Parti Hijau (Amerika Syarikat)

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Parti Hijau Amerika Syarikat
PengerusiGreen National Committee
DiasaskanApril 2001; 18 tahun yang lalu (2001-04)
PecahanGreens/Green Party USA
DidahuluiCitizens Party
Association of State Green Parties
Ibu pejabat6411 Orchard Avenue, Suite 101, Takoma Park, Maryland 20912
AkhbarGreen Pages
Sayap beliaYoung Greens
Sayap LGBTLavender Greens
Sayap bangsa LatinoLatinx Caucus
Sayap bangsa kulit hitamBlack Caucus
IdeologiAnti-kapitalisme[1]
Eco-sosialisme[2]
Politik hijau[3]
Kedudukan politikSayap kiri[4][5]
Penggabungan antarabangsaGlobal Greens
Continental affiliationFederation of the Green Parties of the Americas
Warna rasmi     Hijau
Bil. kerusi dalam Senat
0 / 100
}}
Bil. kerusi dalam Dewan Perwakilan
0 / 435
Dewan Gabenor
0 / 50
Kerusi Dewan Atas Negeri
0 / 1,972
Kerusi Dewan Rendah Negeri
2 / 5,411
Territorial Governorships
0 / 6
Territorial Upper Chamber Seats
0 / 97
Tapak web
gp.org
Politik Amerika Syarikat
Parti politik
Pilihan raya

Parti Hijau Amerika Syarikat (Green Party of the United States, GPU) adalah sebuah gabungan parti politik berfahaman hijau di Amerika Syarikat.[6] Parti ini menumpukan kepada menggalakkan politik hijau, khususnya faham persekitaran, tanpa kekerasan, keadilan sosial, demokrasi berpenglibatan daripada akar umbi, kesamarataan gender, hak LGBT, anti-perang dan anti-rasisme. Parti ini dilihat berhaluan sayap kiri jika menurut spektrum politik biasa.[1]

Gambaran umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

Parti ini didirikan pada tahun 2001 hasil perubahan beransur daripada Pertubuhan Parti Hijau Negeri-Negeri (Association of State Green Parties, ASGP) yang dibentuk pada tahun 1996.[7] Ia segera menjadi organisasi hijau peringkat kebangsaan utama di Amerika Syarikat, mengalahkan Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA), yang dibentuk pada 1991 dan berawal dari Komite Koresponden Hijau (CoC), sebuah perkumpulan kelompok-kelompok hijau setempat yang aktif sejak tahun 1984.[8] ASGP semakin menjauhkan diri dari G/GPUSA pada akhir 1990-an.[9]

Partai Hijau mendapat perhatian yang meluas berikutan pilihan raya presiden tahun 2000 ketika calon wakil mereka, Ralph Nader dan Winona LaDuke, meraih sebanyak 2.7 % undian se-Amerika. Kempen Nader dikritik oleh banyak banyak baik dari Parti Demokrat mahupun dari Parti Hijau sendiri atas tuduhan merosak pemerolehan undian yang memihak kepada Al Gore, calon Demokrat[10] - kesan hasil insiden ini masih penuh kontroversi.[11][12] GPUS telah memiliki beberapa anggota yang terpilih menjadi anggota dewan perundangan negerri-negeri tertentu, termasuk di California, Maine dan Arkansas.

Pada September 2017, calon bebas Ralph Chapman, anggota Dewan Perwakilan Maine, bertukar afiliasi politiknya kepada Parti Hijau.[13] Sejumlah anggota Partai Hijau di Amerika Syarikat turut memegang posisi di peringkat k, termasuk di dewan sekolah, dewan kota dan sebagai datuk bandar.

Keputusan pilihan raya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peringkat pencalonan Presiden dan Naib Presiden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Calon Presiden Negeri asal Kedudukan terdahulu Calon naib presiden
Negeri asal Kedudukan terdahulu Jumlah undian Nota
1996 Naderspeak (cropped).JPG
Ralph Nader
 Connecticut Peguam, aktivis Reception (4099192018) (cropped).jpg
Winona LaDuke
 Minnesota Pakar alam sekitar 685,297 (0.7%)
0 EV
[14][15]
2000 Naderspeak (cropped).JPG
Ralph Nader
 Connecticut Calon Presiden Amerika Syarikat (1996) Reception (4099192018) (cropped).jpg
Winona LaDuke
 Minnesota Calon Naib Presiden Amerika Syarikat (1996) 2,882,955 (2.7%)
0 EV
2004 David Cobb at Oct 2016 Berkeley rally for Jill Stein - 3 (cropped3).jpg
David Cobb
 Texas Peguam
Calon Ketua Hakim Negeri Texas
(2002)
Pat LaMarche  Maine Calon Gabenor Maine
(1998)
119,859 (0.1%)
0 EV
[16]
2008 Cynthia McKinney.jpg
Cynthia McKinney
 Georgia Ahli Dewan Perwakilan Negeri Georgia
(1989–1993)
Ahli Dewan Perwakilan Amerika Syarikat mewakili daerah ke-11 Georgia
(1993–1997)
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 4th district
(1997–2003; 2005–2007)
NLN Rosa Clemente.jpg
Rosa Clemente
 New York Community organizer 161,797 (0.1%)
0 EV
[17]
2012 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
(campaign)
 Massachusetts Nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
(2002; 2010)
Nominee for Massachusetts's 9th Middlesex State House of Representatives district
(2004)
Member of the Lexington Town Meeting (2005–2011)
Nominee for Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth
(2006)
Cheri Honkala.jpg
Cheri Honkala
 Pennsylvania Aktivis
Calon Syerif Kota Philadelphia
(2011)
469,627 (0.4%)
0 EV
2016 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
(campaign)
 Massachusetts (see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
(2012)
Ajamu Baraka at Oct 2016 Berkeley rally for Jill Stein - 4 (cropped) (cropped).jpg
Ajamu Baraka
 Illinois Aktivis 1,457,216 (1.1%)
0 EV
[18]

