Senat Amerika Syarikat

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Senat Amerika Syarikat
Jata
Jata Dewan Senat Amerika Syarikat
Flag of the United States Senate
Bendera Senat Amerika Syarikat
Kongres Amerika Syarikat ke-117
Jenis
Jenis
Tempoh menjawat
Tiada
Sesi baru bermula
3 Januari 2021 (2021-01-03)
Kepimpinan
Kamala Harris (D)
sejak 20 Januari 2021
Patrick Leahy (D)
sejak 20 Januari 2021
Chuck Schumer (D)
sejak 20 Januari 2021
Mitch McConnell (R)
sejak 20 Januari 2021
Ketua Pengelola Majoriti
Dick Durbin (D)
sejak 20 Januari 2021
Ketua Pengelola Minoriti
John Thune (R)
sejak 20 Januari 2021
Struktur
Ahli100
51 (atau 50 tambah Naib Presiden) untuk mencapai majoriti mudah
{{{Struktur1}}}
Kumpulan politik
Majoriti (50)[a]

Minoriti (50)

Tempoh penggal
6 tahun
Pilihan raya
Sistem pengundian
Pilihan raya terakhir
3 November 2020 (35 kerusi)
Pilihan raya seterusnya
8 November 2022 (34 kerusi)
Tempat persidangan
United States Senate Floor.jpg
Kamar Senat
Kapitol Amerika Syarikat
Washington D.C.
Amerika Syarikat
senate.gov
Perlembagaan
Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat
sunting
Lihat pendokumenan templat ini

Senat Amerika Syarikat (Inggeris: United States Senate; Jawi: سنات اميريك شريكت) ialah salah satu daripada dua dewan perundangan Kongres Amerika Syarikat, satu lagi ialah Dewan Perwakilan.

Dalam Senat, setiap negeri secara saksama diwakili oleh dua ahli; hasilnya, jumlah keahlian badan berkenaan hingga kini ialah 100. Para Senator berkhidmat tempoh selama enam tahun diatur supaya pilihan-pilihan raya diadakan bagi kira-kira sepertiga kerusi daripada kerusi-kerusi dewan (satu "kumpulan") setiap tahun kedua. Naib Presiden Amerika Syarikat merupakan Presiden Senat dan berkhidmat sebagai pegawai yang mengetuai, tetapi ia bukan seorang senator dan tidak boleh mengundi kecuali pemecah undi. Timbalan Presiden jarang bertindak sebagai Presiden Senat kecuali membuang undi pemecah atau semasa majlis upacara atau istiadat, maka tanggungjawab mempengerusikan biasanya jatuh kepada Presiden Pro Tempore, secara adat merupakan senator yang paling senior daripada parti majoriti. Paling biasa, Presiden Pro Tempore akan merangka satu ahli daripada parti beliau untuk berkhidmat sebagai pegawai pengerusi pada hari tersebut.

Komposisi dan kuasa Senat diwujudkan melalui artikel 1 di dalam Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat. Dewan Senat terdiri daripada ahli senator, setiap satunya mewakili satu negeri secara keseluruhannya. Setiap negeri, tanpa mengira saiz penduduknya, adalah sama diwakili oleh dua Senator yang berkhidmat dalam tempoh enam tahun. Pada masa ini terdapat 50 negeri bersekutu, kini terdapat 100 Senator. Dari 1789 hingga 1913, Senator telah dilantik oleh badan perundangan Negeri yang mereka wakili; mereka kini dipilih oleh undi popular, berikutan penggubalan ratifikasi Pindaan 17 tahun 1913.

