Senarai formula enakmen

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Formula enakmen, atau klausa enakmen, adalah satu kata-kata pendek (seperti tetapi bukan mukadimah) yang memperkenalkan peruntukan-peruntukan utama undang-undang yang dikuatkuasakan badan perundangan. Ia lazimnya mengistiharkan sumber di mana undang-undang itu mendapat kuasanya. Dalam negara lain formula enakmen tidak dianggap perlu dan diabaikan.

Formula enakmen paling mudah hanya menyatakan badan perundangan yang mana undang-undang terpakai, sebagai contoh di Malaysia semenjak tahun 1995 formula yang terpakai adalah "DIPERBUAT oleh Parlimen Malaysia seperti berikut:". Secara alternatifnya suatu formula enakmen boleh merujuk kepada komponen-komponen satu perundangan seperti formula enakmen yang terpakai di Malaysia sebelum tahun 1995:

MAKA INILAH DIPERBUAT UNDANG-UNDANG oleh Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong dengan nasihat dan persetujian Dewan Negara dan Dewan Rakyat yang bersidang dalam Parlimen, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:

Meskipun kebanyakan formlua enakmen menggariskan badan perundangan sebagai sumber kuasa undang-undang, sesetengahnya mengikut seperti yang dikonsepkan dalam kedaulatan rakyat, dan memetik 'rakyat'. Sebagai contoh di California, formula enakmen adalah "Rakyat Negeri California membuat seperti berikut:".

