Hindi-Urdu

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Hindi-Urdu
हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی Hindustānī
150px
asli ke India dan Pakistan. Juga pelbagai negara lain disebabkan imigrasi Asia Selatan
wilayah Asia Selatan
asli penutur Penutur asli: 240 juta (1991–1997)[1]
Bahasa kedua: 165 juta (1999)[2]
Jumlah: 490 juta (2006)[3]  (tiada tarikh)
keluarga bahasa
borang standard
dialek
Sistem penulisan Devanagari script,
Perso-Arabic script
status rasmi
Bahasa rasmi di Bendera India India (sebagai Hindi dan Urdu)
Flag of Pakistan (bordered).svg Pakistan (sebagai Urdu)
Dikawal oleh Central Hindi Directorate (Hindi, India),[4]
National Language Authority, (Urdu, Pakistan);
National Council for Promotion of Urdu language (Urdu, India)[5]
kod bahasa
ISO 639-1 hi,ur
ISO 639-2 hin,urd
ISO 639-3 Either:
hin — Hindi
urd — Urdu
Linguasphere 59-AAF-qa – -qf

Hindi-Urdu (हिंदी उर्दू, هندی اردو) merupakan bahasa Indo-Aryan dan lingua franca India Utara dan Pakistan.[6][7] Ia juga dikenali sebagai Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, Hindustānī, IPA: [ɦɪ̃n̪d̪ʊsˈt̪aːni], bermaksud: 'Hindustan'),[8] dan dahulunya, sebagai Hindavi atau Rekhta. Ia berasal terutamanya dari dialek Khariboli Delhi, barat Uttar Pradesh dan bahagian selatan Uttarakhand, dan mengandungi banyak kosa kata dari bahasa Arab, bahasa Parsi, Sanskrit dan bahasa Turkic.[9][10]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Standard Hindi: 180 juta India (1991). Urdu: 48 juta India (1997), 11 juta Pakistan (1993). Ethnologue 16.
  2. 120 juta Standard Hindi (1999), 45 juta Urdu (1999). Ethnologue 16.
  3. BBC: A Guide to Urdu
  4. The Central Hindi Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India. Source: Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction
  5. National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language
  6. Mohammad Tahsin Siddiqi (1994), Hindustani-English code-mixing in modern literary texts, University of Wisconsin, http://books.google.com/?id=vnrTAAAAMAAJ, "... Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India and Pakistan ..." 
  7. Lydia Mihelič Pulsipher, Alex Pulsipher, Holly M. Hapke (2005), World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, Macmillan, ISBN 0716719045, http://books.google.com/?id=WfNaSNNAppQC, "... By the time of British colonialism, Hindustani was the lingua franca of all of northern India and what is today Pakistan ..." 
  8. "About Hindi-Urdu". North Carolina State University. http://sasw.chass.ncsu.edu/fl/faculty/taj/hindi/abturdu.htm. Capaian 2009–08–09. 
  9. Michael Huxley (editor) (1935), The Geographical magazine, Volume 2, Geographical Press, http://books.google.com/?id=Z1xOAAAAIAAJ, "... For new terms it can draw at will upon the Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit dictionaries ..." 
  10. Britain), Royal Society of Arts (Great (1948), Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Volume 97, http://books.google.com/?id=fx_SAAAAMAAJ, "... it would be very unwise to restrict it to a vocabulary mainly dependent upon Sanskrit, or mainly dependent upon Persian. If a language is to be strong and virile it must draw on both sources, just as English has drawn on Latin and Teutonic sources ..." 

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