Komposisi terkini[sunting | sunting sumber]

Komposisi Kongres Senat Amerika Syarikat ke-117
Blok Ahli
Demokrat 48
Republikan 50
Bebas 2
Jumlah 100

Keahlian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumpah masuk jawatan diangkat[sunting | sunting sumber]

I, ___ ___, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.[1]

[2]

Pendapatan dan kelebihan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gaji tahunan setiap senator, sejak 2009, ialah USD $174,000; Presiden Pro tempore dan pemimpin parti menerima USD $193,400. Pada bulan Jun 2003, sekurang-kurangnya 40 Senator bergelar jutawan; pada tahun 2018, lebih 50 Senator bergelar jutawan. Bersama-sama dengan gaji pendapatan, seorang senator menerima manfaat persaraan dan kesihatan yang sama dengan penjawat awam yang lain, dan diberi hak sepenuhnya selepas lima tahun berkhidmat. Senator dilindungi oleh skim persaraan penjawat awam atau skim persaraan perkhidmatan awam. Skim pertama persaraan Senat sejak 1 Januari 1987, manakala skim kedua hanya terpakai bagi ahli-ahli Dewan Senat yang berkhidmat dari 31 Disember 1986 dan sebelumnya. Bagi penjawat awam, persaraan ahli kongres dibiayai melalui cukai dan sumbangan peserta. Di bawah skim persaraan pertama, senator perlu menyumbang 1.3% daripada gaji mereka ke dalam rancangan persaraan skim tersebut dan membayar 6.2% daripada gaji mereka dalam cukai keselamatan sosial. Jumlah pencen ahli senator bergantung kepada tempoh perkhidmatan dan purata tiga tahun yang tertinggi gaji mereka. Jumlah permulaan anuiti persaraan senator mungkin tidak melebihi 80% daripada gaji akhir mereka. Pada tahun 2006, purata pencen tahunan bagi senator dan wakil yang telah bersara di bawah skim kedua adalah USD $60,972, manakala mereka yang bersara di bawah skim pertama, atau gabungan dengan skim kedua, berjumlah USD $35,952

Senarai ahli senat Amerika Syarikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemimpin tertinggi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jawatan Parti Penyandang Negeri Sejak
Presiden Senat Demokrat Kamala Harris California 20 Januari 2021
Presiden pro tempore Senat Demokrat Patrick Leahy Senator Vermont 20 Januari 2021

Pimpinan Majoriti[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pejabat Penjawat Negeri Sejak
Ketua Majoriti Senat
Pengerusi Kaukus Demokrat Senat
Chuck Schumer New York 20 Januari 2021
Ketua Pengelola Majoriti Senat Dick Durbin Illinois 20 Januari 2021
Pembantu Ketua Demokrat Senat Patty Murray Washington 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Polisi dan Komunikasi Demokrat Senat Debbie Stabenow Michigan 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Kaukus Demokrat Senat Mark Warner Virginia 20 Januari 2021
Elizabeth Warren Massachusetts 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Pemandu Demokrat Senat Amy Klobuchar Minnesota 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jangkauan Demokrat Senat Bernie Sanders Vermont 3 Januari 2017
Naib Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Polisi dan Komunikasi Demokrat Senat Joe Manchin Virginia Barat 20 Januari 2021
Cory Booker New Jersey 20 Januari 2021
Setiausaha Kaukus Demokrat Tammy Baldwin Wisconsin 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Kempen Demokrat Senat Gary Peters Michigan 28 Januari 2021
Naib Pengerusi Jangkauan Demokrat Senat Kosong Bakal ditetapkan 20 Januari 2021
Timbalan Pengelola Ketua Demokrat Senat Jeff Merkley Oregon 20 Januari 2021
Brian Schatz Hawaii 20 Januari 2021

Pimpinan Minoriti[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pejabat Penjawat Negeri Sejak
Ketua Minoriti Senat Mitch McConnell Kentucky 20 Januari 2021
Ketua Pengelola Minoriti Senat John Thune Dakota Selatan 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Sidang Republikan Senat John Barrasso Wyoming 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Polisi Republikan Senat Roy Blunt Missouri 20 Januari 2021
Naib Pengerusi Sidang Republikan Senat Joni Ernst Iowa 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Republikan Kebangsaan Senat Rick Scott Florida 20 Januari 2021
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Pemandu Republikan Senat Mike Lee Utah 20 Januari 2021
Timbalan Ketua Pengelola Republikan Senat Mike Crapo Idaho 20 Januari 2021
Presiden Pro Tempore Emeritus Chuck Grassley Iowa 20 Januari 2021

