Zenobia

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Pergi ke navigasi Pergi ke carian
Zenobia
Btzby2.png
Augusta
Zenobia obversee.png
Zenobia sebagai maharani pada bahagian depan antoninianus (272M)
Maharani
Tempoh272M
Didahului olehGelaran dicipta
Diikuti olehTiada
Permaisuri bonda Tadmur
Tempoh267–272
Didahului olehGelaran dicipta
Diikuti olehTiada
Permaisuri Tadmur
Tempoh260–267
Didahului olehGelaran dicipta
Diikuti olehTiada
KeputeraanSeptimia Btzby (Bat-Zabbai)
s. 240
Tadmur, Syria
KemangkatanSelepas 274
PasanganOdaenathus
Anakanda
Nama penuh
Septimia Zenobia (Bat-Zabbai)
Nama diraja
Septimia Zenobia Augusta
KerabatKerabat Odaenathus

Septimia Zenobia (dialek Tadmur: Dari kanan ke kiri, huruf BETH, TAW, ZAYIN, BETH, YODH : 𐡡𐡶𐡦𐡡𐡩 (Btzby), disebut Bat-Zabbai; s. 240 – c. 274 Masihi) merupakan ratu abad ketiga Empayar Tadmur di Syria. Banyak legenda menyelubungi keturunannya; baginda barangkali bukan orang kebanyakan baginda mengahwini pemerintah kota tersebut, Odaenathus. Suaminya menjadi raja pada tahun 260, mengangkat Tadmur menjadi kuasa tertinggi di Timur Dekat dengan menewaskan kerabat Sasan dan menstabilkan Timur Rom. Selepas pembunuhan Odaenathus, Zenobia menjadi pemangku raja paduka puteranya Vaballathus dan memegang kuasa de facto sepanjang pemerintahan paduka puteranya.

Pada tahun 270, Zenobia melancarkan serangan yang membawa kebanyakan Timur Rom di bawah kuasanya dan memuncak dengan penggabungan paksa Mesir. Menjelang pertengahan 271 negeri baginda menjangkau dari Ancyra, pusat Anatolia, hingga Mesir selatan, walaupun baginda kekal mengetepikan ke Rom pada nama sahaja. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam reaksi kepada kempen maharaja Rom Aurelian pada tahun 272, Zenobia mengisytiharkan paduka puteranya maharaja dan memegang gelaran maharani (mengisytiharkan pemisahan Tadmur dari Rom). Orang Rom menang selepas perlawanan sengit; ratu dikepung di ibu kotanya dan ditangkap oleh Aurelian, yang membuang negeri baginda ke Rom di mana baginda meluangkan saki-baki hidupnya.

Zenobia merupakan raja yang beradab dan menggalakkan persekitaran intelektual di istana baginda, yang dibuka kepada cendekiawan dan ahli falsafah. Baginda bertoleransi terhadap rakyatnya dan melindungi minoriti agama. Ratu tersebut mengekalkan pentadbiran stabil yang memerintah empayar pelbagai etnik dan budaya. Zenobia mangkat selepas tahun 274, dan banyak kisah telah dirakan tentang nasibnya. Kebangkitan dan kejatuhannya telah memberi inspirasi kepada sejarawan, pelukis, dan penulis novel, dan baginda ialah simbol patriotik di Syria.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Petikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abu-Manneh, Butrus (1992). "The Establishment and dismantling of the province of Syria, 1865–1888". Dalam Spagnolo, John P. (penyunting). Problems of the modern Middle East in historical perspective: essays in honour of Albert Hourani. Ithaca Press (for the Middle East Centre, St. Antony's College Oxford). ISBN 978-0-86372-164-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Aliksān, Jān (1989). التشخيص والمنصة: دراسات في المسرح العربي المعاصر [Platform Diagnosis: Studies in Contemporary Arab Theater] (dalam bahasa Arab). اتحاد الكتاب العرب (Arab Writers Union). OCLC 4771160319.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-5534-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Andrade, Nathanael J. (2013). Syrian Identity in the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01205-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Andrade, Nathanael J. (2018). Zenobia: Shooting Star of Palmyra. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-190-63881-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bagnall, Roger S. (2004). Egypt from Alexander to the Early Christians: An Archaeological and Historical Guide. Getty Publications. ISBN 978-0-89236-796-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ball, Warwick (2002). Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-82387-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ball, Warwick (2016). Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire (ed. 2). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-29635-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Banchich, Thomas; Lane, Eugene (2009). The History of Zonaras: From Alexander Severus to the Death of Theodosius the Great. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-42473-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bennett, Chris (2003). "Drusilla Regina". The Classical Quarterly. (New Series). Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association. 53 (1). ISSN 0009-8388.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bland, Roger (2011). "The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria". The Numismatic Chronicle. The Royal Numismatic Society. 171. ISSN 2054-9202.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Booth, Marilyn (2011). "Constructions of Syrian identity in the Women's press in Egypt". Dalam Beshara, Adel (penyunting). The Origins of Syrian Nationhood: Histories, Pioneers and Identity. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-61504-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bowersock, Glen Warren (1984). "The Miracle of Memnon". Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists. The American Society of Papyrologists. 21. ISSN 0003-1186.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Brauer, George C. (1975). The Age of the Soldier Emperors: Imperial Rome, A.D. 244–284. Noyes Press. ISBN 978-0-8155-5036-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bray, John Jefferson (1997). Gallienus: A Study in Reformist and Sexual Politics. Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-337-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bryce, Trevor (2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-100292-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bryce, Trevor; Birkett-Rees, Jessie (2016). Atlas of the Ancient Near East: From Prehistoric Times to the Roman Imperial Period. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-56210-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Burstein, Stanley Mayer (2007) [2004]. The Reign of Cleopatra. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3871-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Butcher, Kevin (2003). Roman Syria and the Near East. Getty Publications. ISBN 978-0-89236-715-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Choueiri, Youssef (2013) [1989]. Modern Arab Historiography: Historical Discourse and the Nation-State (ed. revised). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-86862-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Cornelison, Sally J. (2002). "A French King and a Magic Ring: The Girolami and a Relic of St. Zenobius in Renaissance Florence" (PDF). Renaissance Quarterly. University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America. 55 (2): 434–469. doi:10.2307/1262315. hdl:1808/16965. ISSN 0034-4338. JSTOR 1262315.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Culkin, Kate (2010). Harriet Hosmer: A Cultural Biography. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-839-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Cussini, Eleonora (2005). "Beyond the spindle: Investigating the role of Palmyrene women". Dalam Cussini, Eleonora (penyunting). A Journey to Palmyra: Collected Essays to Remember Delbert R. Hillers. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12418-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Cussini, Eleonora (2012). "What Women Say and Do (in Aramaic Documents)". Dalam Lanfranchi, Giovanni B.; Morandi Bonacossi, Daniele; Pappi, Cinzia; Ponchia, Simonetta (penyunting). Leggo! Studies Presented to Frederick Mario Fales on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Leipziger Altorientalistische Studien. 2. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06659-4. ISSN 2193-4436.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Dear, Nick (2014). Nick Dear Plays 1: Art of Success; In the Ruins; Zenobia; Turn of the Screw. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-31843-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Dignas, Beate; Winter, Engelbert (2007). Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84925-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Dodgeon, Michael H; Lieu, Samuel N. C (2002). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226–363: A Documentary History. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-96113-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Downey, Glanville (2015) [1961]. History of Antioch. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-7773-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Drinkwater, John (2005). "Maximinus to Diocletian and the 'crisis'". Dalam Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (penyunting). The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-30199-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Dumitru, Adrian (2016). "Kleopatra Selene: A Look at the Moon and Her Bright Side". Dalam Coşkun, Altay; McAuley, Alex (penyunting). Seleukid Royal Women: Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Historia – Einzelschriften. 240. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-11295-6. ISSN 0071-7665.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Duruy, Victor (1883) [1855]. "II". History of Rome and of the Roman people, from its origin to the Invasion of the Barbarians. VII. Diterjemahkan oleh C.F. Jewett Publishing Company. Jewett. OL 24136924M.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Edwell, Peter (2007). Between Rome and Persia: The Middle Euphrates, Mesopotamia and Palmyra Under Roman Control. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-09573-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Franklin, Margaret Ann (2006). Boccaccio's Heroines: Power and Virtue in Renaissance Society. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-5364-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Fraser, Antonia (2011) [1988]. Warrior Queens: Boadicea's Chariot. Hachette UK. ISBN 978-1-78022-070-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Gallo, Denise (2012). Gioachino Rossini: A Research and Information Guide. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-84701-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Godman, Peter (1985) [1983]. "Chaucer and Boccaccio's Latin Works". Dalam Boitani, Piero (penyunting). Chaucer and the Italian Trecento. