Pertempuran Passchendaele

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Pertempuran Passchendaele
Pertempuran Ketiga Ypres
Sebahagian daripada Barisan Barat (Perang Dunia Pertama
Tentera artileri Australia di Château Wood berdekatan Hooge, 29 Oktober 1917.
Tentera artileri Australia berjalan di atas laluan duckboard di in Château Wood berdekatan Hooge, 29 Oktober 1917. Gambar oleh Frank Hurley.
Maklumat am
Tarikh 31 Julai – 6 November 1917
Lokasi 50°54′1″N 3°1′16″E / 50.90028°U 3.02111°T / 50.90028; 3.02111 (Passendale)Koordinat: 50°54′1″N 3°1′16″E / 50.90028°U 3.02111°T / 50.90028; 3.02111 (Passendale)
Passendale, Belgium
Hasil Kemenangan taktikal Bersekutu
Kegagalan operasional Bersekutu
Kemenangan strategik Bersekutu
Pihak yang berperang
 United Kingdom

Perancis Perancis
 Belgium

 German Empire
Komander dan pemimpin
United Kingdom Douglas Haig
United Kingdom Hubert Gough
United Kingdom Herbert Plumer
Kanada Arthur Currie
Australia John Monash
Perancis François Anthoine
Empayar Jerman Erich Ludendorff
Empayar Jerman Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria
Empayar Jerman Friedrich Sixt von Armin
Kerugian dan kehilangan
Dipertikai
200,000 – 448,614
Dipertikai
217,000 – 400,000
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Pertempuran Passchendaele, (atau Pertempuran Ketiga Ypres atau "Passchendaele") ialah satu kempen Peperangan Dunia Pertama, 1914–1918, yang melibatkan empayar-empayar British dan Perancis beserta sekutu-sekutu mereka dengan lawan mereka, empayar Jerman. Pertempuran berlaku di Barisan Barat (Western Front) antara bulan Jun dan November 1917 bertujuan menguasai permatang yang terletak ke arah selatan dan timur bandar Ypres, Belgium di Flanders Barat. Gerakan ini sebahagian daripada perencanaan yang dipersetujui pihak Bersekutu dalam mesyuarat-mesyuarat yang diadakan dalam bulan November 1916 dan Mei 1917.[1][Note 1] Passchendaele terletak pada rabung terakhir di sebelah timur Ypres, lima batu dari persimpangan keretapi di bandar Roulers, yang merupakan bahagian penting sistem pembekalan Tentera Keempat Jerman.[4][Note 2]

Peringkat susulan strategi Tentera Bersekutu, yakni kemaraan ke Thourout–Couckelaere yang bertujuan menutup laluan keretapi melalui Roulers dan Thourout yang dikawal Jerman, tidak terjadi. Opersai susulan dan serangan bantuan British sepanjang kawasan pesisiran pantai Belgium, dari Niewpoort, diganding dengan pendaratan amfibi, seharusnya sampai ke Bruges dan kemudiannya ke perbatasan negeri Belanda. [7] Ketahanan Tentera Keempat Jerman, hujan yang luar biasa, permulaan musim sejuk dan pelencungan sumber-sumber bahan British dan Perancis ke Itali berikutan kemenangan Austro-Jerman dalam Pertempuran Caporetto (24 October–19 November), membolehkan pihak Jerman mengelak daripada membuat pengunduran am, yang pada bulan Oktober kelihatan seperti satu kepastian.[8] Kempen berakhir pada bulan November apabila Kor Kanada menawan Passchendaele.[9] Dalam tahun 1918 berlaku Pertempuran Lys[10] dan Pertempuran Kelima Ypres[11] sebelum pihak Bersekutu menakluk kawasan persisiran pantai Belgium dan sampai ke perbatasan Belanda.{[12]

Satu kempen di Flanders pada tahun 1917 menjadi kontroversi dan kekal sedemikian. Perdana Menteri British, Lloyd George menentang serangan[13] seperti juga Jeneral Foch, Ketua Turus Perancis.[14] Panglima British, Sir Douglas Haig, tidak menerima persetujuan bagi operasi Flanders daripada Kabinet Perang sehingga 25 Julai.[15] Hal-hal yang menjadi pertikaian mereka yang mengambil bahagian serta ahli sejarah semenjak perang itu termasuk kebijaksanaan mengikut strategi serangan yang menyusuli Serangan Nivelle berbanding menunggu ketibaan tentera Amerika di tanah Perancis, keputusan menyerang Flanders berbanding wilayah lain ke arah selatan atau Barisan Hadapan Itali, pemilihan Jeneral Hubert Gough dan Tentera Kelima oleh Haig untuk menjalankan serangan, perdebatan antara penyokong objektif cetek dan dalam berkaitan sifat serangan permulaan, tempoh antara Pertempuran Messines dan serangan permulaan Pertempuran Ypres, sejauh mana masalah dalaman tentera Perancis mendorong pihak British kekal menjalankan serangan, kesan lumpur terhadap operasi dan keputusan agar meneruskan serangan dalam bulan Oktober, sebaik sahaja cuaca menjadi buruk dan kos kemanusiaan terhadap anggota tentera Jerman[16] dan British.[17]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Passchendaele (/ˈpæʃəndl/) is the common English title. The British Battle Nomenclature Committee called the Flanders offensives of 1917 The Battle of Messines 1917 (7–14 June) and The Battles of Ypres 1917 (31 July–10 November).[2] The German Official History used the term Third Flanders Battle (Bahasa Jerman: Dritte Flandernschlacht)[3] and the French the Second Battle of Flanders (Bahasa Perancis: 2ème Bataille des Flandres).
  2. The series of battles are known to the British as, The Battle of Messines 1917 (7–14 June); Pilckem Ridge (31 July-2 August); Langemarck (16–18 August); Menin Road Ridge (20–25 September); Polygon Wood (26 September–3 October); Broodseinde (4 October); Poelcappelle (9 October); First Passchendaele (12 October); and Second Passchendaele (26 October-10 November)[5] and referred to in German works as (Bahasa Jerman: Kampf um den Wijtschatebogen) (The Battle of the Wijtschate Salient) and the (Bahasa Jerman: Flandernschlacht) (Battle of Flanders) in five approximate periods, First Battle of Flanders (31 July–9 August); Second Battle of Flanders (9–25 August); Third Battle of Flanders (20 September–8 October); Fourth Battle of Flanders (9–21 October) and Fifth Battle of Flanders (22 October–5 December).[6]

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Edmonds 1948, p. 22-25.
  2. Edmonds 1948, p. iii.
  3. Terraine 1977, p. 301.
  4. Terraine 1977, p. 336.
  5. Edmonds 1948, p. iii.
  6. Sheldon 2007, p. xiv.
  7. Edmonds 1948, p. 124-125.
  8. Terraine 1977, p. 299.
  9. Prior & Wilson 1996, p. 179.
  10. Davies, Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop 1937, p. 138-452.
  11. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop 1947, p. 57-93.
  12. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop 1947, p. 269-293, 426–453.
  13. Terraine 1977, p. 159-163, 198–199.
  14. Terraine 1977, p. 111.
  15. Edmonds 1948, p. 106.
  16. Sheldon 2007, p. 315.
  17. Prior & Wilson 1996, p. 194-200.

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