaya'.

Reka bentuk sebuah tingkap dapat dijadikan dengan kiasan atau bukan-kiasan; mungkin mengandungi cerita dari kitab Bible, sejarah, atau sastera; mungkin mewakili santo atau penaung, atau menggunakan motif simbolik, pada khususnya jata. Tingkap-tingkap dalam sebuah bangunan mungkin bertema, contohnya: dalam sebuah gereja - episod-episod dari kehidupan Christ; dalam sebuah bangunan parlimen - jata-jata kawasan pilihan raya; dalam dewan kolej - lembaga-lembaga yang mewakili seni dan sains; atau dalam rumah - flora, fauna, atau pandangan darat.

Pengilangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengeluaran kaca[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dari abad ke-10,11 yang lalu,ketika kaca yang kotor mula digunakan mengarcha seni,para pengusaha kilang kaca bersedia dan menyimpan persediaan siap bahan silika, produk penting dari pembuatan kaca. Glass was usually coloured by adding metallic oxides to the glass while in a molten state in a clay pot over a furnace. Glass coloured in this way was known as pot metal. Copper oxides were added to produce green, cobalt for blue, and gold was added to produce red glass. Much modern red glass is produced using ingredients less expensive than gold and giving a brighter red of a more vermilion shade.

Kaca silinder This glass was collected from the pot into a molten ball and blown, while being continually manipulated until it formed a large cylindrical bottle shape of even diameter and wall-thickness. It was then cut open, laid flat and annealed to make it stable. This is the type of glass most commonly used for ancient stained glass windows.

Kaca mahkota This glass was partly blown into a hollow vessel, then put onto a revolving table which could be rapidly spun like a potter's wheel. The centrifugal force caused the molten material to flatten and spread outwards. It could then be cut into small sheets. This glass could be made coloured and used for stained glass windows, but is typically associated with small paned windows of 16th and 17th century houses. The concentric, curving ripples are characteristic of this process. The center of each piece of glass received less force during the spinning, and thus produced was a thicker piece. These centres were for the special effect created by their lumpy, refractive quality. They are known as bull's eyes and are feature of late 19th century domestic leadlight and are sometimes also used with cathedral glass or quarry glass in non-pictorial church windows of that date.

Kaca meja This glass was produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal table and sometimes rolling it with a large metal cylinder. The glass thus produced is heavily textured by the reaction of the glass with the cold metal. Glass of this appearance is commercially produced and widely used today, under the name of cathedral glass, although it was not the type of glass favoured for stained glass in ancient cathedrals. It has been much used for lead lighting in churches in the 20th century. Modern glass made by this technique is often heavily patterned by the use of an engrave metal roller.

Flashed glass Red pot metal glass was often undesirably dark in colour and prohibitively expensive. The method developed to produce red glass was called flashing. In this procedure, a semi-molten cylinder of clear glass was dipped into a pot of red glass so that the red glass formed a thin coating. The laminated glass thus formed was cut, flattened and heat annealed.

There are a number of advantages to this technique. It allows a variety in the depth of red ranging from very dark and almost opaque, through ruby red to pale and sometimes streaky red that was often used for thin border pieces. The other advantage was that the red of double-layered glass could be engraved or abraded to allow light to shine through the clear glass underneath. In the late Medieval period, this method was often employed to add rich patterns to the robes of Saints. The other advantage, much exploited by late Victorian and early 20th century artists, was that sheets could be flashed in which the depth of colour varied across the sheet. This was applied to a range of colours. Some stained glass studios, notably Lavers, Barraud and Westlake in England, made extensive use of large segments of irregularly flashed glass in robes and draperies.

Modern production of traditional glass There are a number of glass factories, notably in Germany, USA, England, France, Poland and Russia, which produce high quality glass by traditional methods. Such glass is produced primarily for the restoration of older windows from 1920s and before. The production of new windows in traditional Victorian, Arts and Crafts and early 20th century styles often uses traditional glass. Modern stained glass windows also often use a variety of these different types of glass, or employ commercially made glass.


