Luftwaffe

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari


Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe eagle

Helang Luftwaffe
Aktif 1935–1945
Negara Jerman Nazi
Jenis Tentera udara
Keanggotaan Pesawat udara 119,871[1] (jumlah pengeluaran); Anggota 3,400,000 (jumlah anggota yang siap sedia untuk 1939-45)[2]
Sebahagian daripada Wehrmacht
Perang/pertempuran Perang Saudara Sepanyol

Perang Dunia II

Komander
Komander
ternama
Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering
Tanda kebesaran
Helang Luftwaffe. Imej ini dilampirkan pada sebuah Luftflotte Chef einer Luftflotte Version 1.svg
Lambang Balkenkreuz ditampal pada sayap kapal terbang Regulation WW II Upperwing Balkenkreuz.png


Luftwaffe merupakan cabang pertempuran udara bagi Wehrmacht Jerman semasa Perang Dunia Kedua. Selepas era Perang Dunia Pertama pasukan udara tentera darat Empayar Jerman, Luftstreitkräfte, dan unit udara tentera laut Kaiserliche Marine telah dibubarkan menjelang bulan Mei 1920 di bawah syarat-syarat Persetiaan Versailles, Luftwaffe telah dibentuk semula pada 26 Februari 1935 dan berkembang menjadi salah sebuah tentera udara yang paling kuat, paling banyak pengalaman perang, dan paling maju doktrin di dunia ketika Perang Dunia Kedua meletus di Eropah pada September 1939. Selepas kekalahan Reich Ketiga, Luftwaffe telah dibubarkan pada tahun 1946.

Luftwaffe juga adalah istilah generik dalam bahasa Jerman di Eropah bagi sebarang perkhidmatan udara tentera, dan nama pasukan udara di negara lain biasanya diterjemah dalam bahasa Jerman sebagai "Luftwaffe" (contohnya. Tentera Udara Diraja British sering diterjemah sebagai "britische Luftwaffe"). Bagaimanapun, Luftstreitkräfte, atau "pasukan bersenjata udara", juga kadang kala digunakan sebagai terjemahan "tentera udara" bagi pasca pasukan udara Perang Dunia I, sebagaimana digunakan untuk perkataan awal nama rasmi Jerman bagi bekas Tentera Udara Jerman Timur, yang dibubarkan sehari sebelum penyatuan semula Jerman dicapai pada Oktober 1990. Disebabkan "Luft" bererti "udara" dan "Waffe" boleh diterjemahkan dalam bahasa Melayu samada "senjata" atau "pasukan", "Pasukan Udara" juga boleh dipertimbangkan sebagai terjemahan secara harafiah bagi Luftwaffe (contohnya. Pasukan Udara Armada).

