Bahasa Macedonia

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Bahasa Macedonia
Македонски јазик Makedonski jazik
sebutan akan ditambah
wilayah Semenanjung Balkan
asli penutur 6 juta[1]  (tiada tarikh)
keluarga bahasa
Sistem penulisan Tulisan Cyril (jenis Macedonia)
status rasmi
Bahasa rasmi di  Macedonia
diiktiraf sebagai bahasa minoriti di sebahagian daripada:
 Albania[2]
 Serbia[3]
Dikawal oleh Institut Bahasa Macedonia "Krste Misirkov" di Universiti Ss. Cyril dan Methodius Skopje
kod bahasa
ISO 639-1 mk
ISO 639-2 mac (B)
mkd (T)
ISO 639-3 mkd
[[File:
Negara-negara dengan bilangan penutur Bahasa Macedonia
|300px]]
Bahasa Macedonia
Tatabahasa
Kata ganti nama  
Sejarah
Huruf
Pandangan Politik
Pertikaian penamaan

Bahasa Macedonia (Mengenai bunyi ini македонски јазик , makedonski jazik, IPA: [maˈkɛdɔnski ˈjazik]) merupakan bahasa rasmi Republik Macedonia, dan sebahagian daripada kumpulan Timur di kalangan bahasa-bahasa Slavik Selatan. terdapat juga pelbagai nama alternatif, banyak yang mempunyai perkataan Slavik. Bahasa ini adalah rapat dan saling bersefahaman dengan Bahasa Bulgaria piawai. Terdapat juga beberapa kesamaan dengan Bahasa Serbia piawai dan loghat Torlakia serta loghat Shop yang dituturkan paling banyak di selatan Serbia, barat Bulgaria, dan di utara dan timur Macedonia.

Kedua-dua Bahasa Macedonia dan Bahasa Bulgaria Piawai berkongsi persamaan tipologi dengan Bahasa Romania, Bahasa Yunani, dan Bahasa Albania. Kesemua bahasa ini adalah dalam sprachbund Balkan, walaupun ketiga-tiga yang terakhir adalah dalam kumpulan yang berbeza (Bahasa Romania ialah sebuah Bahasa Romawi, manakala Bahasa Yunani dan Bahasa Albania adalah bersendirian masing-masing di bawah keluarga Bahasa Indo-Eropah).