Senarai Senator A.S.[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negeri Potret Senator Parti Lahir Mula menjawat Tempoh tamat
Alabama Richard Shelby, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Richard Shelby Republikan[3] (1934-05-06) 6 Mei 1934 (umur 86) 3 Januari 1987 2022
Tommy Tuberville 117th Congress Portrait.jpg Tommy Tuberville Republikan (1954-09-18) 18 September 1954 (umur 66) 3 Januari 2021 2026
Alaska Lisa Murkowski official photo (cropped).jpg Lisa Murkowski Republikan (1957-05-22) 22 Mei 1957 (umur 63) 20 Disember 2002[c] 2022
Senator Dan Sullivan official (cropped).jpg Dan Sullivan Republikan (1964-11-13) 13 November 1964 (umur 56) 3 Januari 2015 2026
Arizona Kyrsten Sinema (cropped).jpg Kyrsten Sinema Demokrat (1976-07-12) 12 Julai 1976 (umur 44) 3 Januari 2019 2024
SenatorKellyOfficialPhoto (cropped2).jpg Mark Kelly Demokrat (1964-02-21) 21 Februari 1964 (umur 57) 2 Disember 2020 2022
Arkansas John Boozman, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg John Boozman Republikan (1950-12-10) 10 Disember 1950 (umur 70) 3 Januari 2011 2022
Tom Cotton official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Tom Cotton Republikan (1977-05-13) 13 Mei 1977 (umur 43) 3 Januari 2015 2026
California Dianne Feinstein, official Senate photo 2 (cropped).jpg Dianne Feinstein Demokrat (1933-06-22) 22 Jun 1933 (umur 87) 10 November 1992 2024
Alex Padilla 117th Congress portrait.jpg Alex Padilla Demokrat (1973-03-22) 22 Mac 1973 (umur 47) 20 Januari 2021 2022
Colorado Michael Bennet Official Photo (cropped).jpg Michael Bennet Demokrat (1964-11-28) 28 November 1964 (umur 56) 21 Januari 2009 2022
Senator Hickenlooper.jpg John Hickenlooper Demokrat (1952-02-07) 7 Februari 1952 (umur 69) 3 Januari 2021 2026
Connecticut Richard Blumenthal Official Portrait (cropped).jpg Richard Blumenthal Demokrat (1946-02-13) 13 Februari 1946 (umur 75) 3 Januari 2011 2022
Chris Murphy, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Murphy Demokrat (1973-08-03) 3 Ogos 1973 (umur 47) 3 Januari 2013 2024
Delaware Tom Carper, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Tom Carper Demokrat (1947-01-23) 23 Januari 1947 (umur 74) 3 Januari 2001 2024
Chris Coons, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Coons Democratic (1963-09-09) 9 September 1963 (umur 57) November 15, 2010[d] 2026
Florida Senator Rubio official portrait (cropped).jpg Marco Rubio Republican (1971-05-28) 28 Mei 1971 (umur 49) January 3, 2011 2022
Official Portrait of Senator Rick Scott (cropped).jpg Rick Scott Republican (1952-12-01) 1 Disember 1952 (umur 68) January 8, 2019[e] 2024
Georgia Jon Ossoff 2020 2 (cropped 2).jpg Jon Ossoff Democratic (1987-February-16) 16 Februari 1987 (umur 34)Ralat ungkapan: Perkataan "february" tidak dikenali January 20, 2021 2026
Raphael Warnock official photo.jpg Raphael Warnock Democratic (1969-July-23) 23 Julai 1969 (umur 51)Ralat ungkapan: Perkataan "july" tidak dikenali January 20, 2021[f] 2022
Hawaii Brian Schatz, official portrait, 113th Congress 2 (cropped).jpg Brian Schatz Democratic (1972-10-20) 20 Oktober 1972 (umur 48) December 26, 2012[g] 2022
Mazie Hirono, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Mazie Hirono Democratic (1947-11-03) 3 November 1947 (umur 73) January 3, 2013 2024
Idaho Mike Crapo Official Photo 110th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Crapo Republican (1951-05-20) 20 Mei 1951 (umur 69) January 3, 1999 2022
Jim Risch official portrait (cropped).jpg Jim Risch Republican (1943-05-03) 3 Mei 1943 (umur 77) January 3, 2009 2026
Illinois Richard Durbin official photo (cropped).jpg Dick Durbin Democratic (1944-11-21) 21 November 1944 (umur 76) January 3, 1997 2026
