Bantuan:IPA untuk bahasa Inggeris

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Sebutan perkataan bahasa Inggeris disampaikan melalui kaedah Abjad Fonetik Antarabangsa (IPA). Untuk pendahuluan asas kepada IPA, sila lihat Bantuan:IPA/Pendahuluan. Khususnya, jadual di bawah menyenaraikan transkripsi yang berkaitan untuk pelbagai diafonem bahasa Inggeris dan untuk nada yang lebih rumit, lihat Bantuan:IPA untuk bunyi yang mungkin tidak timbul dalam bahasa Inggeris.

Nada[sunting | sunting sumber]

Konsonan
IPA Contoh
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j[2] yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[3]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[4]
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige[5]
Konsonan marginal
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
Vokal
IPA Vokal penuh ... diikuti oleh R[7][8]
ɑː palm, father, bra ɑr start, bard, barn, snarl, star (also /ɑːr./)
ɒ lot, pod, John[9] ɒr moral, forage
æ trap, pad, shall, ban [10] ær barrow, marry[11]
price, ride, file, fine, pie[12] aɪər Ireland, sapphire (/aɪr./)[8]
mouth, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[8]
ɛ dress, bed, fell, men[13] ɛr error, merry[13]
face, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər square, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[14][8]
ɪ kit, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
fleece, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər near, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)[15]
ɔː thought, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[16] ɔr north, born, war, Laura (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ choice, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[8]
goat, code, foal, bone, go[17] ɔər force, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[18]
ʊ foot, good, full, woman ʊr courier
goose, food, fool, soon, chew, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[19]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue, you[20] jʊər cure
ʌ strut, mud, dull, gun[21] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr nurse, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[22]
Vokal terturun
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər letter, perceive (also /ɚ/)[22]
ɨ roses, emission[23] (either ɪ or ə) ən button
ɵ omission[24] (either or ə) əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[25] (either ʊ or ə) əl bottle
i happy, serious[26] (either ɪ or i(ː)) ᵊ, ⁱ (vowel is frequently dropped: nasturtium)
 
Tekanan Pensukukataan
IPA Contoh IPA Contoh
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[27]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[28]
. hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/
Mikey /ˈmaɪki/, Myki /ˈmaɪ.kiː/[29]
ˌ

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Jika dua aksara ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨Opentail g.svg⟩ tidak sepadan dan jika yang pertama kelihatan seperti ⟨γ⟩, maka anda mempunyai isu dengan fon lalai anda. Sila lihat Isu penerapan.
  2. Nilai IPA huruf ⟨j⟩ adalah kaunter-intuitif banyak penutur bahasa Inggeris. Bagaimanapun, ia tidak berlaku dengan beberapa bunyi dalam perkataan bahasa Inggeris seperti hallelujah dan Jägermeister.
  3. Walaupun simbol IPA [r] mewakili suatu getaran, /r/ digunakan secara meluas berbanding /ɹ/ dalam transkripsi umum bahasa Inggeris.
  4. Fonem /hw/ tidak dibezakan daripada /w/ dalam banyak loghat dengan penggabungan "wine–whine", seperti RP dan kebanyakkan variasi GenAm. Untuk maklumat lanjut mengenai bunyi ini, sila lihat geseran labiovelar tanpa suara.
  5. A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  6. Dalam kebanyakkan loghat, /x/ digantikan oleh /k/ dalam kebanyakkan perkataan, termasuklah loch. Dalam ugh, ia sering digantikan dengan /ɡ/ (sebutan ejaan) dan dalam oleh Chanukah by /h/
  7. Dalam telor bukan rotik seperti RP, /r/ tidak dilafazkan melainkan ia diikuti dengan suatu vokal. Dalam sesetengah rencana Wikipedia, /ɪər/ dll. mungkin tidak dibezakan daripada /ɪr/ dll. Apabila mereka dibezakan, vokal panjang kadang kala ditranskripsikan /iːr/ dll. oleh analogi dengan vokal tidak diikuti oleh /r/. Ini hendaklah ditetapkan supaya sejajar dengan carta di sini.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Ambil perhatian bahawa ramai penutur membezakan triftong berekasuku dengan R dan realisasi dwisuku: hour /ˈaʊər/ daripada plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ daripada higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ daripada employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ daripada player /ˈpleɪ.ər/.
  9. /ɒ/ tidak dibezakan daripada /ɑː/ dalam loghat dengan penggabungan "father-brother" seperti GenAm.
  10. Dalam sesetengah kawasan (termasuklah California), biasanya [æŋ] disebut sebagai [eŋ] atau [eɪŋ], supaya "a" dalam "rang" adalah lebih dekat kepada "ai" dalam "rain" daripada "a" dalam "rag"
  11. Disebut sama seperti /ɛr/ di dalam telor dengan penggabungan "Mary–marry–merry".
  12. Kebanyakkan penutur, contohnya di sebahagian besar Kanada dan Amerika Syarikat mempunyai vokal yang berbeza dalam price dan ride. Secara umum, [aɪ] digunakan pada hujung perkataan dan sebelum bunyi disuarakan seperti di dalam ride, file, fine, pie, manakala [ʌɪ] digunakan sebelum bunyi tak bersuara, seperti dalam price dan write. Disebabkan /t/ dan /d/ sering digabungkan di tengah-tengah perkataan dalam dialek ini, terbitan perkataan ini, seperti rider dan writer, mungkin boleh dibezakan hanya dengan vokal mereka: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. Sungguhpun begitu, nilai /aɪ/ tidak diramalkan dalam beberapa perkataan seperti spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[perlu rujukan] kamus biasanya tidak mencatatkannya, jadi transkripsinya tidak diletakkan berasingan di sini.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ditranskripsikan sebagai /e/ oleh kebanyakkan kamus.[1]
  14. Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.[2]
  15. Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
  16. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  17. Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  18. /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  19. /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  20. In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  21. This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
  22. 22.0 22.1 In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  23. Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ɪ[3], and Merriam–Webster uses ⟨ə̇⟩.
  24. Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  25. Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ʊ[4].
  26. Pronounced [i(ː)] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to ⟨i⟩.
  27. It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  28. Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  29. Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).