Evolusi uji kaji

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Templat:Biologi evolusi Dalam biologi evolusi dan uji kaji, bidang evolusi uji kaji adalah berkenaan dengan hipotesis dan teori evolusi, dengan penggunaan uji kaji terkawal]]. Evolusi mungkin diperhatikan di makmal sebaik populasi beradaptasi terhadap keadaan persekitaran baharu dan/atau perubahan oleh proses stokastik seperti hanyutan genetik rawak. Dengan peralatan molekul moden, penentuan mutasi yang terhadapnya pemilihan bertindak adalah mungkin, yang membawa kepada adaptasi, dan untuk mencari cara tepat mutasi ini berfungsi. Kerana bilangan besar generasi yang diperlukan untuk adaptasi berlaku, uji kaji evolusi biasanya dijalankan dengan mikroorganisma seperti bakteria, ragi atau virus.[1][2] Walau bagaimanapun, kajian makmal dengan rubah[3] dan dengan rodensia telah menunjukkan bahawa adaptasi ketara boleh berlaku dalam sedikit 10-20 generasi dan uji kaji dengan ikan gupi liar telah diperhatikan dalam bilangan generasi sebanding.[4]

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Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Buckling A, Craig Maclean R, Brockhurst MA, Colegrave N (February 2009). "The Beagle in a bottle". Nature 457 (7231): 824–9. doi:10.1038/nature07892. PMID 19212400. 
  2. Elena SF, Lenski RE (June 2003). "Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation". Nat. Rev. Genet. 4 (6): 457–69. doi:10.1038/nrg1088. PMID 12776215. 
  3. Early Canid Domestication: The Fox Farm Experiment, p.2, by Lyudmila N. Trut, Ph.D., Retrieved February 19, 2011
  4. Reznick, D. N.; F. H. Shaw, F. H. Rodd, and R. G. Shaw (1997). "Evaluation of the rate of evolution in natural populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)". Science 275 (5308): 1934–1937. doi:10.1126/science.275.5308.1934. PMID 9072971. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bennett, A. F. (2003). "Experimental evolution and the Krogh Principle: generating biological novelty for functional and genetic analyses". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1086/374275. PMID 12695982. http://www.biology.ucr.edu/people/faculty/Garland/Bennett2003.pdf. 
  • Dallinger, W. H. 1887. The president's address. J. Roy. Microscop. Soc., 185-199.
  • Elena, S. F., and R. E. Lenski. 2003. Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation. Nature Reviews Genetics 4: 457-469.
  • Garland, T., Jr. 2003. Selection experiments: an under-utilized tool in biomechanics and organismal biology. Pages 23–56 in V. L. Bels, J.-P. Gasc, A. Casinos, eds. Vertebrate biomechanics and evolution. BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, UK. PDF
  • Garland, T., Jr., and M. R. Rose, eds. 2009. Experimental evolution: concepts, methods, and applications of selection experiments. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. PDF of Table of Contents
  • Gibbs, A. G. 1999. Laboratory selection for the comparative physiologist. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 2709-2718.
  • Lenski, R. E. 2004. Phenotypic and genomic evolution during a 20,000-generation experiment with the bacterium Escherichia coli. Plant Breeding Reviews 24: 225-265.
  • Lenski, R. E., M. R. Rose, S. C. Simpson, and S. C. Tadler. 1991. Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. American Naturalist 138: 1315-1341.
  • McKenzie, J. A., and P. Batterham. 1994. The genetic, molecular and phenotypic consequences of selection for insecticide resistance. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 166-169.
  • Reznick, D. N., M. J. Bryant, D. Roff, C. K. Ghalambor, and D. E. Ghalambor. 2004. Effect of extrinsic mortality on the evolution of senescence in guppies. Nature 431: 1095-1099.
  • Rose, M. R., H. B. Passananti, and M. Matos, eds. 2004. Methuselah flies: A case study in the evolution of aging. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore.
  • Swallow, J. G., and T. Garland, Jr. 2005. Selection experiments as a tool in evolutionary and comparative physiology: insights into complex traits — An introduction to the symposium. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45: 387-390. PDF

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