Tammy Duckworth 115th official portrait (cropped).jpg Tammy Duckworth Democratic (1968-03-12) 12 Mac 1968 (umur 52) January 3, 2017 2022
Indiana Senator Todd Young official portrait (cropped).jpg Todd Young Republican (1972-08-24) 24 Ogos 1972 (umur 48) January 3, 2017 2022
Mike Braun, Official Portrait, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Mike Braun Republican (1954-03-24) 24 Mac 1954 (umur 66) January 3, 2019 2024
Iowa Chuck Grassley official photo 2017 (cropped).jpg Chuck Grassley Republican (1933-09-17) 17 September 1933 (umur 87) January 3, 1981 2022
Joni Ernst, official portrait, 116th Congress 3.jpg Joni Ernst Republican (1970-07-01) 1 Julai 1970 (umur 50) January 3, 2015 2026
Kansas Jerry Moran, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Jerry Moran Republican (1954-05-29) 29 Mei 1954 (umur 66) January 3, 2011 2022
Roger Marshall official portrait.jpg Roger Marshall Republican (1960-08-09) 9 Ogos 1960 (umur 60) January 3, 2021 2026
Kentucky Mitch McConnell portrait 2016.jpg Mitch McConnell Republican (1942-02-20) 20 Februari 1942 (umur 79) January 3, 1985 2026
Rand Paul, official portrait, 112th Congress alternate (cropped).jpg Rand Paul Republican (1963-01-07) 7 Januari 1963 (umur 58) January 3, 2011 2022
Louisiana Bill Cassidy official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Bill Cassidy Republican (1957-09-28) 28 September 1957 (umur 63) January 3, 2015 2026
John Neely Kennedy, official portrait, 115th Congress.jpg John Kennedy Republican (1951-11-21) 21 November 1951 (umur 69) January 3, 2017 2022
Maine Susan Collins official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Susan Collins Republican (1952-12-07) 7 Disember 1952 (umur 68) January 3, 1997 2026
Angus King, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Angus King Independent[h] (1944-03-31) 31 Mac 1944 (umur 76) January 3, 2013 2024
Maryland Ben Cardin official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Ben Cardin Democratic (1943-10-05) 5 Oktober 1943 (umur 77) January 3, 2007 2024
Chris Van Hollen official portrait 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Chris Van Hollen Democratic (1959-01-10) 10 Januari 1959 (umur 62) January 3, 2017 2022
Massachusetts Elizabeth Warren, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg Elizabeth Warren Democratic (1949-06-22) 22 Jun 1949 (umur 71) January 3, 2013 2024
Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg Ed Markey Democratic (1946-07-11) 11 Julai 1946 (umur 74) July 16, 2013[i] 2026
Michigan Debbie Stabenow, official photo, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Debbie Stabenow Democratic (1950-04-29) 29 April 1950 (umur 70) January 3, 2001 2024
Gary Peters official photo 115th congress (cropped).jpg Gary Peters Democratic (1958-12-01) 1 Disember 1958 (umur 62) January 3, 2015 2026
Minnesota Amy Klobuchar, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Amy Klobuchar Democratic (1960-05-25) 25 Mei 1960 (umur 60) January 3, 2007 2024
Tina Smith, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped).jpg Tina Smith Democratic (1958-03-04) 4 Mac 1958 (umur 63) January 3, 2018[j] 2026
Mississippi Roger F. Wicker crop.jpg Roger Wicker Republican (1951-07-05) 5 Julai 1951 (umur 69) December 31, 2007[k] 2024
Cindy Hyde-Smith official photo (cropped).jpg Cindy Hyde-Smith Republican (1959-05-10) 10 Mei 1959 (umur 61) April 9, 2018[l] 2026
Missouri Roy Blunt, Official Portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Roy Blunt Republican (1950-01-10) 10 Januari 1950 (umur 71) January 3, 2011 2022