Badan perundangan nasional[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Kongres Nasional Argentina: "Senat dan Dewan Penolong Kanan Negara Argentina, dalam Kongres bersidang, mengistihar atau membuat sebagai undang-undang:" (Sepanyol: "El Senado y Cámara de Diputados de la Nación Argentina, reunidos en Congreso,... decretan o sancionan con fuerza de ley.")
  • Parlimen Australia: "Parlimen Australia membuat:" (Inggeris: "The Parliament of Australia enacts:")
    • Sebelum Oktober 1990: "INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG yang diperbuat oleh Ratu [Raja], dan Senat dan Dewan Perwakilan Komenwel Australia, seperti berikut:" (Inggeris: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen [King], and the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Australia, as follows:")
    • 1901–?: "INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG yang diperbuat oleh Ratu [Raja] yang Teramat Mulia, dan Senat dan Dewan Perwakilan Komenwel Australia, seperti berikut:" (Inggeris): "BE IT ENACTED by the King's [Queen's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Australia, as follows:")
  • Parlimen Belize: "INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG YANG DIPERBUAT, oleh dan dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Dewan Perwakilan dan Senat Belize dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:-"
  • Parlimen Bermuda: "Maka inilah undang-undang yang diperbuat oleh Ratu yang Teramat Mulia, oleh dan dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Senat dan Dewan Perwakilan Bermuda, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:"
  • Kongres Nasional Brazil: "PRESIDEN REPUBLIK: Saya menyatakan dengan ini bahawa Kongres Nasional telah mengistihar, dan saya menyetujui, undang-undang yang berikut:" (Portugis: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional decreta e eu sanciono a seguinte Lei:"). Apabila presiden mengveto satu rang undang-undang, dan veto itu telah digagalkan, formulanya adalah lain.
  • Parlimen Kanada: "Ratu Mulia, oleh dan dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Senat dan Dewan Perwakilan Kanada, membuat seperti berikut:" (Inggeris: "Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:") (Perancis): "Sa Majesté, sur l'avis et avec le consentement du Sénat et de la Chambre des communes du Canada, édicte:")
  • Parlimen Perancis: "Dewan Kebangsaan dan Senat telah memakai, Presiden Republik menguatkuasakan undang-undang berikut:" (Perancis: "L'Assemblée nationale et le Sénat ont adopté, Le Président de la République promulgue la loi dont la teneur suit:")
  • Bundestag Jerman:
    • Untuk Akta-akta yang tidak memerlukan persetujuan Bundesrat: "Bundestag telah memakai Akta berikut. Hak perlembagaan Bundesrat telah dipatuhi." (Jerman: "Der Bundestag hat folgendes Gesetz beschlossen. Die verfassungsmäßigen Rechte des Bundestages sind gewahrt").
    • Untuk Akta yang memerlukan persetujuan Bundesrat: "Bundestag telah, dengan persetujuan Bundesrat, memakai Akta berikut." ("Der Bundestag hat mit Zustimmung des Bundesrates folgendes Gesetz beschlossen").
  • Parlimen Grenada: "Inilah undang-undang yang diperbuat oleh Ratu yang Teramat Mulia, oleh dan dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Senat dan Dewan Perwakilan Grenada, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:—"
  • Parlimen India: "Inilah undang-undang Parlimen dalam [tahun-tahun semenjak 1950] Tahun Republik India seperti berikut" (Inggeris: "BE it enacted by Parliament in the [tahun-tahun semenjak 1950] Year of the Republic of India as follows:—")
Semenjak tahun 1937: "Inilah undang-undang yang diperbuat oleh Oireachtas seperti berikut:—" (Ireland: "Achtaitear ag an Oireachtas mar a leanas:—")
1922-1937: "Inilah undang-undang yang diperbuat oleh Oireachtas Saorstát Éireann as follows:—" (Ireland: "Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaorstáit Éireann mar leanas:—")
Semenjak tahun 1937: "Maka inilah undang-undang yang diperbuat oleh Oireachtas seperti berikut:—" (Ireland: "Achtuigheadh an tOireachtas ar an ábhar san mar leanas:—")
1922-1937: "Maka inilah undang-undang yand diperbuat oleh Oireachtas Saorstát Éireann as follows:—" (Ireland: Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaorstáit Éireann ar an ábhar san mar leanas:—")
  • Parlimen Jamaica: "INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG YANG DIPERBUAT oleh Ratu yang Teramat Mulia, oleh dan dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Senat dan Dewan Perwakilan Jamaica, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:-"
  • Parlimen Malaysia:
    • Sebelum tahun 1995:"MAKA INILAH DIPERBUAT UNDANG-UNDANG oleh Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Dewan Negara dan Dewan Rakyat yang bersidang dalam Parlimen, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:–"
    • Semenjak tahun 1995: "DIPERBUAT oleh Parlimen Malaysia seperti berikut:-"
  • Parlimen Malta: "INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG yang diperbuat oleh Presiden, oleh dan dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Dewan Perwakilan dalam Parlimen ini bersidang, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:"
  • Estates-General of the Netherlands: "Kami Beatrix [iaitu nama kedaulatan], dengan Keredhaan Tuhan, Ratu [Raja] Belanda, Puteri [Putera] Orange-Nassau, dll., dll., dll. Selamat sejahtera kepada semua yang melihat atau mendengar Persembahan ini! Biarlah diketahui:" (di sini letaknya tujuan undang-undang), maka "Dengan demikiannya Kami, setelah mendengar Majlis Negara, dan dengan nasihat Jeneral Negara, telah menyetujui dan memahami semasa Kami menyetujui dan memahami seperti berikut:" (Belanda: "Wij Beatrix [iaitu nama kedaulatan], bij de gratie Gods, Koningin [Koning] der Nederlanden, Prinses [Prins] van Oranje-Nassau, enz. enz. enz. Allen, die deze zullen zien of horen lezen, saluut! doen te weten:...Zo is het, dat Wij, de Raad van State gehoord, en met gemeen overleg der Staten-Generaal, hebben goedgevonden en verstaan, gelijk Wij goedvinden en verstaan bij deze:")[2]
  • Parlimen New Zealand: "Parlimen New Zealand membuat seperti berikut:-" (Inggeris: "The Parliament of New Zealand enacts as follows:-")
    • 1986-1999: "MAKA INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG yang diperbuat oleh Parlimen New Zealand seperti berikut:-" (Inggeris: "BE IT ENACTED by the Parliament of New Zealand as follows:-")
    • Before 1986: "MAKA INILAH UNDANG-UNDANG yang diperbuat oleh Perhimpunan Am New Zealand dalam Parlimen ini bersidang, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:-" (Inggeris: "BE IT ENACTED by the General Assembly of New Zealand in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-")
  • Kongres Peru: "Kongres Republik telah memberi undang-undang berikut" (Sepanyol: "El Congreso de la Republica ha dado la Ley siguiente")
  • Parlimen Romania: "Parlimen Romania mengunapakai undang-undang berikut" (Romania: "Parlamentul României adoptă prezenta lege")
  • Parliament of Saint Kitts and Nevis: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the National Assembly of Saint Christopher and Nevis, and by the authority of the same as follows:-"
  • Parliament of Saint Lucia: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Assembly and the Senate of Saint Lucia, and by the authority of the same, as follows:"
  • Parliament of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
  • Parliament of South Africa: "BE IT ENACTED by the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—" (when preceded by a Preamble, "THEREFORE" is inserted as the formula's third word)
  • Cortes Generales of Spain:
    • For Constitutions: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all who should see and understand this act, know: That the Cortes Generales have approved and the people of Spain have ratified the following Constitution" (Spanish: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y el pueblo español ratificado la siguiente Constitución").
    • For Organic acts: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all who should see and understand this act, know: That the Cortes Generales have approved and I come from enacting the following Organic act" (Spanish: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y Yo vengo en sancionar la siguiente Ley Orgánica").
    • For standard acts: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all who should see and understand this act, know: That the Cortes Generales have approved and I come from enacting the following Act" (Spanish: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y Yo vengo en sancionar la siguiente Ley").
  • Constitution: "May there be virtue. Today is the [e.g. eleventh] day of the [e.g. ninth] month of the year of the [e.g. pig] under the lunar calendar, being [e.g. Friday], the [e.g. twenty fourth] day of [e.g. August] under the solar calendar, in the [e.g. 2550th] Year of the Buddhist Era.
"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Mahitalathibet Ramathibodi Chakkrinaruebodin Sayaminthrathirat Borommanatbophit [Name of the King in full title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that..............[e.g. the President of the National Legislative Assembly has made submission to the King that...]
"................................................................................................................................
".............[e.g. The President of the National Legislative Assembly], therefor, submitted the draft charter to His Majesty to affix the royal signature to henceforth promulgate it as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. Having throughly considered by the King, the expedience to grant the royal permission in accordance with the public opinion.
"Be it, therefor, commanded by the King the enactment of this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand replaces the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand which enacted on [e.g. 1 October B.E. 2549 (2006)] as of the date of its publication, henceforth onwards.
"May the Thai People unite in observing, protecting and upholding this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in order to maintain the democratic regime and the sovereignty of the Thai people, and bring about happiness, prosperity and dignity to His Majesty’s subjects throughout the Kingdom according to the will of His Majesty in every respect."
"Whereas it is expedient to have/amend/abrogate a/the law on............
"Be it, therefor, enacted by the King, by and with the advice and consent of the National Assembly, as follows:"
"Whereas it is expedient to have/amend/abrogate a/the law on............
"Be it, therefor, by the virtue of.........., enacted by the King the Royal Decree/Emergency Decree as follows:"
"Announced on the [e.g. 31st] Day of [e.g. January] BE [e.g. 2551] (... [e.g.] 2008), being the [e.g. 63rd] Year of the Present Reign."
  • Parliament of the United Kingdom
    • Standard: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
    • For money bills:"WE, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of the United Kingdom in Parliament assembled, towards raising the necessary supplies to defray Your Majesty's public expenses, and making an addition to the public revenue, have freely and voluntarily resolved to give and grant unto Your Majesty the several duties hereinafter mentioned; and do therefore most humbly beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
    • Under the Parliament Acts: "BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, in accordance with the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
  • Congress of the United States: "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,"

