Permainan berperanan

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Rencana ini adalah mengenai permainan berperanan secara keseluruhan. Untuk genre RPG yang berkaitan dengan permainan video, sila lihat permainan video berperanan.
Sebuah permainan berperanan pen dan kertas.

Sebuah permainan berperanan (bahasa Inggeris: role-playing game), seringkali disingkatkan sebagai RPG merupakan sebuah kategori permainan di mana para pemain mengawal beberapa watak di dalam sebuah latar cereka. Para pemain bertanggungjawab di bawah peranan yang dimainkan mereka, selalunya di bawah suatu penceritaan yang ditetapkan, sama ada menerusi lakonan terus, membuat pilihan berstruktur ataupun menerusi sebuah pembangunan watak.[1] Tindakan yang dilakukan dalam sebuah permainan berperanan berjaya atau gagal bergantung kepada peraturan dan garis panduan sebuah sistem rasmi.[2]

Bentuknya yang asal, kadang-kala digelar RPG pen dan kertas, dimainkan melalui ucapan, manakala para pemain permainan berperanan lakonan langsung secara fizikalnya melakukan tindakan untuk watak-watak mereka.[3] Dalam kedua-dua bentuk ini, seorang pengatur bergelar game master (GM) selalunya membuat keputusan dalam menyatakan peraturan dan latar yang akan digunakan dan berperanan sebagai seorang pengadil, disamping para pemain yang lain memainkan peranan watak masing-masing.[4]

Gamemaster[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Gamemaster

Suatu ciri biasa dalam kebanyakan RPG ialah kewujudan seseorang yang bergelar gamemaster (secara literal dalam bahasa Melayu: tuan permainan), seorang peserta yang memiliki tugas khas untuk memberi latar cereka, menimbang tara tindakan para pemain, dan mengawal pergerakan naratif.[5] Dalam RPG pen dan kertas mahupun lakonan langsung GM melakukan tugasan-tugasan tersebut secara terus. Dalam RPG permainan video kebanyakan daripada fungsi seorang GM dilakukan menerusi enjin permainan video, namun sesetengah RPG permainan video berganda juga membenarkan para peserta untuk memainkan peranan sebagai seorang GM menerusi sebuah antaramuka bergelar GM toolkit, tetapi sesetengah keupayaan tertentu adalah terhad disebabkan teknologi yang sedia ada.[6][7]

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Nota-nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Cover, Jennifer Grouling (2010). The Creation of Narrative in Tabletop Role-Playing Games. McFarland & Company. m/s. 6. ISBN 978-0-7864-4451-9. "As suggested by the name, TRPGs are played face-to-face (around a table, most likely), and involve players 'acting out' a role. This acting is not always literal. Players do not arrive in costume or speak exclusively in-character — something that differentiates TRPGs from live-action role-playing games (LARPs). Instead, players develop characters based on certain rules and are responsible for deciding what those characters do over the course of the game." 
  2. (Tychsen 2006:76) "The variety of role playing games makes it inherently challenging to provide a common definition. However, all forms of role playing games – be they PnP RPGs, CRPGs, MMORPGs or LARPS - share a group of characteristics, which makes them identifiable from other types of games: storytelling with rules, control of fictional characters, a fictitious reality, usually the presence of a game master (or game engine), and at least one player."
  3. (Tychsen et al. 2006:255) "LARPs can be viewed as forming a distinct category of RPG because of two unique features: (a) The players physically embody their characters, and (b) the game takes place in a physical frame. Embodiment means that the physical actions of the player are regarded as those of the character. Whereas in a RPG played by a group sitting around a table, players describe the actions of their characters (e.g., “I run to stand beside my friend”)"
  4. Kim, John. ""Narrative" or "Tabletop" RPGs". http://www.darkshire.net/~jhkim/rpg/whatis/tabletop.html. Capaian 2008-09-09. 
  5. (Tychsen et al. 2005:215-216) "The areas for which a GM can be responsible, regardless of the game platform (PnP RPG, LARP, CRPG or MMOG), vary not only internally in games from each platform but also across platforms. A GM in a MMOG generally has different responsibilities than a GM in a PnP RPG. These differences can be related to a limited number of variables, such as the media of expression. The full range of possible responsibilities of GMs can be subdivided into the following five categories, which also cover the functions of automated storytelling engines: [Narrative flow, Rules, Engagement, Environment, Virtual world:]"
  6. (Tychsen et al. 2006:255) "In a computer RPG, the role of the GM is taken on (with varying degrees of success) by software."
  7. (Tychsen et al. 2005:218) "CRPGs can be separated into ... those few who have incorporated a GM toolkit instead of a fully automated storytelling engine. ... In PnP RPGs and LARPs all lines of normal human communication are available: Speech, Emotion and Body Language (Figure 3). In CRPGs and MMOGs, they become narrowed down due to technical limitations, albeit with the added feature of Scripting as a means of communications. Additionally, contemporary game engines do not allow for on-the-fly updating of the game world and generation of new content in reaction to the actions of the player-controlled avatars (or characters in PnP RPG terminology)."

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