Josh Hawley (cropped).jpg Josh Hawley Republican (1979-12-31) 31 Disember 1979 (umur 41) January 3, 2019 2024
Montana JonTester (cropped).jpg Jon Tester Democratic (1956-08-21) 21 Ogos 1956 (umur 64) January 3, 2007 2024
Steve Daines official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Steve Daines Republican (1962-08-20) 20 Ogos 1962 (umur 58) January 3, 2015 2026
Nebraska Deb Fischer, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Deb Fischer Republican (1951-03-01) 1 Mac 1951 (umur 70) January 3, 2013 2024
Ben Sasse Official photo (cropped).jpg Ben Sasse Republican (1972-02-22) 22 Februari 1972 (umur 49) January 3, 2015 2026
Nevada Catherine Cortez Masto official portrait (cropped).jpg Catherine Cortez Masto Democratic (1964-03-29) 29 Mac 1964 (umur 56) January 3, 2017 2022
Jacky Rosen, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped-1).jpg Jacky Rosen Democratic (1957-08-02) 2 Ogos 1957 (umur 63) January 3, 2019 2024
New Hampshire Jeanne Shaheen, official Senate photo portrait, 2009 (cropped).jpg Jeanne Shaheen Democratic (1947-01-28) 28 Januari 1947 (umur 74) January 3, 2009 2026
Maggie Hassan, official portrait, 115th Congress (cropped).jpg Maggie Hassan Democratic (1958-02-27) 27 Februari 1958 (umur 63) January 3, 2017 2022
New Jersey Robert Menendez official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Bob Menendez Democratic (1954-01-01) 1 Januari 1954 (umur 67) January 17, 2006[m] 2024
Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg Cory Booker Democratic (1969-04-27) 27 April 1969 (umur 51) October 31, 2013[n] 2026
New Mexico Heinrich Official Headshot 2019 (cropped).jpg Martin Heinrich Democratic (1971-10-17) 17 Oktober 1971 (umur 49) January 3, 2013 2024
Ben Ray Lujan, 117th Congress portrait.jpg Ben Ray Luján Democratic (1972-06-07) 7 Jun 1972 (umur 48) January 3, 2021 2026
New York Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped).jpg Chuck Schumer Democratic (1950-11-23) 23 November 1950 (umur 70) January 3, 1999 2022
Kirsten Gillibrand, official photo, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Kirsten Gillibrand Democratic (1966-12-09) 9 Disember 1966 (umur 54) January 26, 2009[o] 2024
Carolina Utara Richard Burr official portrait (cropped).jpg Richard Burr Republican (1955-11-30) 30 November 1955 (umur 65) January 3, 2005 2022
Thom Tillis Official Photo (cropped).jpg Thom Tillis Republican (1960-08-30) 30 Ogos 1960 (umur 60) January 3, 2015 2026
Dakota Utara Hoeven Official Portrait 2014 (cropped).JPG John Hoeven Republican (1957-03-13) 13 Mac 1957 (umur 63) January 3, 2011 2022
Kevin Cramer, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped).jpg Kevin Cramer Republican (1961-01-21) 21 Januari 1961 (umur 60) January 3, 2019 2024
Ohio Sherrod Brown official photo 2009 2 (cropped).jpg Sherrod Brown Democratic (1952-11-09) 9 November 1952 (umur 68) January 3, 2007 2024
Rob Portman official portrait (cropped).jpg Rob Portman Republican (1955-12-19) 19 Disember 1955 (umur 65) January 3, 2011 2022
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe official portrait (cropped).jpg Jim Inhofe Republican (1934-11-17) 17 November 1934 (umur 86) November 16, 1994[p] 2026
James Lankford official Senate photo (cropped).jpg James Lankford Republican (1968-03-04) 4 Mac 1968 (umur 53) January 3, 2015[q] 2022
Oregon Ron Wyden official photo (cropped).jpg Ron Wyden Democratic (1949-05-03) 3 Mei 1949 (umur 71) February 5, 1996[r] 2022
Jeff Merkley, 115th official photo (cropped).jpg Jeff Merkley Democratic (1956-10-24) 24 Oktober 1956 (umur 64) January 3, 2009 2026
Pennsylvania Bob Casey Jr. official photo (cropped).jpg Bob Casey Jr. Democratic (1960-04-13) 13 April 1960 (umur 60) January 3, 2007 2024
