Sejarah purba

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Sejarah purba/kuno ialah himpunan peristiwa-peristiwa masa lampau[1] bermula daripada permulaan penulisan sejarah manusia hingga permulaan Zaman Pertengahan atau Zaman Pascaklasik. Sejarah tertulis meliputi tempoh sekitar 5,000 tahun, bermula dengan aksara pepaku Sumeria, tatacara penulisan tertua yang ditemukan pada kurun waktu Protomelek-Aksara sekitar abad ke-30 SM.[2]

Istilah "Zaman Klasik" pula sering kali digunakan sebagai sebutan bagi tempoh dalam sejarah Dunia Lama bermula dari permulaan catatan sejarah Yunani pada 776 SM (Olimpiade Pertama), kira-kira sama waktu dengan penubuhan Rom pada 753 SM, iaitu permulaan sejarah Rom Purba, dan permulaan Zaman Arkaik dalam sejarah Yunani Purba. Meskipun sempadan akhir tempoh sejarah purba masih diperdebatkan, sebahagian pakar budaya Barat menetapkan waktu kejatuhan Empayar Rom Barat pada 476 M (paling banyak digunakan),[3][4] penutupan Akademi Plato pada 529 M,[5] kemangkatan raja Justinian I pada 565 M,[6] dan kedatangan Islam[7] atau kebangkitan Charlemagne[8] sebagai penghujung sejarah kuno dan Eropah Klasik.

Di India, sejarah kuno meliputi permulaan zaman Kerajaan-Kerajaan Pertengahan,[9][10][11] sedangkan zaman purba Cina pula meliputi zaman hingga zaman Dinasti Qin.[12][13]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ WordNet Search - 3.0, "History" Diarkibkan 2005-09-17 di Wayback Machine
  2. ^ lihat Zaman Jemdet Nasr, Loh Kisy; lihat pula The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, hal. 381-383
  3. ^ Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Halaman 1519
  4. ^ United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. Halaman 43.
  5. ^ Hadas, Moses (1950). A History of Greek Literature. Columbia University Press. m/s. 273. ISBN 0-231-01767-7.
  6. ^ Robinson, C. A. (1951). Ancient history from prehistoric times to the death of Justinian. New York: Macmillan.
  7. ^ Breasted, J. H. (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man. Boston: Ginn and Company.
  8. ^ Myers, P. V. N. (1916). Ancient History. New York [etc.]: Ginn and company.
  9. ^ Elphinstone, M. (1889). The History of India. London: Murray.
  10. ^ Smith, V.A. (1904). The Early History of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest, including the Invasion of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  11. ^ Hoernle, A. F. R., & Stark, H.A. (1906). A History of India. Cuttack: Orissa mission Press.
  12. ^ Foster, S. (2007). Adventure Guide. China. Hunter travel guides. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. p. 6-7 (cf., "Qin is perceived as 'China's first dynasty' and [... developed] writing.)
  13. ^ Gernet, J. (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.