Wikipedia:FAQ/Kategorisasi

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Kategorisasi FAQ

Soalan lazim (FAQ) berkaitan ciri-ciri Kategori Wikipedia.

Laman ini dialamatkan khusus kepada mereka yang menyunting Wikipedia. Untuk makluman para pembaca, sila lihat Wikipedia:FAQ/Kategori.

Bagi garis panduan yang lebih terperinci tentang mencipta dan menguruskan kategori, sila lihat Bantuan:Kategori. Lebih maklumat teknikal boleh didapati di Wikipedia:Kategori.

Isi kandungan

Apakah Kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kategori membenarkan rencana-rencana diletakkan di dalam satu atau lebih kumpulan, dan membenarkan kumpulan-kumpulan ini dikategorikan lebih lagi. Apabila satu rencana ini kepunyaan sebuah kategori, ia akan mengandungi satu pautan khusus kepada satu laman yang memperihalkan kategori berkenaan.

Sama juga, apabila sebuah subkategori diletakkan dalam kategori induknya, laman subkategori itu akan mengandungi pautan khas kepada laman kategori induk.

Setiap laman kategori mengandungi pengenalan yang boleh disunting sama seperti sebuah rencana, dan sebuah senarai pautan kepada subkategori dan rencana yang dimiliki kategori tersebut yang dijana secara automatik.

Kategori-kategori tidak membentuk hierarki ataupun pepohon kategori ketat, oleh sebab setiap rencana boleh hadir dalam lebih daripada satu kategori induk. Ini membenarkan skema kategori berganda hadir serentak. Gelung dapat dibina dalan ruang kategori, akan tetapi ini tidak digalakkan.

Apakah tujuan kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat dua cara utama menggunakan kategori: senarai dan topik. Apabila memulakan kategori, memilih sama ada ia sebuah senarai ataupun topik awal-awal lagi akan mengelak kemungkinan perlunya melakukan pemindahan, membuat kategori semula, dan perbincangan. Halaman kategori boleh digunakan bagi memaklumkan orang lain sama ada ia sebuah senarai ataupun topik, dan memautkan sebuah senarai induk ataupun rencana induk. Lihat meta:Categorization requirements bagi tujuan asal ciri ini, dan Wikipedia:Kategori bagi penggunaan semasa dan garis panduan umpukan.

Apakah kategori-kategori yang sudah wujud?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cara terbaik untuk mengenal pasti apa yang sudah wujud ialah dengan melihat-lihat atau meninjau. Bermula sama ada di Wikipedia:Tinjau atau Kategori: Kategori asas, yang memaparkan kategori-kategori aras "teratas" yang seharusnya dikaitkan dengan semua kategori lain. Kategori:Kategori ialah kategori aras atas piawai yang disediakan perisian MediaWiki, akan tetapi kategori yatim (kategori tanpa kategori induk) boleh wujud dengan sendirinya. Peninjau Pepohon Kategori di Toolserver ialah sebuah pelayar kategori javascript, tetapi ia ditanda sebagai "tidak diperkenan" (deprecated). Cat Scan, juga di Toolserver, boleh digunakan untuk mencari subkategori. Wikipedia:Skema kategori menunjukkan seni reka yang mendahului ciri kategori. Beberapa kategori aras tinggi boleh diketemu di Wikipedia:Categorization#Projek semasa. Senarai kesemua kategori dapat diketemu di Khas:Kategori, tetapi ia tidak berguna sangat kerana beribu kategori tersenarai di laman itu.

Apakah cara lain bagi merayau rencana?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selain daripada pauatan biasa yang terdapat dalam rencana itu sendiri, setiap halaman memiliki pautan (lazimnya di tepi) yang dipanggil Pautan ke laman ini.

Apakah perbezaan antara senarai dan kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mengumpul rencana ke dalam satu kategori tidak sama dengan membuat senarai rencana. Bagi membuat senarai rencana, anda sunting senarai secara langsung; tetapi untuk meletakkan rencana ke dalam kategori, anda sunting setiap rencana dan sisipkan teg kategori dengan meletakkan [[Kategori:nama_kategori]] dalam teks.

Ini akan menambah rencana-rencana sebagai sebuah senarai pada laman kategori berkaitan secara automatik. Walaupun terdapat perbezaan tentang bagaimana laman-laman tersebut diselenggara, kadang kala lebih mudah jika difikirkan kategori itu sebagai sebuah senarai rencana.

