Centrino

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Komponen platform Centrino. Dari kanan, ikut arah jam: penyesuai PRO/rangkaian wayarles Intel, pemproses mudah gerak Intel, chipset (southbridge dan northbridge) mudah gerak Intel.

Centrino adalah salah satu daripada strategi pemasaran dari Intel, di mana sesebuah komputer riba perlu menggunakan pemproses, chipset papan induk dan kad wayarles yang diiktiraf oleh Intel. Intel menyatakan bahawa sistem yang berteraskan Centrino mempunyai prestasi yang lebih baik, jangka hayat bateri yang lebih lama dan capaian rangkaian tanpa dawai yang lebih bagus.

Untuk medapatkan label Centrino, penjual komputer riba wajib menggunakan ketiga-tiga bahagian yang diiktiraf Intel. Komputer yang menggunakan cuma CPU dan chipset sahaja sebaliknya akan diberi label Intel Core 2.

Intel Centrino[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wireless LAN Chipset Centrino Processor Codename Release Date Manufacturing

Technology

Microarchitecture
Intel

Wireless

Products

800 Series Carmel Intel Pentium M Banias 2003 130 nm Intel P6
Dothan 2004 90 nm
900 Series Sonoma 2005
Napa Intel Core Duo/Solo Yonah 2006 65 nm
Intel Core 2 Duo/Solo Merom Intel Core
Santa Rosa Intel Core 2 Duo 2007
Penryn 2008 45 nm
4 Series Montevina
5 Series Calpella Intel Core i7/i7 Extreme Edition Clarksfield 2009 Intel Nehalem
Intel Core i3/i5/i7 Arrandale 2010 32 nm
6 Series Huron River Intel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme Edition Sandy Bridge 2011 Intel Sandy Bridge
7 Series Chief River Intel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme Edition Ivy Bridge 2012 22 nm
8 Series Shark Bay Intel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme Edition Haswell 2013 Intel Haswell
9 Series ? Broadwell 2014 14 nm


Pelaksanaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pelantar Carmel (2003)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada bulan Mac 2003, Intel telah memperkenalkan generasi pertama pelantar Centrino dengan nama kod Carmel.

Centrino Pelantar Carmel
Set cip siri Intel 855 (nama kod Odem atau Montara dengan Intel Extreme Graphics 2), DDR-266 atau DDR-333.
Pemproses Intel Pentium M (nama kod Banias atau kemudiannya Dothan) dengan 400 MT/s FSB, Soket 479.
Rangkaian Tanpa-Wayar Intel PRO/Wireless 2100B (nama kod Calexico) atau kemudiannya penyesuai Wi-Fi 2200BG mini-PCI (nama kod Calexico2).

Pada mulanya, pemerhati industri telah mengecam pelantar Carmel diatas kelembapan menyeragamkannya dengan IEEE 802.11g, kerana banyak pengeluar chip Wi-Fi bebas seperti Broadcom dan Atheros telah pun memulakan pengeluaran produk 802.11g. Intel membalas dengan mengatakan IEEE belum menyudahkan piawaian 802.11g semasa Carmel diperkenalkan, dan mereka cuma mahu melancarkan produk berdasarkan piawaian terakhir. Selepas piawaian 802.11g dimuktamadkan pada awal 2004, Intel telah melancarkan Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG untuk menggantikan 2100. Pada masa yang sama, mereka memperkenalkan Dothan Pentium M untuk menggantikan Banias Pentium M. Pada mulanya, Intel hanya melancarkan chipset 855GM, yang mana tidak menyokong grafik luaran. Kemudiannya, barulah Intel memperkenalkan chip 855GME dan 855PM, yang menyokong grafik luaran pada laptop Centrino.

Walaupun menerima kritikan, pelantar Carmel berjaya diterima dengan baik oleh OEM dan pengguna. Carmel boleh mencapai atau melebihi kemampuan pelantar Pentium 4-M yang lama, dan membenarkan operasi komputer riba sehingga 4 ke 5 jam menggunakan bateri 48 W-h. Carmel juga membolehkan pengeluar merekabentuk komputer riba yang lebih nipis dan ringan kerana komponennya tidak membebaskan banyak haba, dan oleh itu tidak memerlukan sistem penyejuk yang besar.

