Kad debit

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Kad debit (juga digelar kad bank atau kad cek) adalah sebuah kad bayaran plastik yang membolehkan pemegang kad untuk menggunakannya bagi tujuan pembelian, dan bukan menggunakan wang tunai. Sesetengah kad boleh bear a stored value dengan bayaran yang dilakukan, manakala kebanyakan menyampaikan mesej kepada bank pemegang kad untuk mengeluarkan wang dari akaun bank pembayar yang ditetapkan. Kad ini, di mana diterima, boleh digunakan dan bukannya tunai semasa membuat pembelian. Dalam beberapa kes, nombor akaun utama yang diberikan semata-mata untuk kegunaan di Internet dan tidak ada kad fizikal.

Di kebanyakan negara, penggunaan kad debit telah menjadi begitu meluas bahawa jumlah mereka telah mengatasi atau sepenuhnya diganti semak dan, dalam beberapa kes, urus niaga tunai. Pembangunan kad debit, tidak seperti kad kredit dan kad caj, secara umumnya negara tertentu menyebabkan beberapa sistem yang berbeza di seluruh dunia, yang sering tidak serasi. Sejak pertengahan 2000-an, beberapa inisiatif telah dibenarkan kad debit yang dikeluarkan di satu negara yang akan digunakan di negara-negara lain dan dibenarkan penggunaannya untuk internet dan telefon pembelian.

Tidak seperti kad kredit dan kad caj, bayaran menggunakan kad debit serta-merta dipindahkan dari akaun bank pemegang kad yang ditetapkan, dan bukannya mereka membayar wang kembali di kemudian hari.

Kad debit biasanya juga membolehkan pengeluaran wang tunai segera, bertindak sebagai ATM kad untuk mengeluarkan wang tunai. Peniaga juga boleh menawarkan cashback kemudahan kepada pengguna yang mana pelanggan boleh mengeluarkan wang tunai bersama-sama dengan pembelian mereka.

{{==Jenis sistem kad debit==

An example of the front of a typical debit card:
  1. Mengeluarkan logo bank
  2. Cip EMV (pilihan dan boleh bergantung kepada institusi yang mengeluarkan atau bank)
  3. Hologram (dalam sesetengah kad ia terletak di belakang terutama dalam kebanyakan MasterCard)
  4. Card number (mungkin berbeza-beza panjang tetapi kebanyakannya 16-digit yang unik dengan 4 digit terakhir. Walau bagaimanapun dalam kes-kes seperti makan malam Cari, Diner itu Club, UnionPay & American Express ia mempunyai nombor kad 15-digit yang unik)
  5. Logo jenama kad
  6. Tarikh luput
  7. Nama pemegang kad
An example of the reverse side of a typical debit card:

There are currently three ways that debit card transactions are processed: EFTPOS (also known as online debit or PIN debit), offline debit (also known as signature debit) and the Electronic Purse Card System.[1] One physical card can include the functions of all three types, so that it can be used in a number of different circumstances.

Although many debit cards are of the Visa or MasterCard brand, there are many other types of debit card, each accepted only within a particular country or region, for example Switch (now: Maestro) and Solo in the United Kingdom, Interac in Canada, Carte Bleue in France, EC electronic cash (formerly Eurocheque) in Germany, UnionPay in China, RuPay in India and EFTPOS cards in Australia and New Zealand. The need for cross-border compatibility and the advent of the euro recently led to many of these card networks (such as Switzerland's "EC direkt", Austria's "Bankomatkasse" and Switch in the United Kingdom) being re-branded with the internationally recognised Maestro logo, which is part of the MasterCard brand. Some debit cards are dual branded with the logo of the (former) national card as well as Maestro (for example, EC cards in Germany, Switch and Solo in the UK, Pinpas cards in the Netherlands, Bancontact cards in Belgium, etc.). The use of a debit card system allows operators to package their product more effectively while monitoring customer spending.

Sistem debit talian

Kad debit dalam talian memerlukan kebenaran elektronik setiap transaksi debit dan ini dinyatakan di dalam akaun pengguna serta-merta. Urus niaga itu boleh juga diperolehi dengan sistem pengesahan nombor pengenalan peribadi (PIN); beberapa kad dalam talian memerlukan pengesahan itu bagi setiap transaksi, pada dasarnya menjadi dipertingkatkan kad (ATM) mesin juruwang automatik .

Satu masalah dengan menggunakan kad debit dalam talian adalah keperluan bagi peranti elektronik kuasa di tempat jualan (POS) dan kadang-kadang juga yang berasingan PINpad.88877 untuk memasukkan PIN, walaupun ini adalah menjadi perkara biasa untuk semua kad transaksi di banyak negara.

Secara keseluruhan, kad debit online secara umumnya dilihat sebagai lebih tinggi daripada kad debit luar talian kerana sistem yang lebih selamat dan pengesahan status hidup, yang melegakan masalah dengan pemprosesan lag pada transaksi yang hanya boleh mengeluarkan kad debit dalam talian. Sesetengah sistem debit dalam talian menggunakan proses pengesahan biasa perbankan Internet untuk menyediakan masa sebenar transaksi debit dalam talian.

Offline debit system

Offline debit cards have the logos of major credit cards (for example, Visa or MasterCard) or major debit cards (for example, Maestro in the United Kingdom and other countries, but not the United States) and are used at the point of sale like a credit card (with payer's signature). This type of debit card may be subject to a daily limit, and/or a maximum limit equal to the current/checking account balance from which it draws funds. Transactions conducted with offline debit cards require 2–3 days to be reflected on users’ account balances.

In some countries and with some banks and merchant service organizations, a "credit" or offline debit transaction is without cost to the purchaser beyond the face value of the transaction, while a fee may be charged for a "debit" or online debit transaction (although it is often absorbed by the retailer). Other differences are that online debit purchasers may opt to withdraw cash in addition to the amount of the debit purchase (if the merchant supports that functionality); also, from the merchant's standpoint, the merchant pays lower fees on online debit transaction as compared to "credit" (offline)

Electronic purse card system

Smart-card-based electronic purse systems (in which value is stored on the card chip, not in an externally recorded account, so that machines accepting the card need no network connectivity) are in use throughout Europe since the mid-1990s, most notably in Germany (Geldkarte), Austria (Quick Wertkarte), the Netherlands (Chipknip), Belgium (Proton), Switzerland (CASH) and France (Moneo, which is usually carried by a debit card). In Austria and Germany, almost all current bank cards now include electronic purses, whereas the electronic purse has been recently phased out in the Netherlands.

Prepaid debit cards

Prepaid debit cards, also called reloadable debit cards, appeal to a variety of users. The primary market for prepaid cards are unbanked people,[2] that is, people who do not use banks or credit unions for their financial transactions, possibly because of poor credit ratings.[3]

The advantages of prepaid debit cards include being safer than carrying cash, worldwide functionality due to Visa and MasterCard merchant acceptance, not having to worry about paying a credit card bill or going into debt, the opportunity for anyone over the age of 18 to apply and be accepted without regard to credit quality and the option to direct deposit paychecks and government benefits onto the card for free.[4] The prepaid bank card, called "Bank Gift Card", was invented in 2001 by a Frenchman, Laurent Granier who has two patents and copyrights (2001 and 2002), under the commercial name "SPIDERCUARD" (Trade Mark). Some of the first companies to enter this market were: MiCash, RushCard and Netspend, who gained market share as a result of being first to market. However, since 1999, there have been several new providers, such as TransCash, 247card and iKobo, that offer a number of other benefits, such as money remittance services, card-to-card transfers, and the ability to apply without a social security number.[petikan diperlukan]

As of 2013, several city governments (including Oakland, California[5] and Chicago, Illinois[6]) are now offering prepaid debit cards, either as part of a municipal ID card (for persons such as undocumented immigrants, who are unable to obtain a state driver's license or DMV ID card) in the case of Oakland, or in conjunction with a prepaid transit pass (Chicago). These cards have been heavily criticized[7][8] for their higher-than-average fees, including some (such as a flat fee added onto every purchase made with the card) that similar products offered by Green Dot and American Express do not have.

