Orang Tiele

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Tiele (*Tegreg?)
Kawasan ramai penduduk
Utara China, Pergunungan Altai, Turkestan Timur (Dzungaria) dan padang rumput Kaspia-Pontic (menjelang kurun ke-6)[1]
Bahasa
Turkik
Agama
Shamanisme, Buddhisme
Kumpulan etnik berkaitan
Dingling, Xiongnu, dan kemudian orang Turkik

Tiele (Bahasa Cina: 鐵勒pinyin: Tiělè, Turkik *Tegreg "[People of the] Carts"[2]), juga diterjemah sebagai Dili (Bahasa Cina: 狄歷), Chile (Bahasa Cina: 敕勒), Zhile (Bahasa Cina: 直勒), Tele (Bahasa Cina: 特勒), juga dinamakan Gaoche atau Gaoju (Bahasa Cina: 高車, "High Carts"),[3][4][5] adalah satu konfederasi puak yang berteraskan etnik Turkik[6] yang tinggal di kawasan utara China dan Asia Tengah. Ia muncul setelah perpecahan konfederasi Xiongnu.[7] Sumber-sumber China mengaitkan mereka dengan Dingling yang lebih awal (Bahasa Cina: 丁零).[8][9][10]

Pemerintah Gaoche[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama keluarga dan nama peribadi Tempoh pemerintahan
Nama keluarga dan nama peribadi
阿伏至羅 Āfúzhìluó 487–503
跋利延 Bálìyán 503–505
彌俄突 Mí'étú 505–516
伊匐 Yīfú 516–524
越居 Yuèjū 524–536
比造 Bǐzào 536–540
去賓 Qùbīn 540–541

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Duan, "Dingling, Gaoju and Tiele", map. 4, 6, 13, 16, 17 (no page.no).
  2. ^ Templat:Iranica
  3. ^ Drompp, Michael Robert (2005). Tang China and the Collapse of the Uighur Empire: A Documentary History. BRILL. m/s. 41, n. 7. ISBN 90-04-14129-4.
  4. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1991). "The "High Carts": A Turkish-Speaking People before the Türks". Asia Major. Third series. Academia Sinica. 3 (1): 21–22.
  5. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Hurst. m/s. 42, note 2. ISBN 978-1-84904-067-9.
  6. ^ Mackerras, Colin (1972). The Uighur empire : according to the T'ang dynastic histories : a study in Sino-Uighur relations, 744-840 (ed. 2nd edition revised and expanded.). Canberra: Australian national university press. m/s. 1. ISBN 978-0708104576.
  7. ^ Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. Peter de Ridder Press. 1983. m/s. 111.
  8. ^ Xin Tangshu vol. 217a "回紇,其先匈奴也,俗多乘高輪車,元魏時亦號高車部,或曰敕勒,訛為鐵勒。" tr: "Uyghurs, their predecessors were the Xiongnu. Because, customarily, they ride high-wheeled carts. In Yuan Wei time, they were also called Gaoju (i.e. High-Cart) tribe. Or called Chile, or mistakenly as Tiele."
  9. ^ Weishu Vol 103 Gaoju "高車,蓋古赤狄之餘種也,[...] 諸夏以為高車丁零。" tr. "Gaoju, probably the remnant stock of the ancient Red Di. [...] The various Xia (i.e. Chinese) considered them Gaoju Dingling (i.e. Dingling with High Cart)"
  10. ^ Cheng, Fangyi. "The Research on the Identification between the Tiele (鐵勒) and the Oğuric tribes" in Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi ed. Th. T. Allsen, P. B. Golden, R. K. Kovalev, A. P. Martinez. 19 (2012). Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden. p. 87

Sumber utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Sima Guang (1985). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.27). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0847-4.
  • Sima Guang (1986). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.30). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0804-0.
  • Sima Guang (1987). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.38). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0808-3.
  • Sima Guang (1987). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.41). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0864-4.
  • Sima Guang (1987). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.42). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0865-2.
  • Sima Guang (1988). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.46). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0870-9.
  • Sima Guang (1988). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.47). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0881-4.
  • Sima Guang (1988). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.48). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0871-7.
  • Sima Guang (1989). A Translation (in Vernacular Chinese) and Annotation of Zizhi Tongjian by Bo Yang (Vol.50). Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Company Ltd. ISBN 957-32-0810-5.

Sumber sekunder[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Duan, Lianqin (1988). "Dingling, Gaoju and Tiele". Shanghai: Shanghai People's Press. ISBN 7-208-00110-3.
  • Li, Jihe (2003). "A Research on Migration of Northwestern Minorities Between pre-Qin to Sui and Tang". Beijing: Nationalities Press. ISBN 7-105-05908-7.
  • Lu, Simian [1934] (1996). "A History of Ethnic Groups in China". Beijing: Oriental Press. ISBN 7-5060-0735-5.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin G (2002). "Central Asia and Non-Chinese Peoples of Ancient China". Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-86078-859-8.
  • Trever, Camilla (1932). "Excavations in Northern Mongolia (1924–1925)". Leningrad: J. Fedorov Printing House. OCLC 2566311.
  • Shen, Youliang (1998). "A Research on Northern Ethnic Groups and Regimes". Beijing: Central Nationalities University Press. ISBN 7-81056-131-6.
  • Suribadalaha (1986). "New Studies of the Origins of the Mongols". Beijing: Nationalities Press. OCLC 19390448.
  • Wang, Xiaofu (1992). "Political Relationship Between the Chinese, Tibetan and Arab". Beijing: Peking University Press. ISBN 7-301-01962-9.
  • Xue, Zongzheng (1992). "A History of Turks". Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press. ISBN 7-5004-0432-8.
  • Zhang, Bibo, and Dong, Guoyao (2001). "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China". Harbin: Heilongjiang People's Press. ISBN 7-207-03325-7.
  • The Peoples of the West, University of Washington, from the Weilue, by Yu Huan

Templat:Historical Non-Chinese peoples in China

Templat:Turkic peoples