Sementara sebuah rencana mungkin terkandung dalam senarai berganda, tujuan sebenar ialah agar tinjauan ke bawah yang bermula daripada kategori induk, misalnya Kategori:Gitar akan memaparkan rencana yang hanya berkaitan gitar dan tidak rencana berkaitan misalnya Matteo Carcassi. Lihat contoh John Lennon.

Terdapat sedikit hierarki alami dalam senarai. Satu contoh ialah seperti klasifikasi saintifik (Inggeris) buat organisma yang hanya akan meletakkan rencana dalam satu kategori sahaja. Sistem-sistem lain menggunakan penyenaraian, misalnya Wikipedia boleh diletakkan dalam Kategori:Wiki dan Kategori:Ensiklopedia. Kategori penyenaraian juga berkemungkinan besar menjadi subkategori sebuah kategori tajuk. Menyelenggara dan memantau kategori lazimnya memerlukan usaha yang lebih berbanding senarai. Sekiranya anda ada kategori yang memiliki kriteria kabur atau yang kerap menambah ataupun membuang ahlinya, mewujudkan senarai lebih bersesuaian bagi anda. Maklumat lanjut berkaitan tajuk ini dapat diketemu di templat-templat Wikipedia:Kategori, senarai dan navigasi.

Adakah rencana jenis "Senarai ... " masih diperlukan?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat banyak rencana Wikipedia yang digelar "Senarai ... ", misalnya "Senarai Sultan Selangor". Senarai masih berguna bagi menunjukkan rencana yang "hilang".

Lihat juga: Wikipedia:Templat khas.

Adakah tajuk dan hierarki kota info masih diperlukan?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Banyak rencana mengandungi "kotak info"—kotak tepi ataupun pengaki yang memautkan rencana dan senarai lain, yang kadang kala mengguna Templat. Beberapa templat ini disenaraikan di Wikipedia:Templat pandu arah. Sementara terdapat kotak info lewah, yang lain mengandungi rujukan saling yang tidak dapat dilakukan dengan kategori.

Lihat juga: Wikipedia:Templat kategori, senarai dan pandu arah, Wikipedia:Siri rencana, Wikipedia:Siri penjawat kini.

Bolehkah laman hadir dalam dua atau lebih kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ya, memang diramalkan kebanyakan laman akan dimuatkan ke dalam lebih daripada satu kategori. Sama juga, setiap kategori boleh dimuatkan dalam satu atau lebih kategori induk. Lihat juga: Wikipedia:Kategorisasi#Peraturan kategorisasi berganda.

Apakah resam penamaan bagi kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gunakan resam penamaan Wikipedia bagi tajuk-tajuk: tiada huruf besar atau singkatan yang lewah, misalnya gunakan [[Kategori:Contoh kategori]] dan tidak [[Kategori: Kategori Cth]].
Elakkan kekaburan.

Senarai[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sekiranya kategori memuatkan rencana, elakkan daripada mengguna Senarai dalam nama kategori.

Walau bagaimanapun, sekiranya kategori menghimpunkan senarai, penggunaan kata Senarai dalam nama kategori adalah tepat misalnya, Kategori:Senarai gunung.

Tajuk[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gunakan nama tajuk tanpa menunjukkan struktur, misalnya [[Kategori:Alat muzik]] dan bukan [[Kategori:Alat - Muzik - Kordofon - Lut]].

Menyunting rencana[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga:(Inggeris) meta:MediaWiki User's Guide: Using Categories.

Bagaimana menambah rencana kepada kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sunting rencana dan tambah [[Kategori:Nama kategori]] pada bahagian bawah rencana. Contoh:[[Kategori:Alat muzik]].

Bagaimana cara merujuk kepada kategori tanpa menambah halaman kepada kategori?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Untuk membuat pautan kepada laman kategori, letakkan tandah titik bertindih sebelum perkataan "kategori" dalam pautan tersebut, misalnya,
[[:Kategori:Makanan]], yang akan ditampilkan sebagai Kategori:Makanan.

Di mana harus diletakkan teg kategori dalam rencana?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teg-teg kategori perlu diletakkan pada bahagian bawah rencana, selepas lampiran, dan sebelum pautan antarra bahasa wiki (lihat Wikipedia:Garis panduan reka letak). Ini akan memastikan teks utama dan tidak teg esoterik kategori dipaparkan apabila pengguna baharu menekan "sunting". Ia juga memastikan yang teg-teg kategori terletak pada tempat tekal agar senang dijumpai apabila seorang penyunting mengemas kini kategorisasi sekumpulan rencana.