The U.S. federal government uses prepaid debit cards to make benefits payments to people who do not have bank accounts. In 2008, the U.S. Treasury Department paired with Comerica Bank to offer the Direct Express Debit MasterCard prepaid debit card.[9]

In July 2013, the Association of Government Accountants released a report on government use of prepaid cards, concluding that such programs offer a number of advantages to governments and those who receive payments on a prepaid card rather than by check. The prepaid card programs benefit payments largely for cost savings they offer and provide easier access to cash for recipients, as well as increased security. The report also advises that governments should consider replacing any remaining cheque-based payments with prepaid card programs in order to realize substantial savings for taxpayers, as well as benefits for payees.[10]}}]]}}☆☆☆

Consumer protection[sunting | sunting sumber]

Consumer protections vary, depending on the network used. Visa and MasterCard, for instance, prohibit minimum and maximum purchase sizes, surcharges, and arbitrary security procedures on the part of merchants. Merchants are usually charged higher transaction fees for credit transactions, since debit network transactions are less likely to be fraudulent. This may lead them to "steer" customers to debit transactions. Consumers disputing charges may find it easier to do so with a credit card, since the money will not immediately leave their control. Fraudulent charges on a debit card can also cause problems with a checking account because the money is withdrawn immediately and may thus result in an overdraft or bounced checks. In some cases debit card-issuing banks will promptly refund any disputed charges until the matter can be settled, and in some jurisdictions the consumer liability for unauthorized charges is the same for both debit and credit cards.

In some countries, like India and Sweden, the consumer protection is the same regardless of the network used. Some banks set minimum and maximum purchase sizes, mostly for online-only cards. However, this has nothing to do with the card networks, but rather with the bank's judgement of the person's age and credit records. Any fees that the customers have to pay to the bank are the same regardless of whether the transaction is conducted as a credit or as a debit transaction, so there is no advantage for the customers to choose one transaction mode over another. Shops may add surcharges to the price of the goods or services in accordance with laws allowing them to do so. Banks consider the purchases as having been made at the moment when the card was swiped, regardless of when the purchase settlement was made. Regardless of which transaction type was used, the purchase may result in an overdraft because the money is considered to have left the account at the moment of the card swiping.

Financial access[sunting | sunting sumber]

Debit cards and secured credit cards are popular among college students who have not yet established a credit history. Debit cards may also be used by expatriated workers to send money home to their families holding an affiliated debit card.

Issues with deferred posting of offline debit[sunting | sunting sumber]

To the consumer, a debit transaction is perceived as occurring in real-time; i.e. the money is withdrawn from their account immediately following the authorization request from the merchant, which in many countries, is the case when making an online debit purchase. However, when a purchase is made using the "credit" (offline debit) option, the transaction merely places an authorization hold on the customer's account; funds are not actually withdrawn until the transaction is reconciled and hard-posted to the customer's account, usually a few days later. However, the previous sentence applies to all kinds of transaction types, at least when using a card issued by a European bank. This is in contrast to a typical credit card transaction; though it can also have a lag time of a few days before the transaction is posted to the account, it can be many days to a month or more before the consumer makes repayment with actual money.

Because of this, in the case of a benign or malicious error by the merchant or bank, a debit transaction may cause more serious problems (for example, money not accessible; overdrawn account) than in the case of a credit card transaction (for example, credit not accessible; over credit limit). This is especially true in the United States, where check fraud is a crime in every state, but exceeding your credit limit is not.

Internet purchases[sunting | sunting sumber]

Debit cards may also be used on the Internet either with or without using a PIN. Internet transactions may be conducted in either online or offline mode, although shops accepting online-only cards are rare in some countries (such as Sweden), while they are common in other countries (such as the Netherlands). For a comparison, PayPal offers the customer to use an online-only Maestro card if the customer enters a Dutch address of residence, but not if the same customer enters a Swedish address of residence.

Internet purchases can be authenticated by the consumer entering their PIN if the merchant has enabled a secure online PIN pad, in which case the transaction is conducted in debit mode. Otherwise, transactions may be conducted in either credit or debit mode (which is sometimes, but not always, indicated on the receipt), and this has nothing to do with whether the transaction was conducted on online or offline mode, since both credit and debit transactions may be conducted in both modes.

Debit cards around the world[sunting | sunting sumber]

In some countries, banks tend to levy a small fee for each debit card transaction. In some countries (for example, the UK) the merchants bear all the costs and customers are not charged. There are many people who routinely use debit cards for all transactions, no matter how small. Some (small) retailers refuse to accept debit cards for small transactions, where paying the transaction fee would absorb the profit margin on the sale, making the transaction uneconomic for the retailer.

Angola[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Multicaixa

The banks in Angola issue by official regulation only one brand of debit cards: Multicaixa, which is also the brand name of the one and only network of ATMs and POS terminals.

Armenia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Armenian_Card

ArCa (Armenian Card) - a national system of debit (ArCa Debit and ArCa Classic) and credit (ArCa Gold, ArCa Business, ArCA Platinum, ArCa Affinity and ArCa Co-branded) cards popular in the Republic of Armenia. Established in 2000 by 17 largest Armenian banks.

Australia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: EFTPOS

Debit cards in Australia are called different names depending on the issuing bank: Commonwealth Bank of Australia: Keycard; Westpac Banking Corporation: Handycard; National Australia Bank: FlexiCard; ANZ Bank: Access card; Bendigo Bank: Cashcard.

EFTPOS is very popular in Australia and has been operating there since the 1980s. EFTPOS-enabled cards are accepted at almost all swipe terminals able to accept credit cards, regardless of the bank that issued the card, including Maestro cards issued by foreign banks, with most businesses accepting them, with 450,000 point of sale terminals.[11]

EFTPOS cards can also be used to deposit and withdraw cash over the counter at Australia Post outlets participating in GiroPost, just as if the transaction was conducted at a bank branch, even if the bank branch is closed. Electronic transactions in Australia are generally processed via the Telstra Argent and Optus Transact Plus network - which has recently superseded the old Transcend network in the last few years. Most early keycards were only usable for EFTPOS and at ATM or bank branches, whilst the new debit card system works in the same ways a credit card, except it will only use funds in the specified bank account. This means that, among other advantages, the new system is suitable for electronic purchases without a delay of two to four days for bank-to-bank money transfers.

Australia operates both electronic credit card transaction authorization and traditional EFTPOS debit card authorization systems, the difference between the two being that EFTPOS transactions are authorized by a personal identification number (PIN) while credit card transactions can additionally be authorized using a contactless payment mechanism or the printing and signing of a paper receipt (although popularity of signature authorization is in sharp decline). If the user fails to enter the correct pin three times, the consequences range from the card being locked out for a minimum 24-hour period, a phone call or trip to the branch to reactivate with a new PIN, the card being cut up by the merchant, or in the case of an ATM, being kept inside the machine, both of which require a new card to be ordered.

Generally credit card transaction costs are borne by the merchant with no fee applied to the end user (although a direct consumer surcharge of 0.5 - 3% is not uncommon) while EFTPOS transactions cost the consumer an applicable withdrawal fee charged by their bank.

The introduction of Visa and MasterCard debit cards along with regulation in the settlement fees charged by the operators of both EFTPOS and credit cards by the Reserve Bank has seen a continuation in the increasing ubiquity of credit card use among Australians and a general decline in the profile of EFTPOS. However, the regulation of settlement fees also removed the ability of banks, who typically provide merchant services to retailers on behalf of Visa, MasterCard or Bankcard, from stopping those retailers charging extra fees to take payment by credit card instead of cash or EFTPOS.