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31350-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). The Fall Of The West: The Death Of The Roman Superpower. Hachette UK. ISBN 978-0-297-85760-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Graetz, Heinrich (2009) [1893]. Lowy, Bella (penyunting). History of the Jews: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E. ). II. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60520-942-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hansell, Sven Hostrup (1968). Works for solo voice of Johann Adolph Hasse, 1699–1783. Detroit studies in music bibliography. 12. Information Coordinators. OCLC 245456.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hartmann, Udo (2001). Das palmyrenische Teilreich (dalam bahasa Jerman). Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-07800-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Iggers, Georg G; Wang, Q. Edward; Mukherjee, Supriya (2013). A Global History of Modern Historiography. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-89501-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Kelly, Sarah E. (2004). "Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra". Dalam Pearson, Gail A. (penyunting). Notable Acquisitions at the Art Institute of Chicago. 2. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-86559-209-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Kulikowski, Michael (2016). Imperial Triumph: The Roman World from Hadrian to Constantine. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-84765-437-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Lieu, Samuel N. C (1998). Emmel, Stephen; Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim (penyunting). Manichaeism in Central Asia and China. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies. 45. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10405-1. ISSN 0929-2470.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Macquarrie, John (2003). Stubborn Theological Questions. Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. ISBN 978-0-334-02907-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Macurdy, Grace Harriet (1937). Vassal-Queens and Some Contemporary Women in the Roman Empire. The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Archaeology. 22. The Johns Hopkins Press. OCLC 477797611.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Macy, Laura Williams (2008). The Grove Book of Opera Singers. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533765-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Magnani, Stefano; Mior, Paola (2017). "Palmyrene Elites. Aspects of Self-Representation and Integration in Hadrian's Age". Dalam Varga, Rada; Rusu-Bolinde, Viorica (penyunting). Official Power and Local Elites in the Roman Provinces. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-08614-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Matyszak, Philip; Berry, Joanne (2008). Lives of the Romans. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-25144-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Millar, Firgus (1971). "Paul of Samosata, Zenobia and Aurelian: the Church, Local Culture and Political Allegiance in Third-Century Syria". Journal of Roman Studies. The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. 61: 1–17. doi:10.2307/300003. JSTOR 300003. OCLC 58727367.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Millar, Fergus (1993). The Roman Near East, 31 B.C.–A.D. 337. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-77886-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Nakamura, Byron (1993). "Palmyra and the Roman East". Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Duke University, Department of Classical Studies. 34. ISSN 0017-3916.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Neusner, Jacob (2010). Narrative and Document in the Rabbinic Canon: The Two Talmuds. 2. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7618-5211-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Parsons, Peter J. (1967). "A Proclamation of Vaballathus?". Chronique d'Égypte: Bulletin Périodique de la Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth. Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire. 42 (84). ISSN 0009-6067.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Pipes, Daniel (1992) [1990]. Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-536304-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Potter, David S. (1996). "Palmyra and Rome: Odaenathus' Titulature and the Use of the Imperium Maius". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH. 113. ISSN 0084-5388.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Potter, David S (2014). The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180–395. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-69477-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Powers, David S. (2010). "Demonizing Zenobia: The legend of al-Zabbā in Islamic Sources". Dalam Roxani, Eleni Margariti; Sabra, Adam; Sijpesteijn, Petra (penyunting). Histories of the Middle East: Studies in Middle Eastern Society, Economy and Law in Honor of A.L. Udovitch. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18427-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Quintero, María Cristina (2016). Gendering the Crown in the Spanish Baroque Comedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-12961-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Rihan, Mohammad (2014). The Politics and Culture of an Umayyad Tribe: Conflict and Factionalism in the Early Islamic Period. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-564-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ruwe, Donelle (2012). "Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra: Adelaide O'Keeffe, the Jewish Conversion Novel, and the Limits of Rational Education". Eighteenth-Century Life. Duke University Press. 36 (1): 30–53. doi:10.1215/00982601-1457093. ISSN 0098-2601.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sahner, Christian (2014). Among the Ruins: Syria Past and Present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-939670-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sartre, Maurice (2005). The Middle East Under Rome. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01683-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Schneider, Eugenia Equini (1993). Septimia Zenobia Sebaste (dalam bahasa Itali). Roma : "L'Erma" di Bretschneider. ISBN 978-88-7062-812-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Shahîd, Irfan (1995). Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century (Part1: Political and Military History). 1. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 978-0-88402-214-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sivertsev, Alexei (2002). Private Households and Public Politics in 3rd–5th Century Jewish Palestine. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism. 90. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-147780-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Slatkin, Wendy (2001) [1985]. Women Artists in History: From Antiquity to the Present (ed. 4). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-027319-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Smallwood, E. Mary (1976). The Jews Under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-04491-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Smith II, Andrew M. (2013). Roman Palmyra: Identity, Community, and State Formation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-986110-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Southern, Patricia (2008). Empress Zenobia: Palmyra's Rebel Queen. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-4248-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Southern, Patricia (2015). The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-49694-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Stoneman, Richard (2003) [1992]. Palmyra and Its Empire: Zenobia's Revolt Against Rome. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08315-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Teixidor, Javier (2005). "Palmyra in the third century". Dalam Cussini, Eleonora (penyunting). A Journey to Palmyra: Collected Essays to Remember Delbert R. Hillers. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12418-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Vervaet, Frederik J. (2007). "The Reappearance of the Supra-Provincial Commands in the Late Second and Early Third Centuries C.E.: Constitutional and Historical Considerations". Dalam Hekster, Olivier; De Kleijn, Gerda; Slootjes, Daniëlle (penyunting). Crises and the Roman Empire: Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire, Nijmegen, June 20–24, 2006. Impact of Empire. 7. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-16050-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Watson, Alaric (2004) [1999]. Aurelian and the Third Century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-90815-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Weldon, Roberta (2008). Hawthorne, Gender, and Death: Christianity and Its Discontents. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-61208-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Wood, Mary P. (2006). "From Bust to Boom: Women and Representations of Prosperity in Italian Cinema of the Late 1940s and 1950s". Dalam Morris, Penelope (penyunting). Women in Italy, 1945–1960: An Interdisciplinary Study. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-60143-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Young, Gary K. (2003). Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy 31 BC – AD 305. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-54793-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Burgersdijk, Diederik, penyunting (2008). Zenobia van Palmyra. Vorstin Tussen Europese en Arabische Traditie. Armada: Tijdschrift voor Wereldliteratuur (dalam bahasa Belanda). 53. Uitgeverij Wereldbibliotheek. ISBN 978-9-028-42256-8.
  • Woltering, Robbert A.F.L (2014). "Zenobia or al-Zabbāʾ: The Modern Arab Literary Reception of the Palmyran Protagonist". Middle Eastern Literatures. Routledge. 17 (1): 25–42. doi:10.1080/1475262X.2014.903047. ISSN 1475-262X.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Tadmur