Pat Toomey official photo (cropped).jpg Pat Toomey Republican (1961-11-17) 17 November 1961 (umur 59) January 3, 2011 2022
Rhode Island Senator Jack Reed official photo (cropped).jpg Jack Reed Democratic (1949-11-12) 12 November 1949 (umur 71) January 3, 1997 2026
Sheldon Whitehouse, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped).jpg Sheldon Whitehouse Democratic (1955-10-20) 20 Oktober 1955 (umur 65) January 3, 2007 2024
Carolina Selatan Lindsey Graham, official photo, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Lindsey Graham Republican (1955-07-09) 9 Julai 1955 (umur 65) January 3, 2003 2026
Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 2).jpg Tim Scott Republican (1965-09-19) 19 September 1965 (umur 55) January 3, 2013[s] 2022
Dakota Selatan John Thune, official portrait, 111th Congress (cropped).jpg John Thune Republican (1961-01-07) 7 Januari 1961 (umur 60) January 3, 2005 2022
Mike Rounds official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Rounds Republican (1954-10-24) 24 Oktober 1954 (umur 66) January 3, 2015 2026
Tennessee Marsha Blackburn, official photo, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg Marsha Blackburn Republican (1952-06-06) 6 Jun 1952 (umur 68) January 3, 2019 2024
Sen. Bill Hagerty official Senate portrait, 117th Congress.jpg Bill Hagerty Republican (1959-08-14) 14 Ogos 1959 (umur 61) January 3, 2021 2026
Texas John Cornyn official senate portrait.jpg John Cornyn Republican (1952-02-02) 2 Februari 1952 (umur 69) December 2, 2002 2026
Ted Cruz official 116th portrait (cropped).jpg Ted Cruz Republican (1970-12-22) 22 Disember 1970 (umur 50) January 3, 2013 2024
Utah Mike Lee, official portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Lee Republican (1971-06-04) 4 Jun 1971 (umur 49) January 3, 2011 2022
Mitt Romney official US Senate portrait (cropped).jpg Mitt Romney Republican (1947-03-12) 12 Mac 1947 (umur 73) January 3, 2019 2024
Vermont Patrick Leahy official photo (cropped).jpg Patrick Leahy Democratic (1940-03-31) 31 Mac 1940 (umur 80) January 3, 1975 2022
Bernie Sanders (cropped).jpg Bernie Sanders Independent[h] (1941-09-08) 8 September 1941 (umur 79) January 3, 2007 2024
Virginia Mark Warner 113th Congress photo (cropped).jpg Mark Warner Democratic (1954-12-15) 15 Disember 1954 (umur 66) January 3, 2009 2026
Tim Kaine 116th official portrait (cropped).jpg Tim Kaine Democratic (1958-02-26) 26 Februari 1958 (umur 63) January 3, 2013 2024
Washington Patty Murray, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Patty Murray Democratic (1950-10-11) 11 Oktober 1950 (umur 70) January 3, 1993 2022
Maria Cantwell (cropped).jpg Maria Cantwell Democratic (1958-10-13) 13 Oktober 1958 (umur 62) January 3, 2001 2024
Virginia Barat Senator Manchin (cropped).jpg Joe Manchin Democratic (1947-08-24) 24 Ogos 1947 (umur 73) November 15, 2010[t] 2024
Shelley Moore Capito official Senate photo (cropped 2).jpg Shelley Moore Capito Republican (1953-11-26) 26 November 1953 (umur 67) January 3, 2015 2026
Wisconsin Ron Johnson, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg Ron Johnson Republican (1955-04-08) 8 April 1955 (umur 65) January 3, 2011 2022
Tammy Baldwin, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Tammy Baldwin Democratic (1962-02-11) 11 Februari 1962 (umur 59) January 3, 2013 2024
Wyoming John Barrasso official portrait 112th Congress (cropped).jpg John Barrasso Republican (1952-07-21) 21 Julai 1952 (umur 68) June 25, 2007[u] 2024
Cynthia Lummis U.S. Senator.jpg Cynthia Lummis Republican (1954-09-10) 10 September 1954 (umur 66) January 3, 2021 2026

Galeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dewan Senat di Kapitol
Kamar Senat pada tahun 1873

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Demokrat menguasai majoriti—kiraan 50 senator Demokrat termasuk Naib Presiden Kamala Harris—jumlah 51
  2. ^ Senator bebas–Angus King dan Bernie Sanders
  3. ^ Dilantik ke jawatan setelah bapanya, Frank Murkowski menjadi Gabenor Alaska
  4. ^ Elected to the seat to succeed Ted Kaufman, who had been appointed to the seat following the resignation of Joe Biden, who had become Vice President of the United States.
  5. ^ Inauguration delayed in order to finish his term as Governor of Florida.
  6. ^ Elected to the seat to succeed Kelly Loeffler, who had been appointed to the seat following Johnny Isakson's resignation.
  7. ^ Appointed to the seat following the death of Daniel Inouye.
  8. ^ a b Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan KingSanders tidak disediakan
  9. ^ Elected to the seat to succeed Mo Cowan, who had been appointed to replace John Kerry, who had become Secretary of State.[4]
  10. ^ Appointed to the seat after Al Franken's resignation.[5]
  11. ^ Appointed to the seat following the resignation of Trent Lott.
  12. ^ Appointed to the seat after Thad Cochran's resignation.
  13. ^ Appointed to the seat following the resignation of Jon Corzine, who had become Governor of New Jersey.
  14. ^ Elected to the seat to succeed Jeffrey Chiesa, who had been appointed to the seat following the death of Frank Lautenberg.[6]
  15. ^ Appointed to the seat following the resignation of Hillary Clinton, who had become Secretary of State.
  16. ^ Elected to the seat following the resignation of David Boren.
  17. ^ Elected to the seat to succeed Tom Coburn, who had to resign at the eve of 113th Congress.
  18. ^ Elected to the seat following the resignation of Bob Packwood.
  19. ^ Appointed to the seat following the resignation of Jim DeMint.
  20. ^ Elected to the seat to succeed Carte Goodwin, who had been appointed to the seat following the death of Robert Byrd.
  21. ^ Appointed to the seat following the death of Craig L. Thomas.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ See: 5 U.S.C. § 3331; see also: U.S. Senate Oath of Office
  2. ^ United States Constitution, Article VI
  3. ^ Sehingga 1994, Richard Shelby menang pilihan raya sebagai ahli Parti Demokrat.
  4. ^ "Democrat Wins Special Election for Kerry's Senate Seat". The New York Times. Dicapai pada May 21, 2020.
  5. ^ "Franken to make announcement Thursday as chorus grows for his resignation". ABC7 Chicago. December 6, 2017. Dicapai pada December 9, 2017.
  6. ^ "Booker Wins New Jersey Senate Seat". Politico. Dicapai pada May 21, 2020.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Baker, Richard A. The Senate of the United States: A Bicentennial History Krieger, 1988.
  • Baker, Richard A., ed., First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century Congressional Quarterly, 1991.
  • Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 1976: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (1975); new edition every 2 years
  • David W. Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins. Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress (2002)
  • Caro, Robert A. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Vol. 3: Master of the Senate. Knopf, 2002.
  • Comiskey, Michael. Seeking Justices: The Judging of Supreme Court Nominees U. Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation XII: 2005–2008: Politics and Policy in the 109th and 110th Congresses (2010); massive, highly detailed summary of Congressional activity, as well as major executive and judicial decisions; based on Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report and the annual CQ almanac. The Congress and the Nation 2009–2012 vol XIII has been announced for September 2014 publication.
    • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation: 2001–2004 (2005);
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1997–2001 (2002)