Bahrain[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Bahrain debit cards are under Benefit, the interbanking network for Bahrain. Benefit is also accepted in other countries though, mainly GCC, similar to the Saudi Payments Network and the Kuwaiti KNET.

Brazil[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Brazil debit cards are called cartão de débito (singular) and are getting increasingly popular[12] as a replacement for cheques, which are still uncommonly popular in the country.

Bulgaria[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Bulgaria debit cards are allowed in almost all stores and shops, as well as in the most of the hotels and restaurants in the bigger cities. Smaller restaurants or small shops will probably accept cash only. All Bulgarian banks can provide debit cards when you open a bank account, for maintenance costs. Usually debit cards used on ATMs owned by the same bank do not cost a thing, and used on ATMs of other banks costs low (3-10 times cheaper than using credit card). The most common cards in Bulgaria are Maestro and Visa Electron, accepted everywhere together with VISA and MasterCard.

Kanada[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Interac

Canada has a nationwide EFTPOS system, called Interac Direct Payment. Since being introduced in 1994, IDP has become the most popular payment method in the country. Previously, debit cards have been in use for ABM usage since the late 1970s, with Credit Unions in Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada introducing the first card-based, networked ATMs beginning in June, 1977. Debit Cards, which could be used anywhere a credit card was accepted, were first introduced in Canada by Saskatchewan Credit Unions in 1982.[13] In the early 1990s, pilot projects were conducted among Canada's six largest banks to gauge security, accuracy and feasibility of the Interac system. Slowly in the later half of the 1990s, it was estimated that approximately 50% of retailers offered Interac as a source of payment. Retailers, many small transaction retailers like coffee shops, resisted offering IDP to promote faster service. In 2009, 99% of retailers offer IDP as an alternative payment form.

In Canada, the debit card is sometimes referred to as a "bank card". It is a client card issued by a bank that provides access to funds and other bank account transactions, such as transferring funds, checking balances, paying bills, etc., as well as point of purchase transactions connected on the Interac network. Since its national launch in 1994, Interac Direct Payment has become so widespread that, as of 2001, more transactions in Canada were completed using debit cards than cash.[14] This popularity may be partially attributable to two main factors: the convenience of not having to carry cash, and the availability of automated bank machines (ABMs) and Direct Payment merchants on the network.

Debit cards may be considered similar to stored-value cards in that they represent a finite amount of money owed by the card issuer to the holder. They are different in that stored-value cards are generally anonymous and are only usable at the issuer, while debit cards are generally associated with an individual's bank account and can be used anywhere on the Interac network.

In Canada, the bank cards can be used at POS and ABMs. Interac Online has also been introduced in recent years allowing clients of most major Canadian banks to use their debit cards for online payment with certain merchants as well. Certain financial institutions also allow their clients to use their debit cards in the United States on the NYCE network.[15]

Perlindungan pengguna di Kanada[sunting | sunting sumber]

Consumers in Canada are protected under a voluntary code entered into by all providers of debit card services, The Canadian Code of Practice for Consumer Debit Card Services[16] (sometimes called the "Debit Card Code"). Adherence to the Code is overseen by the Financial Consumer Agency of Canada (FCAC), which investigates consumer complaints.

According to the FCAC website, revisions to the Code that came into effect in 2005 put the onus on the financial institution to prove that a consumer was responsible for a disputed transaction, and also place a limit on the number of days that an account can be frozen during the financial institution's investigation of a transaction.

Chile[sunting | sunting sumber]

Chile has an EFTPOS system called Redcompra (Purchase Network) which is currently used in at least 23,000 establishments throughout the country. Goods may be purchased using this system at most supermarkets, retail stores, pubs and restaurants in major urban centers.

Colombia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Colombia has a system called Redeban-Multicolor and Credibanco Visa which are currently used in at least 23,000 establishments throughout the country. Goods may be purchased using this system at most supermarkets, retail stores, pubs and restaurants in major urban centers. Colombian debit cards are Maestro (pin), Visa Electron (pin), Visa Debit (as Credit) and MasterCard-Debit (as Credit).

Denmark[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Danish debit card Dankort was introduced on 1 September 1983, and despite the initial transactions being paper-based, the Dankort quickly won widespread acceptance in Denmark. By 1985 the first EFTPOS terminals were introduced, and 1985 was also the year when the number of Dankort transactions first exceeded 1 million.[17] Today the Dankort is primarily issued as a multicard combining the Danish Dankort with the more international recognized VISA (denoted simply as a "VISA/Dankort" card). In September 2008, 4 mio cards have been issued, whereas 3 mio cards were VISA/Dankort -cards. It is also possible to get a Visa Electron debit card and MasterCard.

Miscellaneous facts & numbers

  • In 2007 PBS, the Danish operator of the Dankort system, processed a total of 737 million Dankort transactions.[18] Of these, 4.5 million just on a single day, 21 December. This remains the current record.
  • At the end of 2007, there were 3.9 million Dankort in existence.[18]
  • More than 80,000 Danish shops have a Dankort terminal. Another 11,000 internet shops also accept the Dankort.[18]

Finland[sunting | sunting sumber]

Most daily customer transactions are carried out with debit cards or online giro/electronic bill payment, although credit cards and cash are accepted. Checks are no longer used. Prior to European standardization, Finland had a national standard (pankkikortti). Physically, a pankkikortti was the same as an international credit card, and the same card imprinters and slips were used for pankkikortti and credit cards, but the cards were not accepted abroad. This has now been replaced by the Visa and MasterCard debit card systems, and Finnish cards can be used elsewhere in the European Union and the world.

An electronic purse system, with a chipped card, was introduced, but did not gain much traction.

Signing a payment offline entails incurring debt, thus offline payment is not available to minors. However, online transactions are permitted, and since almost all stores have electronic terminals, today also minors can use debit cards. Previously, only cash withdrawal from ATMs was available to minors (automaattikortti or Visa).

Perancis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Carte Bancaire (CB), the national payment scheme, in 2008, had 57.5 million cards carrying its logo and 7,76 billion transactions (POS and ATM) were processed through the e-rsb network (135 transactions per card mostly debit or deferred debit). Most CB cards are debit cards, either debit or deferred debit. Less than 10% of CB cards were credit cards.

Banks in France charge annual fees for debit cards (despite card payments being very cost efficient for the banks), yet they do not charge personal customers for checkbooks or processing checks (despite checks being very costly for the banks). This imbalance dates from the unilateral introduction in France of Chip and PIN debit cards in the early 1990s, when the cost of this technology was much higher than it is now. Credit cards of the type found in the United Kingdom and United States are unusual in France and the closest equivalent is the deferred debit card, which operates like a normal debit card, except that all purchase transactions are postponed until the end of the month, thereby giving the customer between 1 and 31 days of interest-free credit.

The annual fee for a deferred debit card is around €10 more than for one with immediate debit. Most France debit cards are branded with the Carte Bleue logo, which assures acceptance throughout France. Most card holders choose to pay around €5 more in their annual fee to additionally have a Visa or a MasterCard logo on their Carte Bleue, so that the card is accepted internationally. A Carte Bleue without a Visa or a MasterCard logo is often known as a "Carte Bleue Nationale" and a Carte Bleue with a Visa or a MasterCard logo is known as a "Carte Bleue Internationale", or more frequently, simply called a "Visa" or "MasterCard".

Many smaller merchants in France refuse to accept debit cards for transactions under a certain amount because of the minimum fee charged by merchants' banks per transaction (this minimum amount varies from €5 to €15.25, or in some rare cases even more). But more and more merchants accept debit cards for small amounts, due to the massive daily use of debit card nowadays. Merchants in France do not differentiate between debit and credit cards, and so both have equal acceptance. It is legal in France to set a minimum amount to transactions, but the merchants must display it clearly.