(Spanish: El Congreso de la República de Venezuela Decreta: la siguiente"

Perundangan yang tidak wujud lagi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Badan perundangan peringkat negeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Australia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kanada[sunting | sunting sumber]

China[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Legislative Council of Hong Kong
    • 1843-1887: "BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-"
    • 1888-1997: "BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-"
    • After 1997: "Enacted by the Legislative Council."

New Zealand[sunting | sunting sumber]

Majlis-majlis provinsi (abolished in 1876)[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Canterbury Provincial Council: "Be it enacted by the Superintendent of the Province of Canterbury, by and with the advice and consent of the Provincial Council thereof, as follows:—"

United Kingdom[sunting | sunting sumber]

Institusi-institusi devolusi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Northern Ireland Assembly: "BE IT ENACTED by being passed by the Northern Ireland Assembly and assented to by Her [His] Majesty as follows:"
  • Scottish Parliament: Acts of the Scottish Parliament do not begin with a conventional enacting formula. Instead they begin with a phrase that reads: "The Bill for this Act of the Scottish Parliament was passed by the Parliament on [Date] and received Royal Assent on [Date]"
  • National Assembly for Wales: "This Measure, passed by the National Assembly for Wales on [Date] and approved by Her Majesty in Council on [Date], enacts the following provisions:-" (Welsh: Mae'r Mesur hwn, a basiwyd gan Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru ar [ ] ac a gymeradwywyd gan Ei Mawrhydi yn ei Chyngor ar [ ], yn deddfu'r darpariaethau a ganlyn:-)
Badan perundangan yang tidak wujud lagi[sunting | sunting sumber]
  • Parliament of Northern Ireland (1921-1972): "BE it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, and the Senate and the House of Commons of Northern Ireland in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

Jajahan mahkota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Tynwald of the Isle of Man: "WE, your Majesty’s most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Council and Keys of the said Isle, do humbly beseech your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted, by the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Council and Keys in Tynwald assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows (that is to say):—"
  • States of Jersey: "THE STATES, subject to the sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Council, have adopted the following Law-" (French: "LES ETATS, moyennant la sanction de Sa Très Excellente Majesté en Conseil, ont adopté la Loi suivante -")
  • States of Guernsey: "THE STATES, in pursuance of their Resolution of DATE, have approved the following provisions which, subject to the Sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Council, shall have force of law in the Bailiwick of Guernsey.

Jajahan seberang laut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Amerika Syarikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perundangan wilayah Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ปวีณ ณ นคร. (2543). เทคนิคการร่างกฎหมาย. กรุงเทพฯ : สวัสดิการสำนักงาน ก.พ.