Alternatif untuk Jerman

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Alternatif untuk Jerman
Alternative für Deutschland
KetuaJörg Meuthen
Alexander Gauland
TimbalanGeorg Pazderski
Kay Gottschalk
Albrecht Glaser
Ketua parlimenAlice Weidel
Alexander Gauland
Diasaskan6 Februari 2013
Ibu pejabatSchillstraße 9 10785 Berlin
Sayap beliaPemuda Alternatif untuk Jerman
Keahlian  (2017) 29,000 [1]
IdeologiNasionalisme Jerman[2][3][4]
Populisme sayap-kanan[5]
Euroskeptisisme[6]
Konservatisme nasional[7][8]
Anti-Islam[9][10][11]
Anti-imigrasi[12]
Antifeminisme[13]
Dahulunya - Liberalisme nasional[14]
Kedudukan politiksayap-kanan[15] hingga pelampau-kanan[16]
Penggabungan EropahTiada
Kumpulan Parlimen EropahEFDD
Warna rasmi     Biru muda
     Merah
Bundestag
92 / 709
Parlimen Negeri Jerman
158 / 1,821
Parlimen Eropah
1 / 96
Tapak web
www.afd.de
Politik Germany
Parti politik
Pilihan raya

Alternatif untuk Jerman (Bahasa Jerman: Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) merupakan sebuah parti politik Jerman berfahaman populisme sayap kanan[17][18][19] dan Euroskeptisme.[20][21][22][23]

Partai ini didirikan pada bulan April 2013. Partai ini memenangkan 4.7% suara dalam pilihan raya persekutuan negara tersebut pada tahun itu, hampir-hampir sahaja memperolehi 5% undian untuk melayakkan mendapat kerusi di Bundestag. Pada tahun 2014, parti ini memenangi 7.1% undian dan 7 dari 96 kerusi mewakili Jerman dalam Parlimen Eropah melalui pilihanraya yang dilangsung pada tahun itu, serta tergolong dalam kelompok Konservatif dan Reformis Eropah (ECR) sampai AfD diusir dari kelompok itu pada bulan April 2016 mengikuti aliansi AfD dengan Parti Kemerdekaan Austria dan setelah pemimpin AfD membuat pernyataan kontroversial mengenai suatu usul yang mencadangkan penembakan imigran. Ketika perhimpunan agung parti ini berlangsung pada 30 April 2016, salah satu anggotanya dalan Parlimen Eropah, Marcus Pretzell, mengumumkan niatnya untuk menyertai kelompok Eropah Milik Bangsa-bangsa dan Kebebasan yang merupakan parti pecahan daripada Barisan Nasional di Perancis.[24]

Pada Mei 2017 anggota parti ini telah menduduki 13 dari 16 parlimen di negeri-negeri Jerman.[25] Partai ini buat masa sekarang diketuai oleh Frauke Petry dan Jörg Meuthen.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemilihan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bundestag[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Undian konstituen Senarai undian parti % senarai undian parti Jumlah kerusi yang dimenangi +/–
2013[26] 810,915 2,056,985 4.7%
0 / 631

Parlimen Eropah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Bil. undian % undian Peringkat Bil. kerusi yang dimenangi +/–
2014[27] 2.070.014 7,1% 5
7 / 96

