Covenanter atau Penyetia Perjanjian merupakan gerakan Presbyterian Scotland yang memainkan bahagian penting dalam sejarah Scotland, dan tidak begitu penting dalam sejarah England dan Ireland, ketika abad ke-17. Mazhab Presbyterian menyusur galur sejarahnya kepada Covenanter dan kerap menggabungkan nama ini menyambung idea dan tradisi di Scotland dan antarabangsa.
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Agama di United Kingdom
- Scotland dalam Peperangan Tiga Kerajaan
- Ladang Ulster
- Samuel Rutherford
- Archibald Johnston
- Alexander Henderson (ahli teologi)
- James Sharp (uskup)
- The Killing Time
- David Hackston
- Richard Cameron (Covenanter)
- Donald Cargill
- Alexander Peden
- James Renwick (Covenanter)
- Senarai mazhab Presbyterian dan Reformasi
- Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Furgol 1983, halaman 20
In the summer of 1643, the Scottish parliament and General Assembly of the Church entered into negotiations for an alliance with the English Parliament. Historians have concentrated on the clauses of the Solemn League and Covenant, the treaty which resulted from those deliberations.
- Currie 2009, halaman 17–19
"Following the outbreak of the Civil War in England, in 1642, a committee of noblemen and clergy from both Scotland and England composed a document entitled the 'Solemn League and Covenant'. It was signed between September and October, in both countries, and later in the same year, in Ireland. This committed the Scots to supply an army to aid the Parliamentarian Par against the Royalists in the Civil War. As in the National Covenant, the signatories pledged to 'amend our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real Reformation'. As with the National Covenant they entered into a mutual contract with God where the signatory promised to reform his or her person, in this case, not only for the upholding of 'the Religion', but that 'the Lord may tu away his wrath, and heavy indignation'. (All quotations are from 'The Solemn League and Covenant', reprinted in SB, ILL, pp.122-5). The success of the Scottish National Covenant was thought by many sectarians and clergy alike to have been the direct result of the process of mutual bonding between the nation and God. Thus, at a time of rising religious schism, a threatened invasion of Irish Catholics and Royalist-Parliamentarian hostilities, the English Parliamentarians bound themselves to the same course that had appeared to guarantee the Scots 'virtually unmitigated success' (Edward J. Cowan, 'The Making of the National Covenant', in John Morrell, ed. (1988), p.75).
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Buckroyd, J. Church and State in Scotland, 1660-1681. 1980
- Cowan, E. J. The Solemn League and Covenant, in Scotland and England, 1286-1815, ed. R. A. Mason, 1987.
- Cowan, I. B. The Covenanters: a Revision Article'' in The Scottish Historical Review, vol. 28, pp43–54, 1949.
- Cowan, I. B. The Scottish Covenanters, 1660-1688, 1976
- Currie, Janette (2009). History, hagiography, and fakestory: representations of the Scottish Covenanters in non-fictional and fictional texts from 1638 to 1835 (Tesis). University of Stirling.
- Donaldson, G. Scotland from James V to James VII, 1965
- Fissel, M. C. The Bishops' Wars. Charles I's Campaigns against Scotland, 1638-1640, 1994
- Furgol, E. M. (1983). The religious aspects of the Scottish Covenanting armies, 1639-51 (Tesis). University of Oxford.
- Hewison, J. K. The Covenanters, 2 vols. 1913.
- Kiernan, V. G. A Banner with a Strange Device: the Later Covenanters, in History from Below, ed. K. Frantz, 1988.
- Love, Dane. Scottish Kirkyards, 1989 (Robert Hale Publishers, London).
- Mathieson, W. L. Politics and Religion: a Study in Scottish History from the Reformation to the Revolution, 2 vols, 1902.
- Paterson, R C. A Land Afflicted, Scotland And The Covenanter Wars, 1638-1690, 1998
- Purves, Jock. Fair Sunshine. 1968
- Purves, Jock. Sweet Believing. Stirling, 1954
- Scott, Sir Walter. The Tale Of Old Mortality, 1816.
- Stevenson, D. The Scottish Revolution, 1637–1644, 1973.
- Terry, C. S. The Pentland Rising and Rullion Green, 1905.
- Wodrow, R. The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution, reissued as 4 vols., 1828–1830
Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Who were the Covenanters? Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association
- The Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America
- The Reformed Presbyterian Church (Covenanted)
- Edinburgh's History: The Covenanters
- The Reformed Presbytery in North America
- British Civil Wars: The Scottish National Covenant
- British Civil Wars: The Covenanters
- The History of Protestantism - Volume Third - Book Twenty-fourth - Protestantism In Scotland
- The Covenants And The Covenanters, 1895, from Project Gutenberg
- A Photographic Index of The Covenanters
- The signing of the national covenant-1638/
- The Covenanters. A Poetic Sketch by Letitia Elizabeth Landon in the Literary gazette, 1823.
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