Jerman[sunting | sunting sumber]

Debit cards have enjoyed wide acceptance in Germany for years. Facilities already existed before EFTPOS became popular with the Eurocheque card, an authorization system initially developed for paper checks where, in addition to signing the actual check, customers also needed to show the card alongside the check as a security measure. Those cards could also be used at ATMs and for card-based electronic funds transfer (called Girocard) with PIN entry. These are now the only functions of such cards: the Eurocheque system (along with the brand) was abandoned in 2002 during the transition from the Deutsche Mark to the euro. As of 2005, most stores and petrol outlets have EFTPOS facilities. Processing fees are paid by the businesses, which leads to some business owners refusing debit card payments for sales totalling less than a certain amount, usually 5 or 10 euro.

To avoid the processing fees, many businesses resorted to using direct debit, which is then called electronic direct debit (Bahasa Jerman: Elektronisches Lastschriftverfahren, abbr. ELV). The point-of-sale terminal reads the bank sort code and account number from the card but instead of handling the transaction through the Girocard network it simply prints a form, which the customer signs to authorise the debit note. However, this method also avoids any verification or payment guarantee provided by the network. Further, customers can return debit notes by notifying their bank without giving a reason. This means that the beneficiary bears the risk of fraud and illiquidity. Some business mitigate the risk by consulting a proprietary blacklist or by switching to Girocard for higher transaction amounts.

Around 2000, an Electronic Purse Card was introduced, dubbed Geldkarte ("money card"). It makes use of the smart card chip on the front of the standard issue debit card. This chip can be charged with up to 200 euro, and is advertised as a means of making medium to very small payments, even down to several euros or cent payments. The key factor here is that no processing fees are deducted by banks. It did not gain the popularity its inventors had hoped for. However, this could change as this chip is now used as means of age verification at cigarette vending machines, which has been mandatory since January 2007. Furthermore, some payment discounts are being offered (e.g. a 10% reduction for public transport fares) when paying with "Geldkarte". The "Geldkarte" payment lacks all security measures, since it does not require the user to enter a PIN or sign a sales slip: the loss of a "Geldkarte" is similar to the loss of a wallet or purse - anyone who finds it can then use their find to pay for their own purchases.

Hong Kong[sunting | sunting sumber]

A popular payment instant method widely used in Hong Kong is EPS. Bank customers can use their ATM card to make an instant EPS payment, much like a debit card. Most banks in Hong Kong provide ATM cards with EPS capability.

The British banking firm HSBC's subsidiary Hang Seng Bank's Enjoy card is the only Visa debit card available in Hong Kong. It is linked to the cardholder's savings or transactional account and funds can be moved upon request or on a regularly scheduled basis to cover the charges that are incurred, whether in person or on-line. Overdraft privileges are not offered for holders of this card. The card is in limited use due to the virtual monopoly of the EPS Corporation which is co-owned by 21 major banks. EPS can be utilised overseas only in limited circumstances, such as for POS transactions. The Mainland Chinese and Indian equivalents of EPS, UnionPay and RuPay, can on the other hand be utilised overseas more extensively, for example at ATMs, casinoes, and hotels.

Hungary[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Hungary debit cards are far more common and popular than credit cards. Many Hungarians even refer to their debit card ("betéti kártya") mistakenly using the word for credit card ("hitelkártya").[19]

India[sunting | sunting sumber]

The debit card had limited popularity in India as the merchant is charged for each transaction. The debit card was mostly used for ATM transactions. RBI has announced that such fee are not justified so the transaction has no processing fee.[20] Most Indian banks issue Visa debit cards, though some banks (like SBI and Citibank India) also issue Maestro cards. The debit card transactions are routed through Visa or MasterCard networks in India and overseas rather than directly via the issuing bank.

The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) has launched a new card called RuPay.[21] It is similar to Singapore's NETS and Mainland China's UnionPay [22][23]

Indonesia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jenama milik asing yang mengeluarkan kad debit Indonesia termasuk Visa, Maestro, MasterCard, dan MEPS. Milik tempatan rangkaian kad debit yang beroperasi di indonesia termasuk Debit BCA (dan yang Prima rakan rangkaian, Prima Debit) dan Mandiri Debit.

Iraq[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dua bank milik negara terbesar Iraq, Bank Rafidain dan Bank Rasheed, bersama-sama dengan Sistem Pembayaran Elektronik Iraq (IEPS) telah menubuhkan syarikat yang dipanggil International Smart Card, yang telah membangunkan kad kredit kebangsaan yang dikenali sebagai 'Qi kad', yang mereka telah dikeluarkan sejak 2008. Menurut laman web syarikat: 'selepas kurang dari dua tahun pelancarannya awal penyelesaian kad Qi, kami telah mencecah 1.6 juta pemegang kad yang mempunyai potensi untuk mengeluarkan 2 juta kad pada akhir tahun 2010, mengeluarkan kira-kira 100,000 kad bulanan adalah bukti kepada kejayaan besar penyelesaian kad Qi. Selari dengan ini akan menjadi pengembangan ke kedai runcit melalui rangkaian titik jualan kira-kira 30,000 unit menjelang 2015

Ireland[sunting | sunting sumber]

Today, Irish debit cards are exclusively Chip and PIN and almost entirely Visa Debit credit card lookalikes. These can be used anywhere the Visa logo is seen and in much the same way as a credit card. MasterCard debit is also used by a small minority of institutions and operates in a very similar manner.

Irish debit cards are normally multi-functional and combine ATM card facilities. The cards are also sometimes used for authenticating transactions together with a card reader for 2-factor authentication on online banking.

The majority of Irish Visa Debit cards are also enabled for contactless payment for small, frequent transactions (with a maximum value of €15 or €30). Three consecutive contactless transactions are allowed, after which, the card software will refuse contactless transactions until a standard Chip and PIN transaction has been completed and the counter resets. This measure was put in place to minimise issuers' exposure to fraudulent charges.

The cards are usually processed online, but some cards can also be processed offline depending on the rules applied by the card issuer.

A number of card issuers also provide prepaid debit card accounts primarily for use as gift cards / vouchers or for added security and anonymity online. These may be disposable or reloadable and are usually either Visa or MasterCard branded.

Previous system (defunct since 28 February 2014):

Laser was launched by the Irish banks in 1996 as an extension of the existing ATM and Cheque guarantee card systems that had existed for many years. When the service was added, it became possible to make payments with a multifunctional card that combined ATM, cheque and debit card and international ATM facilities through MasterCard Cirrus or Visa Plus and sometimes the British Link ATM system. Their functionality was similar to the British Switch card.

The system first launched as a swipe & sign card and could be used in Ireland in much the same way as a credit card and were compatible standard card terminals (online or offline, although they were usually processed online). They could also be used in cardholder-not-present transactions over the phone, by mail or on the internet or for processing recurring payments. Laser also offered 'cash back' facilities where customers could ask retailers (where offered) for an amount of cash along with their transaction. This service allowed retailers to reduce volumes of cash in tills and allowed consumers to avoid having to use ATMs. Laser adopted EMV 'Chip and PIN' security in 2002 in common with other credit and debit cards right across Europe. In 2005, some banks issued customers with Lasers cards that were cobranded with Maestro. This allowed them to be used in POS terminals overseas, internet transactions were usually restricted to sites that specifically accepted Laser.

Since 2006, Irish banks have progressively replaced Laser with international schemes, primarily Visa Debit and by 28 February 2014 the Laser Card system had been withdrawn entirely and is no longer accepted by retailers.