Pelantar Sonoma (2005)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Intel menggunakan Sonoma sebagai nama kod generasi kedua pelantar Centrino yang diperkenalkan pada Januari 2005.

Centrino Pelantar Sonoma
Set cip siri Intel Mobile 915 Express (nama kod Alviso dengan Intel GMA 900), DDR2-533.
Pemproses pemproses Intel Pentium M (nama kod Dothan) dengan 533 MT/s FSB, Soket 479.
Rangkaian Tanpa-Wayar Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG atau penyesuai Wi-Fi 2915ABG mini-PCI (kedua-duanya menggunakan nama kod Calexico2).

Set cip Mobile 915 Express, sebagaimana versi desktop, menyokong kebanyakan ciri baru seperti DDR2, PCI Express, Intel High Definition Audio, dan SATA. Malangnya, pengenalan kepada PCI Express dan Pemproses Pentium M yang lebih laju menyebabkan komputer riba yang dibina atas pelantar Sonoma mempunyai jangka hayat bateri yang lebih pendek daripada pelantar Carmel; komputer riba dalam pelantar Sonoma biasanya mencapai jangka hayat bateri antara 3.5 hingga 4.6 jam menggunakan bateri berkuasa 53 W-h.

Pelantar Napa (2006)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama kod Napa menandakan pelantar Centrino generasi ke-3, diperkenalkan pada Januari 2006 di Consumer Electronics Show musim sejuk. Pada mulanya pelantar ini hanya menyokong pemproses Intel Core Duo tetapi bermula 27 Julai 2006, ia turut menyokong pemproses yang terbaharu, Intel Core 2 Duo.

Centrino Pelantar Napa
Cip set Siri Intel Mobile 945 Express (nama kod Calistoga dengan Intel GMA 950), termasuk ICH7M southbridge.
Pemproses Pemproses - Socket M / Micro-FCBGA
  • Pemproses Intel Core Solo, Core Duo (nama kod Yonah), atau
  • Pemproses Intel Core 2 Duo (nama kod Merom) dengan 667 MT/s FSB untuk pelantar Napa terbaru, atau
  • Pemproses Intel Core 2 Solo (nama kod Merom) dengan 553 MT/s FSB untuk pelantar Napa terbaru (Sep 2007).
Rangkaian Tanpa-Wayar Penyesuai Wi-Fi Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG mini-PCIe (nama kod Golan).
  • Beberapa model baru (suku pertama 2007) untuk pelantar Napa mengandungi kad tanpa-wayar 4965AGN (a/b/g/draft-n) yang terbaru

Intel menggunakan penjenamaan Centrino Duo untuk komputer riba dengan pemproses dwi-teras ("Core Duo") dan ("Core 2 Duo") dan mengekalkan nama Centrino untuk komputer riba dengan pemproses teras tunggal ("Core Solo"). Sebahagian komputer riba Core Duo yang terdahulu masih menggunakan label Intel Centrino berbanding Centrino Duo seperti yang sepatutnya.

Santa Rosa platform (2007)[sunting | sunting sumber]

The codename Santa Rosa refers to the fourth-generation Centrino platform, which was released on Wednesday May 9, 2007.

Centrino Santa Rosa platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile 965 Express series chipset (codenamed Crestline): GM965 with Intel's GMA X3100 graphics technology or PM965 with discrete graphics, and ICH8M southbridge, 800 MT/s front side bus with Dynamic Front Side Bus Switching to save power during low utilization.
Mobile processor Processors - Socket P / Micro-FCPGA / Micro-FCBGA
Wireless network an Intel WiFi Link 4965AGN (a/b/g/draft-n) mini-PCIe Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Kedron).
  • Wireless-N technology boasts a 5X speed increase, along with a 2X greater coverage area, and supports 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz signal bands, with enough bandwidth for high definition audio and video streams.[3].

The Santa Rosa platform comes with dynamic acceleration technology, allowing single threaded applications to execute faster. When a single threaded application is running, the CPU can turn off one of its cores and overclock the active core. In this way the CPU maintains the same Thermal Profile as it would when both cores are active. Santa Rosa performs well as a mobile gaming platform due to its ability to switch between single threaded and multithreaded tasks. [4] Other power savings come from an Enhanced Sleep state where both the CPU cores and the chipset will power down.