In what order should categories be listed within the article?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Both the alphabet and importance are used to order categories currently. Since some categories are obviously less relevant to the reader than others, categories should be ordered so that someone reading the article can use them to understand the subject, directing the reader to the categories that are most important to exploring the subject or understanding its context. Although this, like most ordering issues in Wikipedia, is a matter for judgment, it is generally clear that some categories – for example the birthplace or birth year of a person – are less important than others, such as their status as an Oscar or Nobel Prize winner. (See also Wikipedia:Categorization of people#Categorisation schemes.)

How do I sort the article differently on the category page?[sunting | sunting sumber]

This is needed especially for sorting people by surname, leaving out articles ("The" and "A") from the beginning of names, and other cases when preferred sorting key is not identical with article name; Such as grouping people with surnames starting with 'Mac' and 'Mc' together, or to force the most important articles or sub-categories to appear at the beginning of the list.

If most or all categories should be sorted in the same way, use a {{DEFAULTSORT}} tag, which looks like {{DEFAULTSORT:Smith, John}}. All categories will then sort under "Smith" unless the "pipe-trick" is used for them (see below).

For individual cases use the "pipe-trick": Expand the category notation to include the desired sorting key after a pipe sign (syntax is similar to Wikipedia:piped link, but the effect is different). For example, an article categorized by [[Category:Proper category|Sorting key]] would appear under S within the category.

See thorough manual at Wikipedia:Categorization#Sort order.

Which categories can be used for categorization of articles on people?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Articles about people should be categorized cautiously. Unlike the body of the article, the various category choices for people can focus on what, in most cases, are common and unrelated attributes such as place of birth and gender, instead of emphasising the reason for their inclusion.

See Wikipedia:Categorization of people for guidelines.

Somebody changed my categorization – what do I do?[sunting | sunting sumber]

All contributions to Wikipedia may be "edited mercilessly". If the change was not explained in the article history or talk page, try leaving a question on the relevant user's talk page.

What should I do if I see an article without any categories?[sunting | sunting sumber]

The easiest way to handle it is to add the {{Uncategorized}} template to the article, which will place a notice that the article needs categorizing, and automatically add it to the list at Category:Category needed. Or, try to categorize it yourself. One useful technique is to try following links in the article to other similar pages, and see how they are categorized, so you know what to copy.

Maintaining categories[sunting | sunting sumber]

I am interested in XYZ categories – where can I get involved?[sunting | sunting sumber]

See Wikipedia:WikiProject Categories/Current subprojects, Wikipedia:WikiProject and Portal talk:Contents.

I want to change the relationships of some categories – will anyone mind?[sunting | sunting sumber]

If you want to restructure some existing categories, it is best to discuss your plans with others working in the same areas, or at least to announce your intentions. This is to avoid the situation where someone is placing an article into multiple categories, someone else is populating a category with multiple articles and parent categories, while someone else is trying to restructure part of the category tree, and nobody ends up with what they want. A good place to start looking for an interested group of people is Category:WikiProjects.

What goes on a category page?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Category pages exist to be a convenient cross-reference to related articles and other categories. A category page should contain a brief description of the purpose of the category. A prominent link to the most important article in the category is usually a good idea, but please avoid copying large quantities of text or images from an article to a category page. If a category and a page have a one-to-one correspondence, then the template {{cat main}} or similar is often the best solution. Introductions should be short and only navigation templates that facilitate moving between categories or category pages can be included.

The {{cat main}} template[sunting | sunting sumber]

In many cases, a category has a "main article", which describes the subject of that category. The category and the article often have the same name. In such case, do this:

  • Add the "{{cat main}}" tag in the category.
  • Arrange for the article to appear at the top of the list of articles in the category, by putting a vertical bar and a space after the category name in the Category: tag (e.g. [[Category:''catname''| ]]).

For such a category/article pair, the guidelines for what other categories the "main article" should be in are still being worked out. Normally articles should not appear both in a category and a "parent" of that category; however an exception should be made for the "main article" of a category — the category system makes more sense if each main article appears in some or all of the categories that the equivalent category appears in. It is optimal for browsing, where the user need not keep bouncing back and forth between the categories of "main" pages and other pages.