Israel[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Israel bank card system is somewhat confusing to newcomers, comprising a blend of features taken from different types of cards. What may be referred to as a credit card, is most likely to be a deferred debit card on an associated bank current account, the most common type of card in Israel, somewhat like the situation in France, though the term "debit card" is not in common usage. Cards are nearly universally called cartis eshrei (כרטיס אשראי), literally, "credit card", a term which may bely the card's characteristics. Its main feature may be a direct link to a connected bank account (through which they are mostly issued), with the total value of the transactions made on the card being debited from the bank account in full on a regular date once a month,without the option to carry the balance over; indeed certain types of transactions (such as online and/or foreign currency) may be debited direct from the connected bank account at the time of the transaction. Any such limited credit enjoyed is a result of the customer's assets and credibility with the bank, and not granted by the credit card company.[24] The card usually enables immediate ATM cash withdrawals & balance inquiries (as debit cards do), instalment & deferred charge interest free transactions offered by merchants (also applicable in Brazil), interest bearing instalment plans/deferred charge/revolving credit which is transaction specific at the point of sale (though granted by the issuer, hence the interest), and a variety of automated/upon request types of credit schemes including loans, some of which revolve or resemble the extended payment options sometimes offered by charge cards.

Thus the "true" debit card is not so common in Israel, though it has existed since 1994. It is offered by two credit companies in Israel: One is ICC, short for "Israeli Credit Cards" ( referred to as "CAL", an acronym formed from its abbreviation in Hebrew), which issues it in the form of a Visa Electron card valid only in Israel. It is offered mainly through the Israel Post (post office) bank[25] (which is not allowed, by regulation, to offer any type of credit) or through Israel Discount Bank, its main owner (where it is branded as "Discount Money Key" card). This branded Israel Discount Bank branded debit card also offered as valid worldwide card, either as Visa Electron or MasterCard Debit cards.[26] The second debit card is offered by the Isracard consortium to its affiliate banks and is branded "Direct". It is valid only in Israel, under its local & unique - though immensely popular - private label brand, as "Isracard Direct" (which was known as "Electro Cheque" until 2002 and while the local brand Isracard is often viewed as a MasterCard for local use only). Since 2006, Isracard has also offered an international version, branded "MasterCard Direct", which is less common. These two debit card brands operate offline in Israel (meaning the transaction operates under the credit cards systems & debited officially from the cardholder account only few days later, after being processed - though reflected on the current account immediately). In 2014 the Isracard Direct card (a.k.a. the valid only in Israel version) was relaunched as Isracash,[27] though the former subbrand still being marketed - & replaced ICC Visa Electron as Israel Post bank debit card.[28]

Overall, banks routinely offer deferred debit cards to their new customers, with "true" debit cards usually offered only to those who cannot obtain credit. These latter cards are not attractive to the average customer since they attract both a monthly fee from the credit company and a bank account fee for each day's debits. Isracard Direct is by far more common than the ICC Visa Electron debit card. Banks who issue mainly Visa cards will rather offer electronic use, mandate authorized transaction only, unembossed version of Visa Electron deferred debit cards (branded as "Visa Basic" or "Visa Classic") to its customers - sometimes even in the form of revolving credit card.

Credit/debit card transactions in Israel are not PIN based (other than at ATMs) and it is only in recent years that EMV chip smart cards have begun to be issued, with the Bank of Israel ordering the banks and credit card companies - in 2013 - to switch customers to credit cards with the EMV security standard within 3.5 years.[29]

Itali[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kad debit adalah agak popular di Itali. Terdapat kedua-dua kad klasik dan prabayar. Kad debit klasik utama di Itali adalah Bancomat/PagoBancomat: ini jenis kad yang dikeluarkan oleh bank-bank Itali. Bancomat adalah jenama komersial untuk litar pengeluaran tunai, manakala PagoBancomat digunakan untuk transaksi POS. Tidak seperti negara-negara Eropah yang lain seperti UK, hanya beberapa bank Itali yang mengeluarkan kad debit Visa / MasterCard (seperti Intesa Sanpaolo NextCard). Litar debit antarabangsa utama yang digunakan oleh bank-bank Itali adalah Maestro: atas sebab ini hampir setiap kad debit yang dikeluarkan di Itali mempunyai kedua-dua PagoBancomat dan logo Maestro, dengan Bancomat / PagoBancomat digunakan di Itali dan litar Maestro apabila di luar negara. Kadang-kadang, daripada menggunakan litar Maestro itu, kad debit / PagoBancomat Bancomat dikeluarkan bersama-sama dengan V-Pay atau logo Visa Electron, atau kadang-kadang dengan fungsi kad kredit (sehingga anda mendapatkan kad dual-mode). Dalam kes terakhir ini, hanya mod kad kredit dibenarkan untuk ke luar negara/transaksi Internet, manakala mod kad debit hanya digunakan di Itali. Yang paling popular kad debit prabayar adalah "Postepay". Ia dikeluarkan oleh Poste Italiane SpA, dan berjalan di atas litar Visa Electron. Ia boleh digunakan di ATM Poste Italiane ini (Postamat) dan ATM bank Electron riba Visa di seluruh dunia. Ia tidak mempunyai yuran apabila digunakan di Internet dan dalam urus niaga berasaskan POS. Kad-kad lain yang dikeluarkan oleh syarikat-syarikat lain, seperti Vodafone CashCard, Carta Jeans Banca Popolare di Milano dan Carta Moneta Online.

Jepun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Jepun orang biasanya menggunakan mereka kad tunai (キャッシュカード, kyasshu kādo), asalnya bertujuan hanya untuk kegunaan dengan mesin wang tunai, kad debit. Fungsi debit kad ini biasanya disebut sebagai J-Debit (ジェイデビット, Jeidebitto), dan kad tunai sahaja dari bank-bank tertentu boleh digunakan. Kad tunai mempunyai saiz yang sama sebagai Visa/MasterCard. Sebagai pengenalan, pengguna akan perlu memasukkan atau PIN empat angka ketika membayar. J-Debit telah dimulakan di Jepun pada 6 Mac 2000. Walau bagaimanapun, J-Debit belum yang popular sejak itu.

Bank Suruga mula penyampaian Jepun pertama Visa Debit pada tahun 2006. Bank Rakuten, secara rasmi dikenali sebagai Ebank, menawarkan kad debit Visa.[30]

Resona Bank dan bank Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ juga menawarkan kad debit Visa berjenama.

Kuwait[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Kuwait, semua bank menyediakan kad debit kepada pemegang akaun mereka. Kad ini berjenama sebagai KNET, yang suis pusat di Kuwait. Urus niaga kad KNET bebas untuk kedua-dua pelanggan dan peniaga dan oleh itu kad debit KNET digunakan untuk transaksi bernilai rendah juga. Kad KNET kebanyakannya jenama bersama sebagai Maestro atau Visa Electron yang membolehkan untuk menggunakan kad yang sama di luar Kuwait pada mana-mana terminal menyokong skim pembayaran.

Malaysia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Malaysia, rangkaian kad debit tempatan dikendalikan oleh Electronic Clearing Corporation Malaysia (MyClear), yang telah mengambil alih skim ini dari MEPS pada tahun 2008. Nama baru bagi kad debit tempatan di Malaysia adalah MyDebit, yang sebelum ini dikenali sebagai sama ada kad bank atau e-debit. Kad debit di Malaysia kini dikeluarkan atas dasar kombo mana kad itu mempunyai kedua-dua kad debit permohonan pembayaran tempatan serta mempunyai bahawa skim Antarabangsa (Visa atau MasterCard). Kad sama juga bertindak kad ATM untuk pengeluaran tunai.

Mexico[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Mexico, banyak syarikat menggunakan jenis kad debit dipanggil kad gaji (tarjeta de daulah), di mana mereka menyimpan gaji pekerja mereka, bukannya membayar mereka secara tunai atau melalui cek. Kaedah ini lebih disukai di banyak tempat kerana ia adalah alternatif yang lebih selamat dan terjamin berbanding dengan bentuk yang lebih tradisional pembayaran.