Nama-nama alternatif[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bulgaria[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dalam kebanyakan sumber sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua, loghat yang terkandung dalam Bahasa Macedonia moden dirujuk sebagai loghat Bahasa Bulgaria. Ini adalah berdasarkan fakta bahawa sehingga Perang Dunia Kedua, kontinum loghat Slavonik selatan yang meliputi kawasan yang kini Republik Macedonia dirujuk sebagai Bahasa Bulgaria oleh orang termasuk penuturnya. Selepas Peperangan persoalan tentang "bahasa Macedonia" ini dilupakan dengan nama persahabatan antara Bulgaria dengan Yugoslavia di bawah tekanan Kesatuan Soviet.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wikipedia
Edisi Bahasa Macedonia dari Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^  Although the precise number of speakers is unknown, figures of between 1.6 million [4] and 2-2.5 million have been cited, see Topolinjska (1998) and Friedman (1985). The general academic consensus is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration" (Friedman 1985).
  2. ^  Hill, P. (1999) "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A comparative study of recent developments". Nationalities Papers. 27(1)
  3. ^  Poulton, Hugh (1995, 2000). Who Are the Macedonians?. United Kingdom: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd.. m/s. p. ix. ISBN 0-253-34598-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=ppbuavUZKEwC&vid=ISBN1850655340&dq=&pg=PR9&lpg=PR9&sig=pQh0ojlZmc7RraIH3hHiYmxCvX4&q. 
  4. ^  "Eurominority". The European Languages. http://www.eurominority.org/version/maps/map-european-languages-eu.asp. 
  5. ^  (Perancis) "Euromosaic". Le [slavo]macédonien / bulgare en Grèce. http://www.uoc.es/euromosaic/web/document/macedoni/fr/i1/i1.html. 
  6. ^  Stallaerts, Robert (1999). Historiography in the Former and New Yugoslavia. m/s. p.319. http://www.flwi.ugent.be/btng-rbhc/pdf/BTNG-RBHC,%2029,%201999,%203-4,%20pp%20315-336.pdf. 
  7. ^  Lumsden, Malvern (2003). Three Zones of Social Reconstruction in War-traumatized Societies. m/s. p.12. http://home.bredband.no/chchor/pages/Three%20zones%20(2003).pdf. 
  8. ^  Joseph, Brian D. (1999). Romanian and the Balkans: Some Comparative Perspectives. m/s. p.2. http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~bjoseph/publications/1999roma.pdf. 
  9. ^  Popis na Naselenie, Domaćinstva i Stanovi vo Republika Makedonija, 2002 - Vkupno naselenie na Republika Makedonija spored majčin jazik.
  10. ^  Преброяване 2001 - Окончателни резултати - Население към 01.03.2001 г. по области и етническа група
  11. ^  Greek Helsinki Monitor - Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
  12. ^  Topolinjska, Z. (1998). "In place of a foreword: facts about the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian language" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Issue 131. pp. 1-11
  13. ^  Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett. (2002) The Slavonic Languages (p. 247. The Macedonian Language) (New York: Routledge Publications)
  14. ^  Стойков, С. (2002) Българска диалектология, 4-то издание. стр. 143, 186. Also available online.
  15. ^  ibid. стр. 140, 143.
  16. ^  Lunt, H. (1952) Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language p. 1
  17. ^  Стойков, С. (2002) Българска диалектология, 4-то издание. стр. 127. Also available online.
  18. ^  Friedman, V. (2001) Macedonian (SEELRC), p.17.
  19. ^  Friedman, V. (2001) Macedonian (SEELRC), p.40.
  20. ^  Christina E. Kramer (1999), Makedonski Jazik (The University of Wisconsin Press);
  21. ^  Tomić, O. (2003) "Genesis of the Balkan Slavic Future Tenses" in Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics: The Ottawa Meeting 2003 (Michigan : Michigan Slavic Publications)
  22. ^  Friedman, V. (1998) "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Issue 131. pp. 31-57
  23. ^  Lunt, H. (1953) "A Survey of Macedonian Literature" in Harvard Slavic Studies, Vol. 1, pp. 363-396
  24. ^  Seriot, P. (1997) "Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien", in Andrée Tabouret-Keller (éd.) Le nom des langues. L'enjeu de la nomination des langues, Vol. 1, pp. 167-190 (Louvain : Peeters) (in French)
  25. ^  Encyclopaedia Britannica - Old Church Slavonic
  26. ^  Mahon, M. (1998) "The Macedonian question in Bulgaria" in Nations and Nationalism Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 389-407
  27. ^  Friedman, V. (1998) "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Issue 131. pp. 31-57
  28. ^  Trudgill, P. (1992) "Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe" in International Journal of Applied Linguistics. Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 167-177
  29. ^  Although acceptable in the past, current use of this name in reference to both the ethnic group and the language can be considered pejorative and offensive by ethnic Macedonians. In the past, the Macedonian Slavs in Greece seemed relieved to be acknowledged as "Slavomacedonians". A native of Greek Macedonia, a pioneer of ethnic Macedonian schools in the region and local historian, Pavlos Koufis, says in Laografika Florinas kai Kastorias (Folklore of Florina and Kastoria), Athens 1996, that, “[During its Panhellenic Meeting in September 1942, the KKE mentioned that it recognises the equality of the ethnic minorities in Greece] the KKE recognised that the Slavophone population was ethnic minority of Slavomacedonians]. This was a term, which the inhabitants of the region accepted with relief. [Because] Slavomacedonians = Slavs+Macedonians. The first section of the term determined their origin and classified them in the great family of the Slav peoples.” The Greek Helsinki Monitor reports: "... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness. Unfortunately, according to members of the community, this term was later used by the Greek authorities in a pejorative, discriminatory way; hence the reluctance if not hostility of modern-day Macedonians of Greece (i.e. people with a Macedonian national identity) to accept it."
  30. ^  In his most famous work "On the Macedonian Matters" (available online), Misirkov uses the word собитие (a cognate to the Bulgarian събитие) where настан is used today, though it still exists in some dialects.
  31. ^  Focus News (July 4, 2003) Kosovo Government Acquires Macedonian language and grammer books for Gorani Minority Schools

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Kramer, Christina (2003), Macedonian: A Course for Beginning and Intermediate Students. Revised and expanded second edition. University of Wisconsin Press. May 2003. ISBN 978-0-299-18804-7
  2. Dorian, Nancy, (1992), "Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death", ISBN 0-521-43757-1
  3. Friedman, V. (2001) Macedonian (SEELRC)
  4. Lunt, H., (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language (Skopje)

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahasa-bahasa Slavik
Slavik Timur Belarusia | Slavik Timur Lama † | Rusia | Rusyn (Carpathian) | Ruthenia † | Ukraine
Slavik Barat Czech | Kashubia | Canaan † | Sorb Bawah | Polabia † | Poland | Pomerania † | Slovak | Slovincia † | Sorb Atas
Slavik Selatan Bulgaria Banat | Bosnia | Bulgaria | Croatia Burgenland | Croatia | Macedonia | Croatia Molise | Montenegrin | Slavik Gereja Lama † | Serbia | Serbo-Croatia | Slavik (Greece) | Slovenia
Lain-lain Slavik Gereja | Dialek Novgorod Lama † | Proto-Slavik † | Russenorsk † | Rusyn (Pannonia) | Slavik-Serbia † | Slovio
Pupus