Bell 47

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Bell 47/H-13
Ansett-ANA Bell 47J-2 Ranger Hough.jpg
Bell 47J-2 Ansett-ANA menghampiri Heliport Sungai Yarra di Melbourne (1963)
Peranan Helikopter ringan pelbagai guna
Pengeluar Bell Helicopter
Direka oleh Arthur M. Young
Penerbangan sulung 8 Disember 1945
Mula digunakan 1946
Pengguna utama Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat
Tentera Darat British
Kelainan Bell 201
Bell 207

Bell 47 merupakan helikopter pertama disahkan bagi kegunaan awam, pada 8 Mac 1946.[1][2] Ia sebahagian besarnya direka oleh Arthur M. Young, yang menyertai Bell Helicopter pada 1941. Lebih dari 5,600 dihasilkan sehingga 1974, termasuk 1,200 bawah lesen di Itali, 239 di Jepun, dan 239 di UK. Ia juga merupakan pesawat berkipas pilihan bagi latihan penerbangan berkipas asas selama beberapa dekad dan di sesetengah negara masih menggunakannya.

Helikopter Bell 47 memasuki perkhidmatan tentera U.S. pada akhir 1946, dalam pelbagai versi dan nama selama tiga dekad. Dalam Perang Korea (1950-1953) ia digelar H-13 Sioux oleh Tentera Amerika Syarikat, kemuncak dalam kerjaya luasnya.

Variasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Awam[sunting | sunting sumber]

[3]

Bell 47
Bell 47A
Bell 47B
setara dengan YR-13/HTL-1 tentera, enjin Franklin O-335-1.
Bell 47B-3
versi perladangan/utiliti dengan kedudukan krew terbuka
Bell 47C
Bell 47D
yang pertama muncul dengan kanopi acuan "mangkuk ikan mas"
Bell 47D-1
diperkenalkan pada 1949, ia mempunyai ekor tiub terbuka menyerupai Bell Model 30, nombor pesawat 3, dan tatarajah tiga tempat duduk.
Bell 47E
Bell 47F
Bell 47G
digabung dengan enjin 149 kW Franklin dengan tatarajah tiga tempat duduk bagi 47D-1 dan memperkenalkan tatarajah tangki bahan api bag pelana.
Bell 47G-2
Enjin Avco Lycoming VO-435. Dikeluarakn di bawah lesen oleh Westland bagi tentera UK.
Bell 47G-2A
berenjin 179 kW versi VO-435.
Bell 47G-2A-1
Kabin lebih luas, kipas lebih elok dan peningkatan keupayaan bahan api.
Bell 47G-3
Berenjin supercharged 168 kW Franklin 6VS-335-A.
Bell 47G-3B
Berenjin turbocharged 209 kW Avco Lycoming TVO-435.
Bell 47G-4
Helikopter tiga krew berenjin Avco Lycoming VO-540.
Bell 47G-5
Tiga tempat duduk, versi utiliti bagi Tentera Udara U.S. UH-13J. Ia dipasarkan sebagai Model 47J Ranger dan berenjin Avco Lycoming VO-435. Versi dua tempat duduk perladangan kemudiannya dikenali sebagai Ag-5. 47G-5 merupakan model terakhir dihasilkan oleh Bell.


Tentera[sunting | sunting sumber]

[3]

YR-13/HTL-1
28 helikopter Bell 47A dibeli oleh Tentera Udara U.S. bagi penilaian. YR-13 berenjin piston 117 kW Franklin O-335-1. 10 dari pesawat ini dinilai oleh Tentera Laut U.S. Navy sebagai pelatih.
YR-13A
3 pesawat udara YR-13 melalui ujian cuaca sejuk di Alaska.
HTL-2
HTL-3
H-13B
65 aircraft ordered in 1948 by the U.S. Army. All Army versions were later named Sioux.
H-13C
15 H-13B aircraft converted to carry external stretchers in 1952.
H-13D
Army two-seat version with skid landing gear, stretcher carriers, and Franklin O-335-5 engine.
OH-13E
H-13D configuration with three-seat aircraft with dual controls.
XH-13F/Bell 201 
Modified Bell 47G powered by a Continental XT51-T-3 (Turbomeca Artouste) turboshaft. The first Bell helicopter powered by a turbine engine.
OH-13G
Introduced a small elevator on the tailboom.
UH-13J
Two Bell 47J Ranger aircraft utilizing the 179 kW Lycoming VO-435 engine acquired for VIP transport of the U.S. President by the U.S. Air Force. Originally designated as H-13J.
OH-13H/UH-13H
Equipped with a 186 kW Lycoming VO-435 engine. UH-13Hs were used by the U.S. Air Force.
OH-13K
Two converted H-13Hs with a larger diameter rotor and a 168 kW Franklin 6VS-335 engine for test evaluation.
TH-13L
Originally designated as the Navy HTL-4.
HTL-5
Utilized a Lycoming O-335-5 engine.
TH-13M
Incorporated a small movable elevator. Originally designated as the Navy HTL-6
TH-13N
Two-seat, dual-control, instrument trainer with all-weather instrumentation. Originally designated as the Navy HTL-7.
UH-13P
Used aboard ice-breaking ships. Originally designated as the Navy HUL-1.
HH-13Q
Originally the HUL-1G, it was used by the U.S. Coast Guard for search and rescue.
OH-13S
Three-seat observation helicopter to replace the OH-13H.
TH-13T
Two-seat instrument trainer for the U.S. Army based on the 47G-3B-1.