Belanda[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dalam Belanda dengan menggunakan EFTPOS yang dikenali sebagai pinnen (pinning), satu istilah yang diperolehi daripada penggunaan [Nombor Pengenalan Peribadi []]. PIN juga digunakan untuk ATM urus niaga, dan istilah ini digunakan secara bergantian oleh ramai orang, walaupun ia telah diperkenalkan sebagai jenama pemasaran untuk EFTPOS. Sistem ini telah dilancarkan pada tahun 1987, dan pada tahun 2010 terdapat 258.585 terminal di seluruh negara, termasuk terminal mudah alih yang digunakan oleh perkhidmatan penghantaran dan di pasaran. Semua bank-bank menawarkan kad debit sesuai untuk EFTPOS dengan akaun semasa.

Transaksi PIN biasanya percuma kepada pelanggan, tetapi peruncit dicas per transaksi dan yuran bulanan. Equens, sebuah persatuan dengan semua bank-bank utama sebagai ahli-ahlinya, menjalankan sistem, dan sehingga Ogos 2005 juga dikenakan untuk itu. Menjawab dakwaan penyalahgunaan monopoli, ia telah diserahkan tanggungjawab kontrak kepada bank-bank ahli melalui yang kini menawarkan kontrak bersaing. Sistem ini dianjurkan melalui persatuan perbankan khas Currence yang ditubuhkan khusus untuk menyelaraskan akses kepada sistem pembayaran di Belanda. Interpay, yang sebelumnya undang-undang Equens, didenda € 47 juta orang pada tahun 2004, tetapi denda itu kemudiannya jatuh, dan denda yang berkaitan bagi bank diturunkan dari €17 juta kepada €14 juta. Per transaksi bayaran adalah antara 5-10 eurocents, bergantung kepada jumlah.

Penggunaan kad kredit di Belanda adalah amat rendah, dan kad kredit yang paling tidak boleh digunakan dengan EFTPOS, atau yuran caj yang tinggi kepada pelanggan. Kad debit boleh sering, walaupun tidak selalu, digunakan di seluruh EU untuk EFTPOS. Kad debit yang paling adalah kad Maestro. Kad debit Visa sering tidak diterima, untuk mesin tiket contoh di stesen keretapi menerima kad debit Maestro tetapi tidak kad debit Visa. Walau bagaimanapun, semua jenis kad boleh digunakan di ATM.

Pada tahun 2011 membelanjakan wang menggunakan kad debit meningkat kepada €83 bilion manakala perbelanjaan tunai turun kepada 51 bilion euro dan perbelanjaan CreditCard meningkat kepada 5 bilion.[31]

Kad Purse Elektronik (dikenali sebagai Chipknip) telah diperkenalkan pada tahun 1996, tetapi tidak pernah menjadi sangat popular. Sistem ini telah dimansuhkan pada akhir 2014.

New Zealand[sunting | sunting sumber]

EFTPOS (electronic fund transfer at point of sale) in New Zealand is highly popular. In 2006, 70 percent of all retail transactions were made by Eftpos, with an average of 306 Eftpos transaction being made per person. At the same time, there were 125,000 Eftpos terminals in operation (one for every 30 people), and 5.1 million Eftpos cards in circulation (1.27 per capita).[32]

The system involves the merchant swiping (or inserting) the customer's card and entering the purchase amount. Point of sale systems with integrated EFTPOS often sent the purchase total to the terminal and the customer swipes their own card. The customer then selects the account they wish to use: Current/Cheque (CHQ), Savings (SAV), or Credit Card (CRD), before entering in their PIN. After a short processing time in which the terminal contacts the EFTPOS network and the bank, the transaction is approved (or declined) and a receipt is printed. The EFTPOS system is used for credit cards as well, with a customer selecting Credit Card and entering their PIN, or for older credit cards without loaded PIN, pressing OK and signing their receipt with identification through matching signatures. Fixed EFTPOS terminals in most businesses utilise the public switched telephone network to contact the EFTPOS network, either utilising dedicated phone lines or sharing the merchant's voice line (especially in smaller businesses). The uptake of broadband internet in the 21st century has seen some terminals move to internet protocol connections.

Virtually all retail outlets have EFTPOS facilities, so much that retailers without EFTPOS have to advertise so. In addition, an increasing number of mobile operator, such as taxis, stall holders and pizza deliverers have mobile EFTPOS systems. The system is made up of two primary networks: EFTPOS NZ, which is owned by VeriFone[33] and Paymark Limited (formerly Electronic Transaction Services Limited), which is owned by ANZ Bank New Zealand, ASB Bank, Westpac and the Bank of New Zealand.[34] The two networks are intertwined and highly sophisticated and secure, able to handle huge volumes of transactions during busy periods such as the lead-up to Christmas: on 24 December 2012, the Paymark network alone recorded an average of 132 transactions per second between 12:00 and 13:00.[35] Network failures are rare, but when they occur they cause massive disruption, resulting in major delays and loss of income for businesses. Most businesses have to resort to manual "zip-zap" swipe machines in such case. Newer POS-based terminals have the ability to "capture" transactions in the event of a communications break-down - instead of entering a PIN, the customer signs their receipt and the transaction is approved on a matching signature, The transaction details are stored and sent for processing once the connection to the network is restored. A notable example of this occurs on the Cook Strait ferries, where in the middle of Cook Strait there is no mobile phone reception to connect to the EFTPOS network.

Depending on the user's bank, a fee may be charged for use of EFTPOS. Most youth accounts (the minimum age to obtain an Eftpos card from most banks in New Zealand is 13 years) and an increasing number of 'electronic transaction accounts' do not attract fees for electronic transactions, meaning the use of Eftpos by younger generations has become ubiquitous and subsequently cash use has become rare. Typically merchants don't pay fees for transactions, most only having to pay for the equipment rental.

One of the disadvantages of New Zealand's well-established EFTPOS system is that it is incompatible with overseas systems and non-face-to-face purchases. In response to this, many banks since 2005 have introduced international debit cards such as Maestro and Visa Debit which work online and overseas as well as on the New Zealand EFTPOS system.

Filipina[sunting | sunting sumber]

In the Philippines, all three national ATM network consortia offer proprietary PIN debit. This was first offered by Express Payment System in 1987, followed by Megalink with Paylink in 1993 then BancNet with the Point-of-Sale in 1994.

Express Payment System or EPS was the pioneer provider, having launched the service in 1987 on behalf of the Bank of the Philippine Islands. The EPS service has subsequently been extended in late 2005 to include the other Expressnet members: Banco de Oro and Land Bank of the Philippines. They currently operate 10,000 terminals for their cardholders.

Megalink launched Paylink EFTPOS system in 1993. Terminal services are provided by Equitable Card Network on behalf of the consortium. Service is available in 2,000 terminals, mostly in Metro Manila.

BancNet introduced their point of sale system in 1994 as the first consortium-operated EFTPOS service in the country. The service is available in over 1,400 locations throughout the Philippines, including second and third-class municipalities. In 2005, BancNet signed a Memorandum of Agreement to serve as the local gateway for China UnionPay, the sole ATM switch in the People's Republic of China. This will allow the estimated 1.0 billion Chinese ATM cardholders to use the BancNet ATMs and the EFTPOS in all participating merchants.

Visa debit cards are issued by Union Bank of the Philippines (e-Wallet & eon), Chinatrust, Equicom Savings Bank (Key Card & Cash Card), Banco De Oro, HSBC, HSBC Savings Bank, Sterling Bank of Asia (Visa ShopNPay prepaid and debit cards)& EastWest Bank. Union Bank of the Philippines cards, EastWest Visa Debit Card, Equicom Savings Bank & Sterling Bank of Asia EMV cards which can also be used for internet purchases. Sterling Bank of Asia has released its first line of prepaid and debit Visa cards with EMV chip.