Peringkat Kongres[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dewan Perwakilan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Bil. undian keseluruhan
% undian keseluruhan Bil. kerusi dimenangi
+/-
1992 134,072 0.14
0 / 435
1994 52,096 0.07
0 / 435
1996 42,510 0.05
0 / 435
1998 70,932 0.11
0 / 435
2000 260,087 0.26
0 / 435
2002 297,187 0.40
0 / 435
2004 344,549 0.30
0 / 435
2006 243,391 0.29
0 / 435
2008 580,263 0.47
0 / 435
2010 252,688 0.29
0 / 435
2012 372,996 0.30
0 / 435
2014 246,567 0.30
0 / 435
2016 515,263[19] 0.42?
0 / 435

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b "Green Party of the United States – National Committee Voting – Proposal Details". Dicapai 27 Julai 2016. 
  2. ^ "Green Party of the United States - National Committee Voting - Proposal Deatils".
  3. ^ "Ten Key Values".
  4. ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS. 25 Oktober 2012. Dicapai 25 Disember 2015. 
  5. ^ Resnikoff, Ned (23 Jun 2015). "Green Party's Jill Stein Running for President". Al Jazeera. Dicapai 25 Disember 2015. 
  6. ^ "Green Party". ballotpedia.org. Dicapai 24 Ogos 2016. 
  7. ^ "AOR 2011–13: ADVISORY OPINION REQUEST (AOR) SEEKING RECOGNITION OF THE COORDINATING COMMITTEE OF THE GREEN PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES AS THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE GREEN PARTY" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Dicapai 2 September 2016. 
  8. ^ "ADVISORY OPINION 2001–13" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Dicapai 5 September 2016. 
  9. ^ "COORDINATING COMMITTEE FOR THE GREENS/GREEN PARTY USA NATIONAL COMMITTEE GOVERNING BODY OF THE "GREEN PARTY", GREENS/GREEN PARTY USA" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Dicapai 5 September 2016. 
  10. ^ "THE 2000 ELECTIONS: THE GREEN PARTY; Angry Democrats, Fearing Nader Cost Them Presidential Race, Threaten to Retaliate". The New York Times. 9 November 2000. Dicapai 27 Februari 2016. 
  11. ^ Nader, Ralph (2 Juni 2016). "Ralph Nader: I was not a 'spoiler' in 2000. Jill Stein doesn't deserve that insulting label, either". The Washington Post. Dicapai 3 September 2016.  Check date values in: |date= (bantuan)
  12. ^ Moser, Richard (6 Juni 2016). "The Myth of the Spoiler: Why the Machine Elites Fear Democracy". CounterPunch. Dicapai 3 September 2016.  Check date values in: |date= (bantuan)
  13. ^ "Lawmaker's party switch gives Greens a seat in the Maine House".
  14. ^ Nader was not formally nominated by the party itself, but he did receive the endorsement of a large number of state parties and is considered as the de facto Green Party candidate.
  15. ^ In Iowa and Vermont, Anne Goeke was Nader's running mate, in New Jersey it was Madelyn Hoffman and in New York it was Muriel Tillinghast.
  16. ^ Ralph Nader and Peter Camejo, a Green, ran an independent campaign and received 0.4% of the vote; however, they were not affiliated with the Green Party.
  17. ^ Ralph Nader and Matt Gonzalez, a Green, ran an independent campaign and received 0.6% of the vote, but they were not affiliated with the Green Party.
  18. ^ While Stein and Baraka did not receive any electoral votes, Green Winona LaDuke received one vote for Vice President from a Washington faithless elector; the presidential vote went to Faith Spotted Eagle, a Democrat.
  19. ^ "U.S. House National Totals by Party, 2016". Ballot Access News. 25 Disember 2016. Dicapai 7 Januari 2017. 

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