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bekker, Cajus (1964), Angriffshohe 4000, Germany .
  • Bergström, Christer (2007), Barbarossa – The Air Battle: July–December 1941, London: Chervron/Ian Allan . ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
  • Bergstrom, Christer (2007), Stalingrad – The Air Battle: November 1942 – February 1943, London: Chervron/Ian Allan . ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4 .
  • Bergström, Christer (2007), Kursk – The Air Battle: July 1943, London: Chervron/Ian Allan . ISBN 978-1-903223-88-8.
  • Bergstrom, Christer; Pegg, Martin (2003), Jagdwaffe: The War in Russia: January–October 1942, London: Classic Colours . ISBN 1-903223-23-7.
  • Buckley, John (1999), Air Power in the Age of Total War, West Midlands: UCL Press . ISBN 1-85728-589-1
  • Bergstrom, Christer; Mikhailov, Andrey (2003), Black Cross/Red Star-Vol. 1, Operation Barbarossa 1941, London: Classic Colours . ISBN 978-0-935553-48-2 .
  • Bowmen, Martin; Boiten, Theo (2001), Battles with the Luftwaffe: The Air War Over Germany 1942–1945, London: Collins . ISBN 978-0-00-711363-7
  • Bungay, Stephen (2000), The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain, London: Aurum Press . ISBN 1-85410-721-6.
  • Caldwell, Donald; Muller, Richard (2007), The Luftwaffe over Germany: Defense of the Reich, London: Greenhill Books . ISBN 978-1-85367-712-0
  • Cooper, Mathew (1981), The German Air Force 1933–1945: An Anatomy of Failure, New York: Jane's Publishing Incorporated . ISBN 0-531-03733-9
  • Corum, J.F. (1999), "Staerken und Schwaechen der Luftwaffe", dalam Mueller, R. & Volkmann, H.E., Die Wehrmacht: Mythos und Realitaet, Muenchen: Oldenbourg Verlag 
  • Corum, James. 'The Luftwaffe's Army Support Doctrine, 1918–1941' in The Journal of Military History, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Jan., 1995), pp. 53–76
  • Corum, James. The Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military Reform. Modern War Studies. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. 1992. ISBN 0-7006-0541-X.
  • Corum, James. The Luftwaffe: Creating the Operational Air War, 1918–1940. Kansas University Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0-7006-0836-2
  • Crawford, Steve (2006), Eastern Front, Day by Day, London: Spellmount Publications . ISBN 1-86227-359-6.
  • Drabkin, Artem (2007), The Red Air Force at War :Barbarossa and the Retreat to Moscow: Recollections of Soviet Fighter Pilots on the Eastern Front, Pen & Sword Aviation Publications .ISBN 978-1-84415-563-7
  • Dressel&Griehl, Joachim and Manfred (1994), Bombers of the Luftwaffe, London: Arms and Armour:DAG Publications .ISBN 1-85409-140-9
  • Dye, Peter J. (Winter 2000), "Logistics in the Battle of Britain", Air Force Journal of Logistics  .
  • Faber, Harold (1979), Luftwaffe: An analysis by former Luftwaffe generals, London: Sidgwick & Jackson . ISBN 0-283-98516-X
  • Goss, Chriss (2005), Dornier 17: In Focus, Red Kite ISBN 0-9546201-4-3.
  • Goss, Chriss (2000), The Bombers'Battle: Personal Accounts of the Battle of Britain by Luftwaffe Bomber Crews July–October 1940, Crecy Publishing ISBN 978-0-947554-82-8
  • Hayward, Joel S. (2001), Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East 1942–1943, University Press of Kansas . ISBN 0-7006-1146-0
  • Hall, Steve; Quinlan, Lionel (2000), KG55, London: red Kite . ISBN 0-9538061-0-3.
  • Hess, William N. (1994), B-17 Flying Fortress: Combat and Development History, St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbook International . ISBN 0-87938-881-1
  • Holmes, Tony (2007), Spitfire vs Bf 109: Battle of Britain, St. Oxford, London: Osprey Publishing . ISBN 978-1-84603-190-8.
  • Homze, Edward (1976), Arming the Luftwaffe, Lincoln: University of Nebraska . ISBN 0-8032-0872-3
  • Hooton, E.R. Phoenix Triumphant: The Rise and Rise of the Luftwaffe. Brockhampton Press, London. 1994. ISBN 1-86019-964-X
  • Hooton, E.R. The Luftwaffe: A Study in Air Power, 1933–1945. Classic Publications, London. 2010. ISBN 978-1-906537-18-0
  • Hooton, E.R (2007), Luftwaffe at War; Gathering Storm 1933–39: Volume 1, London: Chervron/Ian Allan . ISBN 978-1-903223-71-0.
  • Hooton, E.R (2007), Luftwaffe at War; Blitzkrieg in the West: Volume 2, London: Chervron/Ian Allan . ISBN 978-1-85780-272-6.
  • Hooton, E.R (1997), Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe, Weidenfeld Military . ISBN 978-1-85409-343-1 .
