Zenobia

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Zenobia
Btzby2.png
Augusta
Zenobia obversee.png
Zenobia sebagai maharani pada bahagian depan antoninianus (272M)
Maharani
Tempoh272M
Didahului olehGelaran dicipta
Diikuti olehTiada
Permaisuri bonda Tadmur
Tempoh267–272
Didahului olehGelaran dicipta
Diikuti olehTiada
Permaisuri Tadmur
Tempoh260–267
Didahului olehGelaran dicipta
Diikuti olehTiada
KeputeraanSeptimia Btzby (Bat-Zabbai)
s. 240
Tadmur, Syria
KemangkatanSelepas 274
PasanganOdaenathus
Anakanda
Nama penuh
Septimia Zenobia (Bat-Zabbai)
Nama diraja
Septimia Zenobia Augusta
KerabatKerabat Odaenathus

Septimia Zenobia (dialek Tadmur: Dari kanan ke kiri, huruf BETH, TAW, ZAYIN, BETH, YODH : 𐡡𐡶𐡦𐡡𐡩 (Btzby), disebut Bat-Zabbai; s. 240 – c. 274 Masihi) merupakan ratu abad ketiga Empayar Tadmur di Syria. Banyak legenda menyelubungi keturunannya; baginda barangkali bukan orang kebanyakan baginda mengahwini pemerintah kota tersebut, Odaenathus. Suaminya menjadi raja pada tahun 260, mengangkat Tadmur menjadi kuasa tertinggi di Timur Dekat dengan menewaskan kerabat Sasan dan menstabilkan Timur Rom. Selepas pembunuhan Odaenathus, Zenobia menjadi pemangku raja paduka puteranya Vaballathus dan memegang kuasa de facto sepanjang pemerintahan paduka puteranya.

Pada tahun 270, Zenobia melancarkan serangan yang membawa kebanyakan Timur Rom di bawah kuasanya dan memuncak dengan penggabungan paksa Mesir. Menjelang pertengahan 271 negeri baginda menjangkau dari Ancyra, pusat Anatolia, hingga Mesir selatan, walaupun baginda kekal mengetepikan ke Rom pada nama sahaja. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam reaksi kepada kempen maharaja Rom Aurelian pada tahun 272, Zenobia mengisytiharkan paduka puteranya maharaja dan memegang gelaran maharani (mengisytiharkan pemisahan Tadmur dari Rom). Orang Rom menang selepas perlawanan sengit; ratu dikepung di ibu kotanya dan ditangkap oleh Aurelian, yang membuang negeri baginda ke Rom di mana baginda meluangkan saki-baki hidupnya.

Zenobia merupakan raja yang beradab dan menggalakkan persekitaran intelektual di istana baginda, yang dibuka kepada cendekiawan dan ahli falsafah. Baginda bertoleransi terhadap rakyatnya dan melindungi minoriti agama. Ratu tersebut mengekalkan pentadbiran stabil yang memerintah empayar pelbagai etnik dan budaya. Zenobia mangkat selepas tahun 274, dan banyak kisah telah dirakan tentang nasibnya. Kebangkitan dan kejatuhannya telah memberi inspirasi kepada sejarawan, pelukis, dan penulis novel, dan baginda ialah simbol patriotik di Syria.

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Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Burgersdijk, Diederik, penyunting (2008). Zenobia van Palmyra. Vorstin Tussen Europese en Arabische Traditie. Armada: Tijdschrift voor Wereldliteratuur (dalam bahasa Belanda). 53. Uitgeverij Wereldbibliotheek. ISBN 978-9-028-42256-8.
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Templat:Tadmur