Creating stained glass windows[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The first stage in the production of a window is to make, or acquire from the architect or owners of the building, an accurate template of the window opening that the glass is to fit.
  • The subject matter of the window is determined to suit the location, a particular theme, or the whim of the patron. A small design called a Vidimus is prepared which can be shown to the patron.
  • A traditional narrative window has panels which relate a story. A figurative window could have rows of saints or dignitaries. Scriptural texts or mottoes are sometimes included and perhaps the names of the patrons or the person as whose memorial the window is dedicated. In a window of a traditional type, it is usually at the discretion of the designer to fill the surrounding areas with borders, floral motifs and canopies.
  • A full sized cartoon is drawn for every "light" (opening) of the window. A small church window might typically be of two lights, with some simple tracery lights above. A large window might have four or five lights. The east or west window of a large cathedral might have seven lights in three tiers with elaborate tracery. In Medieval times the cartoon was drawn straight onto a whitewashed table, which was then used for cutting, painting and assembling the window.
  • The designer must take into account the design, the structure of the window, the nature and size of the glass available and his or her own preferred technique. The cartoon is then be divided into a patchwork as a template for each small glass piece. The exact position of the lead which holds the glass in place is part of the calculated visual effect.
  • Each piece of glass is selected for the desired colour and cut to match a section of the template. An exact fit is ensured by grozing the edges with a tool which can nibble off small pieces.
  • Details of faces, hair and hands can be painted onto the inner surface of the glass in a special glass paint which contains finely ground lead or copper filings, ground glass, gum arabic and a medium such as wine, vinegar or (traditionally) urine. The art of painting details became increasingly elaborate and reached its height in the early 20th century.
  • Once the window is cut and painted, the pieces are assembled by slotting them into H-sectioned lead cames. The joints are then all soldered together and the glass pieces are stopped from rattling and the window made weatherproof by forcing a soft oily cement or mastic between the glass and the cames.
  • Traditionally, when the windows were inserted into the window spaces, iron rods were put across at various points, to support the weight of the window, which was tied to the rods by copper wire. Some very large early Gothic windows are divided into sections by heavy metal frames called ferramenta. This method of support was also favoured for large, usually painted, windows of the Baroque period.
  • From 1300 onwards, artists started using silver stain which was made with silver nitrate. It gave a yellow effect ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. It was usually painted onto the outside of a piece of glass, then fired to make it permanent. This yellow was particularly useful for enhancing borders, canopies and haloes, and turning blue glass into green glass for green grass.
  • By about 1450 a stain known as Cousin's rose was used to enhance flesh tones.
  • In the 1500s a range of glass stains were introduced, most of them coloured by ground glass particles. They were a form of enamel. Painting on glass with these stains was initially used for small heraldic designs and other details. By the 1600s a style of stained glass had evolved that was no longer dependent upon the skilful cutting of coloured glass into sections. Scenes were painted onto glass panels of square format, like tiles. The colours were annealed to the glass and the pieces were assembled into metal frames.
  • In modern windows, copper foil is now sometimes used instead of lead. For further technical details, see Lead came and copper foil glasswork.
  • In the late 19th and 20th centuries there have been many innovations in techniques and in the types of glass used. Many new types of glass have been developed for use in stained glass windows, in particular Tiffany glass and Slab glass.

Technical details[sunting | sunting sumber]

History[sunting | sunting sumber]

Origins[sunting | sunting sumber]

Coloured glass has been produced since ancient times. Both the Egyptians and the Romans excelled at the manufacture of small coloured glass objects. The British Museum holds two of the finest Roman pieces, the Lycurgus Cup, which is a murky mustard colour but glows purple-red to transmitted light, and the Portland vase which is midnight blue, with a carved white overlay.

In Early Christian churches of the 4th and 5th centuries there are many remaining windows which are filled with ornate patterns of thinly-sliced alabaster set into wooden frames, giving a stained-glass like effect. Evidence of stained glass windows in churches and monasteries within Britain can be found as early as the 7th century. Benedict Biscop’s monasteries in Monkwearmouth and Jarrow have revealed hundreds of pieces of coloured glass and lead from as early as 680CE,[1], though there is no reason to believe Britain was a pioneer in the medium. Stained glass was also used by Islamic architects in Southwest Asia. In the 8th century, the Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing coloured glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to which 12 recipes were inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book. Jabir also described the production of high quality coloured glass cut into artificial gemstones.[2]

Medieval glass[sunting | sunting sumber]

For further infornation about stained glass technology:

Stained glass, as an art form, reached its height in the Middle Ages when it became a major pictorial form and was used to illustrate the narratives of the Bible to a largely illiterate populace.

In the Romanesque and Early Gothic period, from about 950 AD to 1240 AD, the untraceried windows demanded large expanses of glass which of necessity were supported by robust iron frames, such as may be seen at Chartres Cathedral and at the eastern end of Canterbury Cathedral. As Gothic architecture developed into a more ornate form, windows grew larger, affording greater illumination to the interiors, but were divided into sections by vertical shafts and tracery of stone. The elaboration of form reached its height of complexity in the Flamboyant style in Europe and windows grew still larger with the development of the Perpendicular style in England.

