Subbenua India

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Peta Asia Selatan (lihat nota)
Rencana ini menangani dengan rantau geofizikal di Asia. Untuk layanan geopolitik, lihat Asia Selatan.

Subbenua India, juga dikenali sebagai Asia Selatan dan istilah lain, ialah wilayah di benua Asia (yang pula merupakan sebahagian benua Eurasia) yang terletak, sebahagian besarnya, di atas plat tektonik India di sebelah selatan Banjaran Himalaya, dan membentuk suatu daratan yang terbentang ke Lautan Hindi di selatan.

Takrif[sunting | sunting sumber]

Istilah "subbenua India" dan "Asia Selatan" sering digunakan secara saling berganti.[1][2][3][4] Walau bagaimanapun, disebabkan oleh kepekaan politik, sesetengah orang lebih suka menggunakan istilah "Subbenua Asia Selatan",[5][6][7] "Subbenua Indo-Pak benua",[8] "Subbenua", atau secara mudah, "Asia Selatan" [9] daripada menggunakan istilah "Subbenua India". Menurut ahli sejarah Sugata Bose dan Ayesha Jalal, penggunaan istilah "Asia Selatan" untuk merujuk kepada subbenua India merupakan "istilah yang lebih terkini dan lebih neutral".[9] Ahli kaji India, Ronald B. Inden, berpendapat bahawa istilah "Asia Selatan" semakin meluas penggunaannya kerana ia dapat membezakan wilayah ini dengan jelas daripada kawasan Asia Timur;[10] Sesetengah ahli akademik pula berpendirian bahawa istilah "Asia Selatan" lebih umum digunakan di Eropah dan Amerika Utara, berbanding dengan istilah "Subbenua" atau "Subbenua India".[11][12] Sebuah buku kecil yang diterbitkan oleh Jabatan Luar Negeri Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1959 memasukkan Afghanistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), India, Nepal, dan Pakistan dalam takrif "Subbenua Asia Selatan"-nya. [13]

Ruang lingkup[sunting | sunting sumber]

Takrif luasnya geografi subbenua India berbeza-beza. Ia biasanya merangkumi negara-negara India, Pakistan, dan Bangladesh;[14] seringnya, ia juga merangkumi Nepal, Bhutan, serta kawasan luar pesisir Sri Lanka [15] dan mungkin juga Afghanistan dan Maldives.[1][16] Merangkumi seluruh Greater India atau wilayah-wilayah Raj British daripada segi sejarah, wilayah ini kini terdiri daripada India, Pakistan, dan Bangladesh;[17][14] seringnya, ia juga merangkumi Nepal, Bhutan, dan kawasan luar pesisir Sri Lanka.[18] Tambahan lagi, wilayah ini mungkin juga termasuk Afghanistan dan negara pulau Maldives,[19] serta juga kawasan yang dipertikaikan di Aksai Chin yang merupakan sebahagian daripada negeri berdaulat India British di Jammu dan Kashmir yang kini ditadbirkan sebagai sebahagian wilayah autonomi Xinjiang, China.[20] Walau bagaimanapun, apabila istilah "Subbenua India" digunakan untuk bermaksud "Asia Selatan", negara-negara pulau Sri Lanka dan Maldives kekadang tidak dimasukkan,[1] sementara Tibet dan Nepal kekadang dimasukkan [21] dan kekadang tidak,[22] bergantung kepada konteks.

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Daripada segi geografi, subbenua India merupakan sebuah semenanjung di Asia selatan-tengah yang berbentuk lebih kurang seperti berlian yang disempadani oleh Banjaran Himalaya di sebelah utara, Hindu Kush di sebelah barat, dan Arakanis di timur.[23] Ia menganjur ke Lautan Hindi di selatan, dengan Laut Arab di sebelah barat daya dan Teluk Bengal di sebelah tenggara.[1] Dengan mengambil kira kesemua tujuh buah negara di subbenua ini, wilayah ini merangkumi 4.4 juta km² (1.7 juta mi²) yang merupakan 10% daripada keluasan benua Asia atau 2.4% daripada keluasan seluruh permukaan bumi di dunia.[24][25][26] Pada keseluruhannya, subbenua India menampung 34% daripada jumlah penduduk di Asia (atau melebihi 16.5% daripada jumlah penduduk di seluruh dunia), dengan penduduknya terdiri daripada pelbagai kaum.[24][25][26]

Geologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebahagian besar wilayah ini terletak di atas sebuah plat tektonik tersendiri, iaitu Plat India (bahagian utara Plat Indo-Australia), yang dipencilkan dari bahagian Asia yang lain oleh sawar gunung.[27][28] Pada suatu ketika, wilayah ini merupakan sebuah benua yang kecil sebelum bertembung dengan Plat Eurasia antara 50-55 juta tahun dahulu lalu mewujudkan Banjaran Himalaya serta dan penara Tibet.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 John McLeod, The history of India, pages 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0313314594
  2. Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 082260034X
  3. Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being,‎ pages 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0049101218
  4. Boniface, Brian G.; Christopher P. Cooper (2005). Worldwide destinations - By Brian G. Boniface, Christopher P. Cooper Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 9780750659970. http://books.google.com/books?id=c46i9jr9mhgC&pg=PA344&dq=indian+subcontinent+asia+continent&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a Worldwide destinations - By Brian G. Boniface, Christopher P. Cooper. 
  5. Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0674049799
  6. http://www.iata.org/ps/intelligence_statistics/cargois/south_asian.htm South Asian Subcontinent.
  7. Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0674049799
  8. Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pages 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0195137981
  9. 9.0 9.1 Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0415307872
  10. Imagining India - By Ronald B. Inden
  11. Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pages 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0750620501
  12. Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0198568177
  13. Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office, The Subcontinent of South Asia: Afghanistan, Ceylon, India, Nepal and Pakistan, United States Department of State, Public Services Division, 1959
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Indian subcontinent". New Oxford Dictionary of English (ISBN 0-19-860441-6) New York: Oxford University Press, 2001; p. 929: "the part of Asia south of the Himalayas which forms a peninsula extending into the Indian Ocean, between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Historically forming the whole territory of greater India, the region is now divided between India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh."
  15. "Indian subcontinent" > Geology and Geography. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "region, S central Asia, comprising the countries of Pakistan, India, Burma, and Bangladesh and the Himalayan states of Nepal, and Bhutan. Sri Lanka, an island off the southeastern tip of the Indian peninsula, is often considered a part of the subcontinent."
  16. Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tryon, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, pages 787, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 1996, ISBN 3110134179
  17. After partition: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, BBC, 2007-08-08
  18. "Indian subcontinent": Geology and Geography. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "region, S central Asia, comprising the countries of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh and the Himalayan states of Nepal, and Bhutan. Sri Lanka, an island off the southeastern tip of the Indian peninsula, is often considered a part of the subcontinent."
  19. Haggett, Peter (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography (Vol. 1). Marshall Cavendish. m/s. 2710. ISBN 0761472894. 
  20. Dale Hoiberg and Indu Ramchandani, Students' Britannica India (vol. 1‎), page 45, Popular Prakashan, 2000, ISBN 9780852297605
  21. James C. Harle, The art and architecture of the Indian subcontinent, pages 214, Yale University Press, 1994, ISBN 0300062176
  22. Joseph Hackin & Paul Louis Couchoud, The Mythologies of the East: Indian Subcontinent, Middle East, Nepal and Tibet, Indo-China and Java, pages 1, Aryan Books International, 1996, ISBN 817305018X
  23. Chapman, Graham P. & Baker, Kathleen M., eds. The changing geography of Asia. (ISBN 0-203-03862-2) New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002; p. 10: "This greater India is well defined in terms of topography; it is the Indian sub-continent, hemmed in by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east."
  24. 24.0 24.1 Desai, Praful B. 2002. Cancer control efforts in the Indian subcontinent. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32 (Supplement 1): S13-S16. "The Indian subcontinent in South Asia occupies 2.4% of the world land mass and is home to 16.5% of the world population...."
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Asia" > Overview. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The Indian subcontinent is home to a vast diversity of peoples, most of whom speak languages from the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family."
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Indian Subcontinent". Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA (Gale Group), 2006: "The area is divided between five major nation-states, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, and includes as well the two small nations of Bhutan and the Maldives Republic... The total area can be estimated at 4.4 million square kilometers, or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia.... In 2000, the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia."
  27. "Asia" > Geology and Geography. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "Asia can be divided into six regions, each possessing distinctive physical, cultural, economic, and political characteristics.... South Asia (Afghanistan and the nations of the Indian subcontinent) is isolated from the rest of Asia by great mountain barriers."
  28. "Asia" > Geologic history - Tectonic framework. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The paleotectonic evolution of Asia terminated some 50 million years ago as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia. Asia’s subsequent neotectonic development has largely disrupted the continent’s preexisting fabric. The first-order neotectonic units of Asia are Stable Asia, the Arabian and Indian cratons, the Alpide plate boundary zone (along which the Arabian and Indian platforms have collided with the Eurasian continental plate), and the island arcs and marginal basins."