Bahasa-bahasa Sino-Tibet

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Sino-Tibet
Taburan
geografi:
Asia Timur, Asia Tenggara, Asia Selatan
Klasifikasi bahasa:Salah satu bahasa keluarga utama dunia
Pembahagian:
  • Kira-kira 40 kumpulan peringkat rendah yang mantap (lihat Van Driem (2011), beberapa yang tidak tergolong dalam Sino-Tibet langsung
  • Banyak cadangan pengkumpulan peringkat tinggi
  • Bahagian tradisional:
  • Sinitik vs. yang lain (Tibeto-Burma)
ISO 639-2 / 5:sit
Glottolog:sino1245
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Peluasan pelbagai cabang Sino-Tibet

Bahasa-bahasa Sino-Tibet ialah sebuah bahasa lebih daripada 400 bahasa ditutur di Asia Timur, Asia Tenggara dan sebahagian Asia Selatan. Keluarga ini ialah hanya kedua kepada bahasa-bahasa Indo-Eropah dalam istilah bilangan penutur asli. Bahasa-bahasa Sino-Tibet dengan penutur asli terbanyak ialah bahasa Cina (1.2 bilion penutur), Burmese (33 juta) dan bahasa-bahasa Tibetik (8 juta). Banyak bahasa-bahasa Sino-Tibet ditutur oleh masyarakat kecil di kawasan gunung terpencil dan kurang didokumenkan.