Integrated with the lofty verticals of Gothic cathedrals and parish churches, the glass designs became more daring. The circular form, or rose window developed in France from relatively simple windows with pierced openings through slabs of thin stone to wheel windows, as exemplified by that in the West front of Chartres Cathedral, and ultimately to designs of enormous complexity, the tracery being drafted from hundreds of different points, such as those at Sainte-Chapelle, Paris and the "Bishop's Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral.

The Renaissance and Reformation[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Europe, stained glass continued to be produced with the style evolving from the Gothic to the Classical style, which is widely represented in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, despite the rise of Protestantism. In France, much glass of this period was produced at the Limoges factory, and in Italy at Murano, where stained glass and faceted lead crystal are often coupled together in the same window. Ultimately, the French Revolution brought about the neglect or destruction of many windows in France. At the Reformation, in England large numbers of Medieval and Renaissance windows were smashed and replaced with plain glass. The Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII and the injunctions of Oliver Cromwell against "abused images" (the object of veneration) resulted in the loss of thousands of windows. Few remain undamaged; of them the windows in the private chapel at Hengrave Hall in Suffolk are among the finest. With the latter wave of destruction the traditional methods of working with stained glass died and were not to be rediscovered in England until the early 19th century. See Stained glass - British glass, 1811-1918 for more details.

Revival in Britain[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Catholic revival in England, gaining force in the early 19th century, with its renewed interest in the medieval church brought a revival of church building in the Gothic style, claimed by John Ruskin to be "the true Catholic style". The architectural movement was led by Augustus Welby Pugin. Many new churches were planted in large towns and many old churches were restored. This brought about a great demand for the revival of the art of stained glass window making.

Among the earliest 19th century English manufacturers and designers are William Warrington and John Hardman of Birmingham whose nephew, John Hardman Powell, who had a commercial eye and exhibited works at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1873, influencing stained glass in the United States of America. Other manufacturers include William Wailes, Ward and Hughes, Clayton and Bell, Heaton, Butler and Bayne and Charles Eamer Kempe. A Scottish designer, Daniel Cottier, opened firms in Australia and the US.


Revival in France[sunting | sunting sumber]

In France there was a greater continuity of stained glass production than in England. In the early 19th century most stained glass was made of large panes that were extensively painted and fired, the designs often being copied directly from oil paintings by famous artists. In 1824 the Sevres Porcelain factory began producing stained glass to supply the increasing demand. In France many churches and cathedrals suffered despoilation during the French Revolution. During the 19th century a great number of churches were restored by Viollet-le-Duc. Many of France's finest ancient windows were restored at this time. From 1839 onwards much stained glass was produced that very closely imitates medieval glass, both in the artwork and in the nature of the glass itself. The pioneers were Henri Gèrente and Andre Lusson.[3] Other glass was designed in a more Classical manner, and characterised by the brilliant cerulean colour of the blue backgrounds (as against the purple-blue of the glass of Chartres) and the use of pink and mauve glass.

Revival in Europe[sunting | sunting sumber]

During the mid to late 19th century, many of Germany's ancient buildings were restored, and some, such as Cologne Cathedral were completed in the medieval style. There was a great demand for stained glass. The designs for many windows were based directly on the work of famous engravers such as Albrecht Durer. Original designs often imitate this style. Much 19th century German glass has large sections of painted detail rather than outlines and details dependent on the lead. The Royal Bavarian Glass painting Studio was founded by Ludwig I in 1827.[3] A major firm was Mayer of Munich which commenced glass production in 1860, and is still operating as Franz Mayer of Munich, Inc.. German stained glass found a market across Europe, in America and Australia. Stained glass studios were also founded in Italy and Belgium at this time.[3]

Innovations in the United States[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Tiffany glass

Notable American practitioners include John La Farge (1835-1910) who invented opalescent glass and for which he received a US patent February 24, 1880, and Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), who received several patents for variations of the same opalescent process in November of the same year and is believed to have invented the copper foil method as an alternative to lead, and used it extensively in windows, lamps and other decorations.

Innovations in Britain and Europe[sunting | sunting sumber]

Among the most innovative English designers were the Pre-Raphaelites, William Morris (1834-1898) and Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898), whose work heralds Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau or Belle Epoch stained glass design flourished in France, and Eastern Europe, where it can be identified by the use of curvings sinous lines in the lead, and swirling motifs. In France it is seen in the work of Francis Chigot of Limoges. In Britain it appears in the refined and formal leadlight designs of Charles Rennie Macintosh.

Twentieth century[sunting | sunting sumber]

Many 19th century firms failed early in the twentieth century as the Gothic movement had been superseded by newer styles. At the same time there were also some interesting developments where stained glass artists took studios in shared facilities. Examples include the Glass House in London set up by Mary Lowndes and A.J. Drury and An Túr Gloine in Dublin, which was run by Sarah Purser.