The wireless chipset update was originally intended to include WWAN Internet access via HSDPA (3.5G), (codenamed Windigo) co-developed with Nokia.[5][6] After announcing a working partnership, both later retracted the deal citing the lack of a clear business case for the technology. Support for WiMAX (802.16) was originally scheduled for inclusion in Santa Rosa but appears to have been delayed until Montevina in 2008 [5].

It is branded as "Centrino Pro" when combined with the enhanced security technologies Intel introduced with vPro and "Centrino Duo" when they are not used. [7]

Montevina platform (2008)[sunting | sunting sumber]

The codename Montevina refers to the fifth-generation Centrino platform, now formally named Centrino 2 to avoid confusion with previous Centrino platforms. It was scheduled for release at Computex Taipei 2008, which took place on June 3–7, 2008,[8] but was delayed until July 15, due to problems with integrated graphics and wireless certification.[9]

Centrino Montevina platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile 4 Express series chipset (codenamed Cantiga; GL40, GS45, GM45, PM45) with Intel's GMA X4500 graphics technology and ICH9M southbridge, 1066 MT/s (667 MT/s for GL40) front side bus. The GM45/GS45 graphics core is clocked at 533MHz and 380MHz for GL40, which contains ten unified shaders, up from the eight provided by GMA X3100.
  • RAM support for DDR2-667, DDR2-800, DDR3-800, DDR3-1066 SO-DIMM. (GL40 does not support DDR3-1066)
  • NAND flash-memory caching branded as Intel Turbo Memory (codenamed Robson 2).
  • Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers 82567LM and 82567LF (codenamed Boazman).[10]
  • Main support for DisplayPort with an external connector attached to the motherboard along with full supplemental support of HDMI, DVI, and VGA standards.
Mobile processor Processors - Socket P / Micro-FCPGA / Micro-FCBGA
  • a second-generation Intel Core 2 Duo (codenamed Penryn) 45nm processor with 800-1066 MT/s FSB with clock speeds ranging from 2 GHz to 3.06 GHz, also featuring SSE4.1 support, which adds 47 new instructions to SSSE3. It was planned to consume no more than 29W, compared to Merom's and first-generation Penryn's 34W TDP. But after release only a few models (P series) have 25W TDP and the rest (T series) still have 35W TDP, besides the Q series (Quad core) TDP is 45W.
Wireless network Wireless Modules
  • Intel Ultimate N WiFi Link 5300 mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Shirley Peak 3x3) supporting up to 450Mbit/s, or
  • Intel WiFi Link 5100 mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Shirley Peak 1x2) supporting up to 300Mbit/s Rx / 150Mbit/s Tx, or
  • Intel WiMAX/WiFi Link 5350 mini-PCIe adapter (code-named Echo Peak-P) supporting both WiMAX and up to 450Mbit/s Wi-Fi, or
  • Intel WiMAX/WiFi Link 5150 mini-PCIe adapter (code-named Echo Peak-V) supporting both WiMAX and up to 300Mbit/s Rx / 150Mbit/s Tx Wi-Fi

It is branded as Centrino 2 vPro when combined with built-in security and manageability features technologies.

Calpella platform (2009)[sunting | sunting sumber]

The codename Calpella refers to the sixth-generation Centrino platform; it will be competing with the AMD Fusion platform. Though originally scheduled to premiere in Q3 2009 with the second iteration of Nehalem processors,[11] Intel has stated that due to pressure from computer manufacturers, they will delay the release of the platform until at least October 2009 (Q4 2009) to allowed OEM partners to clear excess inventory for existing chips. This is believed to be spurred by the lowered demand due to the current unfavorable economic conditions.[12]

Centrino Calpella platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile Express Series 5 chipset with Intel's graphics technology that will allow for optimized decoding/encoding and editing/playback of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video used in Blu-ray Discs and HD 1080p video, optimized for MPEG-2 (DVD) video playback and editing.
Mobile processor Processors - based on Intel Nehalem microarchitecture (codenamed Gilo)
Wireless network Wireless Modules
  • Advanced-N + WiMAX 6250, Ultimate-N 6300, Advanced-N 6200 or Wireless-N 1000.

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