Bantuan:IPA untuk bahasa Inggeris

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Sebutan perkataan bahasa Inggeris disampaikan melalui kaedah Abjad Fonetik Antarabangsa (IPA). Untuk pendahuluan asas kepada IPA, sila lihat Bantuan:IPA/Pendahuluan. Khususnya, jadual di bawah menyenaraikan transkripsi yang berkaitan untuk pelbagai diafonem bahasa Inggeris dan untuk nada yang lebih rumit, lihat Bantuan:IPA untuk bunyi yang mungkin tidak timbul dalam bahasa Inggeris.

Nada[sunting | sunting sumber]

Konsonan
IPA Contoh
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j[2] yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[3]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[4]
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige[5]
Konsonan marginal
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
Vokal
IPA Vokal penuh ... diikuti oleh R[7][8]
ɑː palm, father, bra ɑr start, bard, barn, snarl, star (also /ɑːr./)
ɒ lot, pod, John[9] ɒr moral, forage
æ trap, pad, shall, ban [10] ær barrow, marry[11]
price, ride, file, fine, pie[12] aɪər Ireland, sapphire (/aɪr./)[8]
mouth, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[8]
ɛ dress, bed, fell, men[13] ɛr error, merry[13]
face, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər square, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[14][8]
ɪ kit, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
fleece, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər near, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)[15]
ɔː thought, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[16] ɔr north, born, war, Laura (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ choice, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[8]
goat, code, foal, bone, go[17] ɔər force, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[18]
ʊ foot, good, full, woman ʊr courier
goose, food, fool, soon, chew, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[19]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue, you[20] jʊər cure
ʌ strut, mud, dull, gun[21] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr nurse, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[22]
Vokal terturun
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər letter, perceive (also /ɚ/)[22]
ɨ roses, emission[23] (either ɪ or ə) ən button
ɵ omission[24] (either or ə) əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[25] (either ʊ or ə) əl bottle
i happy, serious[26] (either ɪ or i(ː)) ᵊ, ⁱ (vowel is frequently dropped: nasturtium)
 
Tekanan Pensukukataan
IPA Contoh IPA Contoh
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[27]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[28]
. hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/
Mikey /ˈmaɪki/, Myki /ˈmaɪ.kiː/[29]
ˌ

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Jika dua aksara ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨Opentail g.svg⟩ tidak sepadan dan jika yang pertama kelihatan seperti ⟨γ⟩, maka anda mempunyai isu dengan fon lalai anda. Sila lihat Isu penerapan.
  2. ^ Nilai IPA huruf ⟨j⟩ adalah kaunter-intuitif banyak penutur bahasa Inggeris. Bagaimanapun, ia tidak berlaku dengan beberapa bunyi dalam perkataan bahasa Inggeris seperti hallelujah dan Jägermeister.
  3. ^ Walaupun simbol IPA [r] mewakili suatu getaran, /r/ digunakan secara meluas berbanding /ɹ/ dalam transkripsi umum bahasa Inggeris.
  4. ^ Fonem /hw/ tidak dibezakan daripada /w/ dalam banyak loghat dengan penggabungan "wine–whine", seperti RP dan kebanyakkan variasi GenAm. Untuk maklumat lanjut mengenai bunyi ini, sila lihat geseran labiovelar tanpa suara.
  5. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  6. ^ Dalam kebanyakkan loghat, /x/ digantikan oleh /k/ dalam kebanyakkan perkataan, termasuklah loch. Dalam ugh, ia sering digantikan dengan /ɡ/ (sebutan ejaan) dan dalam oleh Chanukah by /h/
  7. ^ Dalam telor bukan rotik seperti RP, /r/ tidak dilafazkan melainkan ia diikuti dengan suatu vokal. Dalam sesetengah rencana Wikipedia, /ɪər/ dll. mungkin tidak dibezakan daripada /ɪr/ dll. Apabila mereka dibezakan, vokal panjang kadang kala ditranskripsikan /iːr/ dll. oleh analogi dengan vokal tidak diikuti oleh /r/. Ini hendaklah ditetapkan supaya sejajar dengan carta di sini.
  8. ^ a b c d e Ambil perhatian bahawa ramai penutur membezakan triftong berekasuku dengan R dan realisasi dwisuku: hour /ˈaʊər/ daripada plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ daripada higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ daripada employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ daripada player /ˈpleɪ.ər/.
  9. ^ /ɒ/ tidak dibezakan daripada /ɑː/ dalam loghat dengan penggabungan "father-brother" seperti GenAm.
  10. ^ Dalam sesetengah kawasan (termasuklah California), biasanya [æŋ] disebut sebagai [eŋ] atau [eɪŋ], supaya "a" dalam "rang" adalah lebih dekat kepada "ai" dalam "rain" daripada "a" dalam "rag"
  11. ^ Disebut sama seperti /ɛr/ di dalam telor dengan penggabungan "Mary–marry–merry".
  12. ^ Kebanyakkan penutur, contohnya di sebahagian besar Kanada dan Amerika Syarikat mempunyai vokal yang berbeza dalam price dan ride. Secara umum, [aɪ] digunakan pada hujung perkataan dan sebelum bunyi disuarakan seperti di dalam ride, file, fine, pie, manakala [ʌɪ] digunakan sebelum bunyi tak bersuara, seperti dalam price dan write. Disebabkan /t/ dan /d/ sering digabungkan di tengah-tengah perkataan dalam dialek ini, terbitan perkataan ini, seperti rider dan writer, mungkin boleh dibezakan hanya dengan vokal mereka: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. Sungguhpun begitu, nilai /aɪ/ tidak diramalkan dalam beberapa perkataan seperti spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[perlu rujukan] kamus biasanya tidak mencatatkannya, jadi transkripsinya tidak diletakkan berasingan di sini.
  13. ^ a b Ditranskripsikan sebagai /e/ oleh kebanyakkan kamus.[1]
  14. ^ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.[2]
  15. ^ Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
  16. ^ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  17. ^ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  18. ^ /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  19. ^ /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  20. ^ In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  21. ^ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
  22. ^ a b In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  23. ^ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ɪ[3], and Merriam–Webster uses ⟨ə̇⟩.
  24. ^ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  25. ^ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ʊ[4].
  26. ^ Pronounced [i(ː)] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to ⟨i⟩.
  27. ^ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  28. ^ Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  29. ^ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).