Parlimen Negeri-Negeri (Landtag)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ AfD. 29 December 2017 http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/unionsparteien-verlieren-als-einzige-mitglieder-a-1185418.html.  Missing or empty |title= (bantuan)
  2. ^ Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (18 January 2017). "Germany's Extreme Right Challenges Guilt Over Nazi Past". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ "Understanding the 'Alternative for Germany': Origins, Aims and Consequences" (PDF). University of Denver. 16 November 2016. Dicapai 29 April 2017. 
  4. ^ Beyer, Susanne; Fleischhauer, Jan (30 March 2016). "AfD Head Frauke Petry: 'The Immigration of Muslims Will Change Our Culture'". Der Spiegel. 
  5. ^ "Germany's populist AfD: from anti-euro to anti-migrant". France 24. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 14 March 2016. Dicapai 13 March 2016. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Parties and Election in Europe". 2014. 
  8. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". dalam Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld. Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. m/s. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ Zeller, Frank. "Anti-migrant, anti-Muslim and anti-Merkel, Germany's AfD set to enter parliament". The Times of Israel. The Times of Israel. Dicapai 22 January 2018. 
  11. ^ Horn, Heather. "The Voters Who Want Islam Out of Germany". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Dicapai 22 January 2018. The AfD’s founder Bernd Lucke, an economics professor, left the party last summer, condemning rising xenophobia.  
  12. ^ "German election: Why this vote matters". BBC News. 2017-09-15. Dicapai 2017-09-20. [sumber lebih baik diperlukan]
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Germany's populist AfD seeks to turn online 'censorship' to its advantage. Deutsche welle. Published 2 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
    Germany's right-wing AfD party surges to new high amid concern over refugees.
    'Germany’s eurosceptic right-wing party has hit a new all-time high in the opinion polls as concern about migration rises in the country'.
    Independent. Author – Jon Stone. Published 13 January 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    New poll shows Alternative for Germany gaining support.
    'The right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) has garnered some of its best numbers yet in a nationwide poll'.
    Deutsche Welle. Author – Brandon Conradis. Published 23 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
    Germany's Right-Wing Challenge.
    'All of that is now changing fast, thanks mostly to the rise of the right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) party, which is capitalizing on widespread discontent with Merkel’s refugee policy'.
    Foreign Affairs. Author – Thorsten Benner.
    Published 26 September 2016.
    Retrieved 26 December 2016.
    Right-wing German party Alternative for Germany adopts anti-Islam policy.
    'The right-wing Alternative for Germany party declared that "Islam does not belong in Germany" as it passed its new party manifesto on Sunday'.
    Author – Anne-Beatrice Clasmann.
    The Sydney Morning Herald. Published 2 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    Germany AfD conference: party adopts anti-Islam policy.
    'The German right-wing party Alternative fuer Deutschland (AfD) has adopted an explicitly anti-Islam policy'.
    BBC News. Published 1 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  16. ^ Eddy, Melissa (24 October 2017). "Far Right Upsets Tradition of Consensus in New German Parliament". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. the Alternative for Germany, the first far-right party to enter Parliament in decades, 
  17. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". dalam Eric Langenbacher. The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. m/s. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8. 
  18. ^ Hans-Jürgen Bieling (2015). "Uneven development and 'European crisis constitutionalism', or the reasons for and conditions of a 'passive revolution in trouble'". dalam Johannes Jäger; Elisabeth Springler. Asymmetric Crisis in Europe and Possible Futures: Critical Political Economy and Post-Keynesian Perspectives. Routledge. m/s. 110. ISBN 978-1-317-65298-4. 
  19. ^ Egbert Jahn (2015). German Domestic and Foreign Policy: Political Issues Under Debate -. Springer. m/s. 30. ISBN 978-3-662-47929-2. 
  20. ^ Tom Lansford, penyunting (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. SAGE Publications. m/s. 532. ISBN 978-1-4833-3327-4. 
  21. ^ Kemal Dervis; Jacques Mistral (2014). "Overview". dalam Kemal Dervis; Jacques Mistral. Europe's Crisis, Europe's Future. Brookings Institution Press. m/s. 13. ISBN 978-0-8157-2554-1. 
  22. ^ Robert Ladrech (2014). "Europeanization of National Politics: the centrality of politics parties". dalam José M. Magone. Routledge Handbook of European Politics. Routledge. m/s. 580. ISBN 978-1-317-62836-1. 
  23. ^ William T. Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. m/s. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2. 
  24. ^ "German AfD lawmaker to align with faction of France's National Front". 
  25. ^ "Angela Merkel's party suffers election drubbing in 25-year low" (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 18 September 2016. Dicapai 18 September 2016. 
  26. ^ "Bundestagswahl am 22. September 2013". Wahlrecht.de (dalam bahasa Jerman). Dicapai 2017-04-25. 
  27. ^ "Wahlergebnisse – Europawahl (Europaparlament)". wahlrecht.de (dalam bahasa Jerman). Dicapai 2017-04-25. 

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