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  • Baxter, William H. (1992), A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-012324-1.
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (1996), "The Morphological Argument for the Existence of Sino-Tibetan", Pan-Asiatic Linguistics: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics, January 8–10, 1996, Bangkok: Mahidol University at Salaya, halaman 812–826.
  • —— (2002a), "Introduction", dalam Beckwith, Christopher (penyunting), Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages, Brill, halaman xiii–xix, ISBN 978-90-04-12424-0.
  • —— (2002b), "The Sino-Tibetan problem", dalam Beckwith, Christopher (penyunting), Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages, Brill, halaman 113–158, ISBN 978-90-04-12424-0.
  • Benedict, Paul K. (1942), "Thai, Kadai, and Indonesian: A New Alignment in Southeastern Asia", American Anthropologist, 44 (4): 576–601, doi:10.1525/aa.1942.44.4.02a00040, JSTOR 663309.
  • —— (1972), Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus (PDF), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-08175-7.
  • Blench, Roger; Post, Mark (2013), "Rethinking Sino-Tibetan phylogeny from the perspective of North East Indian languages", dalam Hill, Nathan W.; Owen-Smith, Thomas (para penyunting), Trans-Himalayan Linguistics, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, halaman 71–104, ISBN 978-3-11-031083-2.
  • Bodman, Nicholas C. (1980), "Proto-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan: data towards establishing the nature of the relationship", dalam van Coetsem, Frans; Waugh, Linda R. (para penyunting), Contributions to historical linguistics: issues and materials, Leiden: E. J. Brill, halaman 34–199, ISBN 978-90-04-06130-9.
  • Burling, Robbins (1983), "The Sal Languages" (PDF), Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 7 (2): 1–32.
  • DeLancey, Scott (2009), "Sino-Tibetan languages", dalam Comrie, Bernard (penyunting), The World's Major Languages (ed. 2nd), Routledge, halaman 693–702, ISBN 978-1-134-26156-7.
  • van Driem, George (1987), A grammar of Limbu, Mouton grammar library, 4, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-011282-5.
  • —— (1997), "Sino-Bodic", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 60 (3): 455–488, doi:10.1017/S0041977X0003250X.
  • —— (2001), Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-12062-4.
  • —— (2011a), "Tibeto-Burman subgroups and historical grammar", Himalayan Linguistics Journal, 10 (1): 31–39.
  • —— (2011b), "The Trans-Himalayan phylum and its implications for population prehistory" (PDF), Communication on Contemporary Anthropology, 5: 135–142, doi:10.4236/coca.2011.51020.
  • Dryer, Matthew S. (2003), "Word order in Sino-Tibetan languages from a typological and geographical perspective", dalam Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (para penyunting), The Sino-Tibetan languages, London: Routledge, halaman 43–55, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
  • Gong, Hwang-cherng (1980), "A Comparative Study of the Chinese, Tibetan, and Burmese Vowel Systems", Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, 51: 455–489.
  • Hale, Austin (1982), Research on Tibeto-Burman Languages, State-of-the-art report, Trends in linguistics, 14, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-90-279-3379-9.
  • Handel, Zev (2008), "What is Sino-Tibetan? Snapshot of a Field and a Language Family in Flux", Language and Linguistics Compass, 2 (3): 422–441, doi:10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00061.x.
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2012), "The six vowel hypothesis of Old Chinese in comparative context", Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics, 6 (2): 1–69.
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2014), "Cognates of Old Chinese *-n, *-r, and *-j in Tibetan and Burmese", Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, 43 (2): 91–109
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  • Kuhn, Ernst (1889), "Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde Hinterindiens" (PDF), Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Philologische und Historische Klasse, Sitzung vom 2 März 1889: 189–236. Pautan luar dalam |journal= (bantuan)
  • LaPolla, Randy J. (2003), "Overview of Sino-Tibetan morphosyntax", dalam Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (para penyunting), The Sino-Tibetan languages, London: Routledge, halaman 22–42, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
  • Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., para penyunting (2013), Ethnologue: Languages of the World (ed. Seventeenth), Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  • Li, Fang-Kuei (1937), "Languages and Dialects", dalam Shih, Ch'ao-ying; Chang, Ch'i-hsien (para penyunting), The Chinese Year Book, Commercial Press, halaman 59–65, reprinted as Li, Fang-Kuei (1973), "Languages and Dialects of China", Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 1 (1): 1–13.
  • Logan, James R. (1856), "The Maruwi of the Baniak Islands", Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, 1 (1): 1–42.
  • —— (1858), "The West-Himalaic or Tibetan tribes of Asam, Burma and Pegu", Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, 2 (1): 68–114.
  • Matisoff, James A. (1991), "Sino-Tibetan Linguistics: Present State and Future Prospects", Annual Review of Anthropology, 20: 469–504, doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.20.1.469, JSTOR 2155809.
  • —— (2000), "On 'Sino-Bodic' and Other Symptoms of Neosubgroupitis", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 63 (3): 356–369, doi:10.1017/s0041977x00008442, JSTOR 1559492.
  • —— (2003), Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman: System and Philosophy of Sino-Tibetan Reconstruction, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-09843-5.
  • Miller, Roy Andrew (1974), "Sino-Tibetan: Inspection of a Conspectus", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 94 (2): 195–209, JSTOR 600891.
  • Przyluski, J.; Luce, G. H. (1931), "The Number 'A Hundred' in Sino-Tibetan", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 6 (3): 667–668, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00093150.
  • Sagart, Laurent (2005), "Sino-Tibetan–Austronesian: an updated and improved argument", dalam Sagart, Laurent; Blench, Roger; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia (para penyunting), The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics, London: Routledge Curzon, halaman 161–176, ISBN 978-0-415-32242-3.
  • Sapir, Edward (1925), "Review: Les Langues du Monde", Modern Language Notes, 40 (6): 373–375, JSTOR 2914102.
  • Shafer, Robert (1952), "Athapaskan and Sino-Tibetan", International Journal of American Linguistics, 18 (1): 12–19, doi:10.1086/464142, JSTOR 1263121.
  • —— (1955), "Classification of the Sino-Tibetan languages", Word (Journal of the Linguistic Circle of New York), 11 (1): 94–111.
  • —— (1966), Introduction to Sino-Tibetan, 1, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, ISBN 978-3-447-01559-2.
  • Sharma, Devidatta (1988), A Descriptive Grammar of Kinnauri, Mittal Publications, ISBN 978-81-7099-049-9.
  • Thurgood, Graham (2003), "A subgrouping of the Sino-Tibetan languages", dalam Thurgood, Graham; LaPolla, Randy J. (para penyunting), The Sino-Tibetan languages, London: Routledge, halaman 3–21, ISBN 978-0-7007-1129-1.
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