MasterCard debit cards are issued by Banco de Oro, Security Bank (Cashlink & Cash Card) & Smart Communications (Smart Money) tied up with Banco De Oro. MasterCard Electronic cards are issued by BPI (Express Cash) and Security Bank (CashLink Plus).

Originally, all Visa and MasterCard based debit cards in the Philippines are non-embossed and are marked either for "Electronic Use Only" (Visa/MasterCard) or "Valid only where MasterCard Electronic is Accepted" (MasterCard Electronic). However, EastWest Bank started to offer embossed Visa Debit Cards without the for "Electronic Use Only" mark. Paypass Debit MasterCard from other banks also have embossed labels without the for "Electronic Use Only" mark. Unlike credit cards issued by some banks, these Visa and MasterCard-branded debit cards do not feature EMV chips, hence they can only be read by the machines through swiping.

Poland[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Poland, kad debit tempatan seperti PolCard, telah menjadi sebahagian besarnya digantikan dengan yang antarabangsa, seperti Visa, MasterCard, atau Visa Electron unembossed atau Maestro.There juga beberapa bank-bank yang tidak mempunyai sistem pengenalan kepada membolehkan pelanggan memesan kad debit dalam talian.

Portugal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Portugal, kad debit diterima hampir di mana-mana: ATM, kedai-kedai, dan sebagainya. Yang paling biasa diterima adalah Visa dan MasterCard atau Visa Electron unembossed atau Maestro. Mengenai kad debit bayaran Internet tidak boleh digunakan untuk pemindahan, kerana unsafeness, jadi bank mencadangkan penggunaan 'MBnet', satu sistem pra-berdaftar selamat yang mencipta kad maya dengan had kredit yang telah dipilih. Semua sistem kad yang dikawal selia oleh SIBS, institusi yang diwujudkan oleh bank-bank Portugis untuk menguruskan semua peraturan-peraturan dan proses komunikasi proply. Pemegang saham SIBS 'adalah semua 27 bank yang beroperasi di Portugal.

Rusia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selain Visa, MasterCard dan American Express, terdapat beberapa sistem pembayaran tempatan yang berpusat di umum pada teknologi Smart Card.

  • Sbercard. Sistem pembayaran telah dibuat oleh Sberbank sekitar 1995-1996. Ia menggunakan BGS Smartcard Systems AG teknologi kad pintar iaitu, DUET. Sberbank adalah sebuah bank runcit tunggal dalam Kesatuan Soviet sebelum tahun 1990. De facto ini adalah sistem pembayaran SberBank.
  • Zolotaya Korona. Ini jenama kad telah diwujudkan pada tahun 1994. Zolotaya Korona adalah berdasarkan kepada CFT teknologi.
  • Kad STB. Kad ini menggunakan klasik teknologi jalur magnetik. Ia hampir runtuh sepenuhnya selepas tahun 1998 (GKO krisis) dengan kegagalan bank STB.
  • Kesatuan Kad. Kad ini juga menggunakan klasik teknologi jalur magnetik. Ini jenama kad adalah menurun. Akaun-akaun ini sedang diterbitkan semula sebagai akaun Visa atau MasterCard.

Hampir setiap transaksi, tanpa mengira jenama atau sistem, diproses sebagai transaksi debit serta-merta. Urus niaga bukan-debit dalam sistem ini mempunyai had perbelanjaan yang sangat terhad berbanding dengan akaun biasa Visa atau MasterCard.

Arab Saudi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Arab Saudi, semua urus niaga kad debit disalurkan melalui Rangkaian Pembayaran Saudi (SPAN), satu-satunya sistem pembayaran elektronik di United dan semua bank dikehendaki oleh Agensi Kewangan Arab Saudi (SAMA) untuk mengeluarkan kad serasi sepenuhnya dengan rangkaian. Ia menghubungkan semua tempat jualan (POS) terminal di seluruh negara dengan suis bayaran pusat yang seterusnya semula laluan transaksi kewangan kepada pengeluar kad, bank tempatan, Visa, Amex atau MasterCard.

Serta penggunaannya untuk kad debit, rangkaian ini juga digunakan untuk ATM dan kad kredit transaksi.

Singapura[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perkhidmatan debit Singapura diuruskan oleh Perkhidmatan Tabung (NETS), yang diasaskan oleh bank-bank terkemuka di Singapura dan pemegang saham iaitu DBS, Keppel Bank, OCBC dan syarikat bersekutunya, OUB, IBS, POSB, Tat Lee Bank dan UOB pada tahun 1985 akibat daripada keperluan untuk operator e-Bayaran berpusat.

Walau bagaimanapun, disebabkan oleh penyusunan semula perbankan dan penggabungan, bank-bank tempatan selebihnya UOB, OCBC, DBS-POSB sebagai pemegang saham NETS dengan Standard Chartered Bank untuk menawarkan NETS kepada pelanggan mereka. Walau bagaimanapun, DBS dan POSB pelanggan boleh menggunakan ATM rangkaian mereka sendiri dan tidak akan dikongsi dengan UOB, OCBC atau SCB (StanChart). Kegagalan mega 5 Julai 2010 daripada POSB-DBS Rangkaian ATM (kira-kira 97,000 mesin) yang dibuat kerajaan untuk memikirkan semula sistem ATM yang dikongsi sekali lagi kerana ia menjejaskan sistem NETS juga.

Pada tahun 2010, selaras dengan sistem EMV mandatori, Bank Singapura Tempatan mula mengeluarkan semula kad debit berjenama Debit Visa / MasterCard mereka dengan yang mematuhi Chip EMV untuk menggantikan sistem jalur magnetik. Bank-bank yang terlibat termasuk Ahli NETS daripada POSB-DBS, UOB-OCBC-SCB bersama-sama dengan pakatan SharedATM (BUKAN NETS) HSBC, Citibank, State Bank of India, dan Maybank. Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) juga anggota perikatan SharedATM. Kad bukan berjenama POSB dan Kad ATM Maybank tempatan disimpan tanpa cip tetapi mempunyai Plus atau Maestro tanda yang boleh digunakan untuk mengeluarkan wang tunai di dalam atau di luar negara.

MasterCards Maybank Debit boleh digunakan di Malaysia sama seperti ATM atau debit kad MEPS biasa.

Singapura juga menggunakan sistem e-Jerut NETS CashCard dan sistem gelombang CEPAS oleh EZ-Link dan NETS.

Sepanyol[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kad debit diterima dalam jumlah yang agak besar kedai-kedai, kedua-dua besar dan kecil di Sepanyol. Bank sering menawarkan kad debit untuk bayaran kecil berkaitan dengan akaun chequing. Kad ini digunakan lebih kerap daripada kad kredit di ATM kerana ia adalah alternatif yang lebih murah.

United Kingdom[sunting | sunting sumber]

In the UK debit cards (an integrated EFTPOS system) are an established part of the retail market and are widely accepted both by bricks and mortar stores and by internet stores. The term EFTPOS is not widely used by the public; debit card is the generic term used. Cards commonly in circulation include Maestro (previously Switch), Debit MasterCard, Visa Debit (previously Visa Delta) and Visa Electron. Banks do not charge customers for EFTPOS transactions in the UK, but some retailers make small charges, particularly where the transaction amount in question is small. The UK has converted all debit cards in circulation to Chip and PIN (except for Chip and Signature cards issued to people with certain disabilities), based on the EMV standard, to increase transaction security; however, PINs are not required for internet transactions (though some banks employ additional security measures for online transactions such as Verified by Visa and MasterCard Secure Code).