    • Congressional Quarterly. Congress and the Nation: 1993–1996 (1998)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1989–1992 (1993)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1985–1988 (1989)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1981–1984 (1985)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1977–1980 (1981)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1973–1976 (1977)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1969–1972 (1973)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1965–1968 (1969)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1945–1964 (1965), the first of the series
  • Cooper, John Milton, Jr. Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations. Cambridge U. Press, 2001.
  • Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J. Oleszek, eds. (1998). Congress and Its Members, 6th ed. Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly. (Legislative procedure, informal practices, and member information)
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Most Exclusive Club: A History Of The Modern United States Senate (2005)
  • Hernon, Joseph Martin. Profiles in Character: Hubris and Heroism in the U.S. Senate, 1789–1990 Sharpe, 1997.
  • Hoebeke, C. H. The Road to Mass Democracy: Original Intent and the Seventeenth Amendment. Transaction Books, 1995. (Popular elections of senators)
  • Lee, Frances E. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I. Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation. U. of Chicago Press 1999. 304 pp.
  • MacNeil, Neil and Richard A. Baker. The American Senate: An Insider's History. Oxford University Press, 2013. 455 pp.
  • McFarland, Ernest W. The Ernest W. McFarland Papers: The United States Senate Years, 1940–1952. Prescott, Ariz.: Sharlot Hall Museum, 1995 (Democratic majority leader 1950–52)
  • Malsberger, John W. From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, 1938–1952. Susquehanna U. Press 2000
  • Mann, Robert. The Walls of Jericho: Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Russell and the Struggle for Civil Rights. Harcourt Brace, 1996
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (1991). Press Gallery: Congress and the Washington Correspondents. Harvard University Press.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (2001). The Congress of the United States: A Student Companion (ed. 2nd). Oxford University Press.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (2010). The U.S. Congress: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
  • Rothman, David. Politics and Power the United States Senate 1869–1901 (1966)
  • Swift, Elaine K. The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress, 1787–1841. U. of Michigan Press, 1996
  • Valeo, Frank. Mike Mansfield, Majority Leader: A Different Kind of Senate, 1961–1976 Sharpe, 1999 (Senate Democratic leader)
  • VanBeek, Stephen D. Post-Passage Politics: Bicameral Resolution in Congress. U. of Pittsburgh Press 1995
  • Weller, Cecil Edward, Jr. Joe T. Robinson: Always a Loyal Democrat. U. of Arkansas Press, 1998. (Arkansas Democrat who was Majority leader in 1930s)
  • Wilson, Woodrow. Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1885; also 15th ed. 1900, repr. by photoreprint, Transaction books, 2002.
  • Wirls, Daniel and Wirls, Stephen. The Invention of the United States Senate Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2004. (Early history)
  • Zelizer, Julian E. On Capitol Hill : The Struggle to Reform Congress and its Consequences, 1948–2000 (2006)
  • Zelizer, Julian E., ed. The American Congress: The Building of Democracy (2004) (overview)

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The following are published by the Senate Historical Office.

  • Robert Byrd. The Senate, 1789–1989. Four volumes.
    • Vol. I, a chronological series of addresses on the history of the Senate
    • Vol. II, a topical series of addresses on various aspects of the Senate's operation and powers
    • Vol. III, Classic Speeches, 1830–1993
    • Vol. IV, Historical Statistics, 1789–1992
  • Dole, Bob. Historical Almanac of the United States Senate
  • Hatfield, Mark O., with the Senate Historical Office. Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789–1993 (essays reprinted online)
  • Frumin, Alan S. Riddick's Senate Procedure. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1992.

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