If the subject has count, then make the category name plural and create a redirect of that same, plural name, redirecting back to the singular name. For instance City and Category:Cities. That is, create a page called "Cities" and add the line

#REDIRECT [[City]]

This helps to prevent confusion by blocking others from creating a competing page that overlaps in scope and you will be able to use the cat main template without specifying any additional parameters.

In theory, if a main article is categorized correctly in its corresponding category, the use of the cat main template is redundant.


How do I categorize categories which have a main article?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Take John Lennon and Category:John Lennon or The KLF and Category:The KLF. Should all category memberships which relate to Lennon or the KLF (but not to, for example, the state of the article) be added to Category:John Lennon/Category:The KLF and removed from the article? That would seem to follow from literal interpretation of the "no categorizing into a subcategory and category at once" rule, but it forces readers to click an extra time and hides relationships from them.

The article should be left in those categories it would belong to if it had no category of its own; see Wikipedia:Categorization and subcategories#Topic article rule as well as Wikipedia:Categorization#Some general guidelines.

Do categories need parents?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Yes. If you are creating a new category, look for a suitable "parent" category (or several) to assign it to. A good place to look is in articles on related subjects.

If you do not have a parent category, then your category cannot be browsed to via other categories. Also, your category will show up on Special:Uncategorizedcategories.

Can categories be renamed, moved, or redirected?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jalan pintas:

Yes, "speedy renaming" can be done by listing the category at Wikipedia:Categories for discussion#Speedy renaming. See Wikipedia:Category deletion policy#Speedy renaming procedure.

"Normal" redirects in the form #REDIRECT [[Category:Better name]] are not currently recommended in category space. Instead, use the template {{Category redirect}}: a bot periodically recategorizes articles in the redirected category to the target category. Any editor can add a category redirect although, in general, established categories should not be unilaterally redirected but should be taken to Wikipedia:Categories for discussion to suggest redirecting as part of a rename / merger of the category.

It is currently impossible to "move" a category and keep its editing history, in contrast to renamed articles.

How do I delete a category?[sunting | sunting sumber]

If you feel a category falls within Wikipedia:Category deletion policy, bring it up on Wikipedia:Categories for discussion.

State of the Category feature[sunting | sunting sumber]

The category feature appeared in the MediaWiki software v1.3, which was implemented on Wikipedia in late May 2004.

Initially categories were displayed at the top right of articles, but they were soon moved to the bottom due to layout conflicts. (Not every skin has them at the bottom; eg Cologne Blue has them at top right.)

Known issues[sunting | sunting sumber]

Reported categorisation bugs can be seen at MediaZilla. See also: Wikipedia:Categorization#Known category-related bugs.

  • Category pages still show old sub-categories and articles after edits [1] [2].
Work-around: You need to make a dummy edit to the category page to fix this, e.g., add a space at the end of a line. Explain this in the edit summary (e.g. "Dummy edit to refresh"), and flag the edit as minor if you have a Wikipedia user account.
  • Categories can be sub-categories of themselves [3].
Work-around: Don't do it.
  • Categories cannot be redirected [4].
Work-around: Don't do it, place a link on the page instead if it already exists.
  • Layout issues:
    • Category and interwiki tags produce ugly whitespace [5]
    • Category pages show a pre-formatted box from spaces within category lines [6]
Work-around: Edit category pages so that there is only one category tag per line.

How do I report bugs?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bugs should be reported to the MediaZilla website. (See Wikipedia:Bug reports and feature requests for instructions.)

How do I request feature enhancements?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Enhancements can be requested at the MediaZilla website. (See also mw:MediaWiki roadmap.)

What is the state of categorization?[sunting | sunting sumber]

When trying to categorize an article, it may be difficult to tell into which categories it should be placed. Sometimes when trying to categorize by a field of interest, one intersects with someone else's efforts from another field.

Category policies are still being refined by experimentation, discussion, and polls. Categorizations and systems are likely to be discussed and improved upon for a very long time. To be part of the discussion see Wikipedia talk:Categorization.

Related topics[sunting | sunting sumber]

To allow related articles to be grouped together, and those groupings placed into a hierarchy. For example, both Gwalior and History of Gwalior could be in the Category : Gwalior.

There are some natural hierarchies of topics, e.g., placing Category:History of India under Category:Asia and Category:History.

Topic categories are unlikely to be subcategories of list categories.

Currently the software does not allow you to look at Category:People and retrieve a list of all articles in sub-categories.