  • Irving, D (1974), The rise and fall of the Luftwaffe;: The life of Field Marshal Erhard Milch, London: Little, Brown . ISBN 978-0-316-43238-2
  • Just, Gunther. J (1986), Stuka Pilot Hans Ulrich Rudel, Connecticut: Schiffer Military History . ISBN 0-88740-252-6 * Stalin's Missed Chance (study)- Mikhail Meltyukhov
  • Kaplan, Philip (2007), Fighter Aces of the Luftwaffe in World War 2, Pen & Sword Aviation . ISBN 1-84415-460-2 * Ketley, Barry, and Rolfe, Mark. Luftwaffe Fledglings 1935–1945: Luftwaffe Training Units and their Aircraft. Aldershot, GB: Hikoki Publications, 1996. ISBN 0-9519899-2-8.
  • Manrho, John; Putz, Ron (2004), Bodenplatte: The Luftwaffe's Last Hope–The Attack on Allied Airfields, New year's Day 1945, Hikoki Publications . ISBN 1-902109-40-6
  • Macksey, K (2006), The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Kesselring, London: GreenhillBooks . ISBN 978-1-85367-287-3
  • Nowarra, Heinz. J (1990), The Flying Pencil, Connecticut: Schiffer Military History . ISBN 0-88740-236-4
  • Neitzel, Söhnke (1995), Der Einsatz der Deutschen Luftwaffe über der Nordsee und dem Atlantik: 1939–45, Bonn: Bernard & Graefe .
  • Pegg, M (2007), Transporter Vol. 1: Luftwaffe Transport Units 1937–1943, London: Classic Publications .
  • Price, Alfred (2001), The Last Year of the Luftwaffe: May 1944 – May 1945, London: Greenhill .
  • Probert, H. A. The Rise and Fall of the German Air Force 1933-1945 (1987), analytic history by the British RAF
  • Ruffner, Kevin (1997), Luftwaffe Field Divisions, 1941–45, London: Osprey . ISBN 1-85532-100-9
  • Scutts, J. (1994), Mustang Aces of the Eighth Air Force, Oxford: Osprey Publishing . ISBN 1-85532-447-4
  • Scutts, J. (1994), Bf 109 Aces of North Africa and the Mediterranean, Oxford: Osprey Publishing . ISBN 1-85532-448-2.
  • Smith, Peter (1998), Luftwaffe at War: Defeat in the West 1943–1945(Luftwaffe at War, Vol. 6), London: Greenhill  ISBN 978-1-85367-318-4
  • Stenman, K. (2002), Luftwaffe Over Finland (Luftwaffe at War Series, Vol. 18), London: Greenhill Books . ISBN 978-1-85367-469-3
  • Smith, Peter (2001), Luftwaffe at War – The Sea Eagles: The Luftwaffe's Maritime Operations, London: Greenhill  ISBN 978-1-85367-442-6
  • Smith, Peter (1999), Luftwaffe at War: Stukas Over Steppe, Blitzkrieg in the East 1941–1944 (Luftwaffe at War Series, Vol. 9), London: Greenhill Books  ISBN 978-1-85367-355-9
  • Smith, R.J; Creek, E.J (2004), Kampfflieger: Bombers of the Luftwaffe: 1942–1943, London: Classic Publications . ISBN 978-1-903223-49-9
  • Mayer, SL; Taylor, AJP (1974), History of World War II, London: Octopus Books . ISBN 0-7064-0399-1 & ISBN 978-0-7064-0399-2
  • Tooze, Adam (2006), The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy, London: Allen Lane . ISBN 0-7139-9566-1
  • US Air Force, Air University Press (1987), US Strategic Bombing Survey, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press . Reprint of the Summary Reports (Europe and the Pacific) of the strategic bombing surveys conducted near the close of World War II.
  • Vasco, John (2005), Zerstorer: Luftwaffe Fighter Bombers and Destroyers 1939–1945: Volume 1, Classic Publications . ISBN 978-1-903223-57-4
  • van Creveld, M.; Cranby, S.; Brower, K. (1994), Airpower and Maneuver Warfare, Air University Press .
  • Weal, John (1997), Junkers Ju 87 Stukageschwader 1937–41, Oxford: Osprey . ISBN 1-85532-636-1
  • Weal, John (1998), Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Aces of the Russian Front, Oxford: Osprey . ISBN 1-85532-518-7.
  • Weal, John (1999), Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer Aces World War Two, Oxford: Osprey . ISBN 1-85532-753-8.
  • Weal, John (2003a), Bf109 Aces of the Russian Front, Oxford: Osprey . ISBN 1-84176-084-6
  • Weal, John (2003), Jagdgeschwader 27 'Afrika', Oxford: Osprey . ISBN 1-84176-538-4.
  • Weal, John A. (2003b), Junkers Ju 87 Stukageschwader of North Africa and the Mediterranean, Osprey Publishing . ISBN 1-84176-538-4
  • Weal, John (2006), Bf109 Defence of the Reich Aces, Oxford: Osprey . ISBN 1-84176-879-0
  • Williamson, Murray (1983), Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe 1933–1945, Maxwell AFB: Air University Press, ISBN 978-1-58566-010-0 
  • de Zeng IV, Henry L.; Stankey, Douglas G. (2007), Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe 1933–1945: A Reference Source: Volume 1, Midland Publishing .

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]