In the United Kingdom, banks started to issue debit cards in the mid-1980s in a bid to reduce the number of cheques being used at the point of sale, which are costly for the banks to process; the first bank to do so was Barclays with the Barclays Connect card. As in most countries, fees paid by merchants in the United Kingdom to accept credit cards are a percentage of the transaction amount,[36] which funds card holders' interest-free credit periods as well as incentive schemes such as points, airmiles or cashback. Debit cards do not usually have these characteristics, and so the fee for merchants to accept debit cards is a low fixed amount, regardless of transaction amount.[36] For very small amounts, this means it is cheaper for a merchant to accept a credit card than a debit card. Although merchants won the right through The Credit Cards (Price Discrimination) Order 1990 to charge customers different prices according to the payment method, few merchants in the UK charge less for payment by debit card than by credit card, the most notable exceptions being budget airlines, travel agents and IKEA.[37] Most debit cards in the UK lack the advantages offered to holders of UK-issued credit cards, such as free incentives (points, airmiles, cashback etc. (the Tesco Bank debit card being one exception)), interest-free credit and protection against defaulting merchants under Section 75 of the Consumer Credit Act 1974. Almost all establishments in the United Kingdom that accept credit cards also accept debit cards (although not always Visa Electron), but a minority of merchants, for cost reasons, accept debit cards and not credit cards.

Amerika Syarikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

In the U.S., EFTPOS is universally referred to simply as debit. The same interbank networks that operate the ATM network also operate the POS network. Most interbank networks, such as Pulse, NYCE, MAC, Tyme, SHAZAM, STAR, and so on, are regional and do not overlap, however, most ATM/POS networks have agreements to accept each other's cards. This means that cards issued by one network will typically work anywhere they accept ATM/POS cards for payment. For example, a NYCE card will work at a Pulse POS terminal or ATM, and vice versa. Debit cards in the United States are usually issued with a Visa, MasterCard, Discover[38] or American Express[39] logo allowing use of their signature-based networks.

The liability of a U.S. debit card user in case of loss or theft is up to $50 USD if the loss or theft is reported to the issuing bank in two business days after the customer notices the loss.[40]

The fees charged to merchants on offline debit purchases—and the lack of fees charged merchants for processing online debit purchases and paper checks—have prompted some major merchants in the U.S. to file lawsuits against debit-card transaction processors such as Visa and MasterCard. In 2003, Visa and MasterCard agreed to settle the largest of these lawsuits and agreed to settlements of billions of dollars.[41]

Some consumers prefer "credit" transactions because of the lack of a fee charged to the consumer/purchaser; also, a few debit cards in the U.S. offer rewards for using "credit" (for example, S&T Bank's "Preferred Debit Rewards Card" [42]). However, since "credit" costs more for merchants, many terminals at PIN-accepting merchant locations now make the "credit" function more difficult to access. For example, if you swipe a debit card at Wal-Mart or Ross in the U.S., you are immediately presented with the PIN screen for online debit; to use offline debit you must press "cancel" to exit the PIN screen, then press "credit" on the next screen.

2009-07-08: Minimum and Maximum Charges for Visa in USA

The Merchants Agreement for Visa states (page 9, or 14/141 in PDF):

Always honor valid Visa cards in your acceptance category, regardless of the dollar amount of the purchase. Imposing minimum or maximum purchase amounts in order to accept a Visa card transaction is a violation of the Visa rules.[43]

As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act, U.S. merchants can now set a minimum purchase amount on credit cards (but not debit cards), not to exceed $10. [44][45]

Kad debit FSA, HRA, dan HSA[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Amerika Syarikat, satu kad debit FSA hanya membenarkan perbelanjaan perubatan. Ia digunakan oleh beberapa bank untuk pengeluaran daripada FSAs mereka, akaun simpanan perubatan (MSA), dan simpanan kesihatan akaun (HSA) juga. Mereka mempunyai Visa atau MasterCard, tetapi tidak boleh digunakan sebagai "kad debit", hanya sebagai "kad kredit", dan mereka tidak diterima oleh semua peniaga logo yang menerima debit dan kredit kad, tetapi hanya oleh mereka yang menerima kad debit FSA. Kod Merchant dan kod produk yang digunakan di tempat jualan (diperlukan oleh undang-undang oleh peniaga tertentu dengan tarikh tertentu di Amerika Syarikat) untuk mengehadkan jualan jika mereka tidak memenuhi syarat. Kerana pemeriksaan tambahan dan mendokumentasikan yang berterusan, kemudian, kenyataan itu boleh digunakan untuk mengesahkan ini pembelian untuk potongan cukai. Dalam hal sesekali bahawa pembelian yang layak ditolak, satu lagi bentuk pembayaran mesti digunakan (a cek atau bayaran daripada akaun lain dan tuntutan bagi pembayaran balik kemudian). Dalam kes yang lebih mungkin bahawa perkara yang tidak layak diterima, pengguna secara teknikal masih bertanggungjawab, dan perbezaan itu boleh mendedahkan semasa audit. Segmen kecil tetapi berkembang dari perniagaan kad debit di Amerika Syarikat melibatkan akses kepada akaun perbelanjaan cukai-disukai seperti FSAs, HRAs dan HSA. Kebanyakan kad debit adalah untuk perbelanjaan perubatan, walaupun beberapa juga dikeluarkan bagi perbelanjaan rawatan dan pengangkutan bergantung.

Secara tradisinya, FSAs (tertua akaun-akaun ini) telah diakses hanya melalui tuntutan bagi pembayaran balik selepas menanggung, dan sering membayar, out-of-poket perbelanjaan; ini sering berlaku selepas dana itu telah ditolak daripada gaji pekerja. (FSAs biasanya dibiayai melalui potongan gaji.) Satu-satunya kaedah yang dibenarkan oleh Perkhidmatan Hasil Dalam Negeri (IRS) untuk mengelakkan ini "dua celupan" untuk FSAs perubatan dan HRAs adalah melalui laporan yang tepat dan boleh diaudit pada pulangan cukai. Penyata kad debit yang mengatakan "untuk kegunaan perubatan hanya" tidak sah kerana beberapa sebab: (1) saudagar dan mengeluarkan bank tidak mempunyai cara untuk cepat menentukan sama ada keseluruhan pembelian layak untuk jenis pelanggan manfaat cukai; (2) pelanggan juga tidak mempunyai cara yang cepat untuk mengetahui; sering mempunyai pembelian bercampur dengan keperluan atau satu keselesaan; dan boleh membuat kesilapan; (3) fasal kontrak tambahan antara pelanggan dan bank akan mengeluarkan menyeberangi-lebih ke dalam piawaian pemprosesan pembayaran, mewujudkan kekeliruan tambahan (contohnya jika pelanggan telah dihukum kerana sengaja membeli item yang tidak layak, ia akan melemahkan penjimatan kelebihan potensi akaun). Oleh itu, dengan menggunakan kad secara eksklusif untuk pembelian yang layak boleh menjadi mudah untuk pelanggan, tetapi ia tiada kaitan dengan bagaimana kad tersebut boleh sebenarnya digunakan. Jika bank menolak transaksi, misalnya, kerana ia bukan di kedai ubat yang diiktiraf, maka ia akan menyebabkan bahaya dan kekeliruan kepada pemegang kad. Di Amerika Syarikat, tidak semua perkhidmatan atau bekalan kedai-kedai perubatan mampu memberikan maklumat yang betul supaya satu FSA pengeluar kad debit boleh menghormati setiap transaksi-jika ditolak atau dokumentasi tidak dianggap cukup untuk memenuhi peraturan-peraturan, pemegang kad mungkin perlu menghantar borang secara manual .

Uruguay[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kad debit diterima dalam jumlah yang agak besar kedai-kedai, kedua-dua besar dan kecil di Uruguay; tetapi penggunaan mereka setakat ini kekal rendah berbanding kad kredit di mesin ATM. Sejak Ogos 2014, dengan Rangkuman Kewangan Undang-undang mula berkuat kuasa, pengguna akhir mendapatkan potongan VAT 4% untuk menggunakan kad debit dalam pembelian mereka.[46]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Templat:Credit cards