A revival occurred in the middle of the century because of the desire to restore the thousands of church windows throughout Europe, destroyed as a result of bombing during the World War II. German artists led the way. Much work of the period is mundane and often was not made by its designers but industrially produced.

Other artists sought to transform an ancient art form into a contemporary one, sometimes using only traditional techniques but often exploring the medium of glass in different ways and in combination with different materials. The use of slab glass set in concrete was another 20th century innovation. Gemmail glass, developed in 1936, by the French artist Jean Crotti, is a type of stained glass where the pieces of glass that are adjacent to each other overlap allowing for a greater diversity and subtlety of colour.[4]

Among the early well-known 20th century artists who experimented with stained glass as an Abstract art form were Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian. In the 1960s and 70s the Expressionist painter Marc Chagall produced designs for many stained glass windows that are intensely coloured and crammed with symbolic details. Important 20th century stained glass artists include Douglas Strachan, Ervin Bossanyi, Louis Davis,Wilhelmina Geddes, Karl Parsons, Patrick Reyntiens, Ludwig Schaffrath, Johannes Shreiter, Judith Schaechter, Paul Woodroffe, Jean René Bazaine at Saint Séverin and the Loire Studio of Gabriel Loire at Chartres. The Luxus Keibel studio in Mexico specialises in domestic stained glass in both contemporary and 19th century styles. The west windows of Manchester cathedral in England by Tony Hollaway are some of the most notable examples of symbolic work.

In the US, there is a 100-year-old trade organization, The Stained Glass Association of America, whose purpose is to function as a publicly recognized organization to assure survival of the craft by offering guidelines, instruction and training to craftspersons. The SGAA also sees its role as defending and protecting its craft against regulations that might restrict its freedom as an architectural art form. The current president is B. Gunar Gruenke of the Conrad Schmitt Studios. Today there are academic establishments that teach the traditional skills. One of these is Florida State University's Master Craftsman Program who recently completed a 30 ft high stained-glass windows installed in Bobby Bowden Field at Doak Campbell Stadium.

Combining ancient and modern traditions[sunting | sunting sumber]

Buildings incorporating stained glass windows[sunting | sunting sumber]

Churches and Cathedrals

Stained glass windows were commonly used in churches for decorative and informative purposes. Many windows are donated to churches by members of the congregation as memorials of loved ones. For more information on the use of stained glass to depict religious subjects, see Poor Man's Bible

The dazzling display of medieval glass at Sainte-Chapelle, Paris

Houses

Stained glass windows in houses were particularly popular in Victorian era and many domestic examples survive. In their simplest form they typically depict birds and flowers in small panels, often surrounded with machine-made cathedral glass, which, despite what the name suggests, is pale-coloured and textured. Some large homes have splendid examples of secular pictorial glass. Many small houses of the 19th and early 20th centuries have leadlight windows.

Public and commercial use of stained glass

Town halls, schools, colleges and other public buildings often incorporate stained glass or leadlighting.

  • Public houses — In Britain, traditional pubs make extensive use of stained glass and leaded lights to create a comfortable atmosphere and retain privacy.
  • Sculpture

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Discovering stained glass - John Harries, Carola Hicks, Edition: 3 – 1996
  2. Ahmad Y Hassan, The Manufacture of Coloured Glass and Assessment of Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gordon Campbell, The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-518948-5
  4. Gemmail, Roger Malherbe
  • Theophilus, On Divers Arts, trans. from Latin by John G. Hawthorne and Cyril Stanley Smith, Dover, ISBN 0-486-23784-2
  • Elizabeth Morris, Stained and Decorative Glass, Doubleday, ISBN 0-86824-324-8
  • Sarah Brown, Stained Glass- an Illustrated History, Bracken Books, ISBN 1-85891-157-5
  • Painton Cowen, A Guide to Stained Glass in Britain, Michael Joseph, ISBN 0-7181-2567-3
  • Lawrence Lee, George Seddon, Francis Stephens, Stained Glass, Spring Books, ISBN 0-600-56281-6
  • Simon Jenkins, England's Thousand Best Churches, Allen Lane, the Penguin Press, ISBN 0-7139-9281-6
  • Robert Eberhard, Church Stained Glass Windows, [1]
  • Cliff and Monica Robinson, Buckinghamshire Stained Glass, [2]
  • Stained Glass Association of America, History of Stained Glass, [3]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Abstract design by Marcelle Ferron at a Metro station in Montreal, Canada

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Decorative arts Templat:Glass forming