Penukaran[sunting | sunting sumber]

[3]

Agusta A.115[4][5]
1971 Prototaip Itali Bell 47J dangan ekor terbuka, mempunyai enjin turboshaft Turboméca Astazou II.
Carson Super C-4
El Tomcat Mk.II[6]
Bell 47G-2 diubahsuai dengan banyaknya bagi penyemburan perladangan oleh Continental Copters Inc. Mula terbang pada April 1959.
El Tomcat Mk.III
Versi dipertingkat Mk.II, mula terbang pada April 1965.
El Tomcat Mk.IIIA
Mempunyia enjin Franklin 6V4-200, 6V-335, atau 6V-350.
El Tomcat Mk.IIIB
Featured a modified fiberglass nose with a repositioned windscreen and a lower cabin roof, and was powered by the 235 hp Franklin 6V-350-A. Produced in 1967.
El Tomcat Mk.IIIC
Versi dipertingkatkan dengan enjin 200 hp Franklin 6V4-200-C32, 210 hp 6V-335-A, atau 235 hp 6V-350-A.
El Tomcat Mk.V
Pertama kali terbang pada June 1968, mempunyai enjin 220 hp Lycoming VO-435-A1A.
El Tomcat Mk.V-A
Mempunyai enjin 260 hp Lycoming VO-435-A1F with a foldable jump-seat.
El Tomcat Mk.V-B
Mempunyai enjin 265 hp Lycoming VO-435-B1A.[perlu rujukan]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. "Bell Helicopters". Helicopter History Site. http://www.helis.com/timeline/bell.php. 
  2. "Biography of ARTHUR MIDDLETON YOUNG". http://www.modelaircraft.org/museum/bio/Young.pdf. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Bell Model 47 "Sioux"". http://avia.russian.ee/helicopters_eng/bell_sioux.php. 
  4. Taylor, M. J. H. (1989). Jane's encyclopedia of aviation. London: Studio Editions. m/s. 40. ISBN 1851703241. 
  5. Simpson, R. W. (1998). Airlife's Helicopters and Rotorcraft. Ramsbury: Airlife Publishing. m/s. 37. 
  6. "Continental Copters "El Tomcat"". Helicopter History Site. http://avia.russian.ee/helicopters_eng/bell_e1_tomcat.php. 
  • Donald, David (1998). The complete encyclopedia of world aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. OCLC 52598955. 
  • Jane, Fred T; Taylor, Michael John Haddrick (1989). Jane's encyclopedia of aviation. New York: Portland House. ISBN 0517691868. 
  • Mutza, Wayne. H-13 Sioux Mini in Action. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1995. ISBN 0-89747-329-0
  • Pelletier, Alain J (1992). Bell aircraft since 1935. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1557500568. 
  • Riley, David (February 1958). "French Helicopter Operations in Algeria". Marine Corps Gazette.  pp. 21-26.
  • Shrader, Charles R. (1999). The first helicopter war: logistics and mobility in Algeria, 1954-1962. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0275963888. 
  • Spenser, Jay P. (1998). Whirlybirds a history of the U.S. helicopter pioneers. Seattle: University of Washington Press in association with Museum of Flight. ISBN 0295980583. 
  • United States, Headquarters Department of the Army, Army Concept Team in Vietnam. Final Report of Essential Load of Scout Helicopters. Saigon, Vietnam: Army Concept Team in Vietnam, 1966

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