Edith Wilson

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Edith Wilson
Edith Wilson cropped 2.jpg
Wanita Pertama Amerika Syarikat
Dalam peranan
18 Disember 1915 – 4 Mac 1921
PresidenWoodrow Wilson
Didahului olehMargaret Wilson (Pemangku)
Digantikan olehFlorence Harding
Butiran peribadi
LahirEdith Bolling
(1872-10-15)15 Oktober 1872
Wytheville, Virginia, A.S.
Meninggal dunia28 Disember 1961(1961-12-28) (umur 89)
Washington, D.C., A.S.
Tempat persemadianKatedral Nasional Washington
Pasangan
Tandatangan

Edith Wilson (lahir Bolling, dahulunya Edith Bolling Galt; 15 Oktober 1872 – 28 Disember 1961), isteri kedua Presiden A.S. Woodrow Wilson, ialah Wanita Pertama Amerika Syarikat dari tahun 1915 hingga 1921. Dia berkahwin dengan Wilson yang ketika tu seorang duda pada bulan Disember 1915, semasa penggal pertamanya sebagai Presiden.

Presiden Wilson menderita strok teruk pada bulan Oktober 1919. Edith Wilson mula menapis semua perkara negara dan memutuskan perkara yang cukup penting untuk dibawa ke presiden yang sedang sakit. Dengan berbuat demikian, beliau secara de facto menjalankan cabang eksekutif kerajaan untuk baki tempoh kedua presiden, iaitu sehingga Mac 1921.[1]

Gambar Woodrow Wilson yang pertama selepas stroknya. Dia lumpuh di sebelah kirinya, jadi Edith memegang dokumen ketika dia menandatangani. Jun 1920.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ William Elliott Hazelgrove, Madam President: The Secret Presidency of Edith Wilson (Washington, D.C.: Regency Publishing, 2016); Brian Lamb, Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?: A Tour of Presidential Gravesites (New York: Public Affairs, 2010), p. 119; Judith L. Weaver, "Edith Bolling, Wilson as First Lady: A Study in the Power of Personality, 1919-1920," Presidential Studies Quarterly 15, No. 1 (Winter, 1985), pp. 51-76; and Dwight Young and Margaret Johnson, Dear First Lady: Letters to the White House: From the Collections of the Library of Congress & National Archives (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2008), p. 91.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Caroli, Betty Boyd. First Ladies: From Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Foster, Gaines. Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South, 1865 to 1913. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Gould, Lewis L. American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy. Florence, Ky.: Taylor and Francis, 2001.
  • Hagood, Wesley O. Presidential Sex: From the Founding Fathers to Bill Clinton. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub., 1998.
  • Hatch, Alden. Edith Bolling Wilson. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1961.
  • Hazelgrove, William Elliott. Madam President : The Secret Presidency of Edith Wilson. Washington, D.C.: Regency Publishing, 2016.
  • Klapthor, Margaret Brown and Black, Allida M. The First Ladies. Washington, D.C.: White House Historical Association, 2001.
  • Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians & English: Facing Off in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
  • ______. Settling with the Indians: the Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640. New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980.
  • ______. The Atlantic in World History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • ______. The Jamestown Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Markel, Howard. "When a secret president ran the country," PBS News Hour (Oct 2, 2015)
  • Miller, Kristie. Ellen and Edith: Woodrow Wilson's First Ladies. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Lamb, Brian. Who's Buried in Grant's Tomb?: A Tour of Presidential Gravesites. New York: Public Affairs, 2010.
  • Levin, Phyllis Lee. Edith and Woodrow: The Wilson White House. New York: Scribner, 2001. ISBN 0-7432-1158-8
  • Maynard, W. Barksdale. Woodrow Wilson: Princeton to the Presidency. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008.
  • Mayo, Edith. The Smithsonian Book of the First Ladies: Their Lives, Times, and Issues. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1994.
  • McCallops, James S. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson: The Unintended President. New York: Nova History Publications, 2003.
  • Nordhult, J.W. Schulte. Woodrow Wilson: A Life for World Peace. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1991.
  • Phifer, Gregg. Speech Monographs, Vol. 38 Issue 4 (Nov 1971).
  • Robertson, Wyndham. Pocahontas: Alias Matoaka, and Her Descendants through Her Marriage at Jamestown, Virginia, in April 1614, with John Rolph, Gentleman. Richmond, VA: J W Randolph & English, 1887.
  • Schneider, Dorothy and Schneider, Carl J. First Ladies: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Facts On File, 2010.
  • Townshend, Camilla. Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma. New York, NY: Hill and Wang, 2004.
  • Tribble, Edwin. ed. A President in Love : The Courtship Letters of Woodrow Wilson and Edith Bolling Galt. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1981.
  • Tumulty, Joseph Patrick. Woodrow Wilson as I Know Him. New York, NY:, Doubleday, Page & Co., 1921.
  • Waldrup, Carole Chandler. Wives of the American Presidents. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2006.
  • Weaver, Judith L. "Edith Bolling, Wilson as First Lady: A Study in the Power of Personality, 1919-1920," Presidential Studies Quarterly 15, No. 1 (Winter, 1985), pp. 51–76
  • Wertheimer, Molly Meijer. Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
  • Wilson, Edith Bolling Galt. My Memoir. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1939.
  • Young, Dwight and Johnson, Margaret. Dear First Lady: Letters to the White House: From the Collections of the Library of Congress & National Archives. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2008.

External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gelaran Kehormat
Didahului oleh
Margaret Wilson
De facto
Wanita Pertama Amerika Syarikat
1915–1921
Diikuti oleh:
Florence Harding