Parti Demokratik–Republikan

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Jangan dikelirukan dengan Parti Demokratik atau Republikan Amerika Syarikat.
Parti Demokratik–Republikan
ڤارتي ديموکراتيك–ريڤوبليکن
Pemimpin
Diasaskan 1791; 227 tahun yang lalu (1791)
Dibubarkan 1825 (1825)
Didahului Parti Anti-Pentadbiran
Diikuti
Ideologi
Warna rasmi                Merah, putih, biru
Politik Amerika Syarikat
Parti politik
Pilihan raya

Parti Demokratik–Republikan (Bahasa Inggeris: [Democratic–Republican Party] error: {{lang}}: teks mempunyai penanda italik (bantuan)) merupakan satu parti siasah Amerika Syarikat yang dibentuk oleh Thomas Jefferson dan James Madison dalam 1791–1793 untuk menentang dasar pemusatan Parti Federalis baru yang dikendalikan oleh Alexander Hamilton, yang ketika itu merupakan Setiausaha Perbendaharaan dan ketua arkitek dalam pentadbiran George Washington.[2] Parti baru itu menguasai kepresidenan dan Kongres serta kebanyakkan negeri, dari 1801 hingga 1825, semasa Sistem Parti Pertama. Ia bermula pada 1791 sebagai satu faksi dalam Kongres dan terdiri daripada ramai ahli siasah yang menentang perlembagaan baru. Mereka menggelarkan diri mereka sebagai Republikan sempena dengan ideologi republikanisme. Mereka tidak mempercayai komitmet Federalis terhadap republikanisme. Parti itu berpecah pada 1824 kepada pergerakan Jacksonian (yang menjadi Parti Demokratik pada 1828) dan Parti Republikan Kebangsaan yang berjangka pendek (kemudiannya digantikan dengan Parti Whig).

Istilah "Demokratik–Republikan" digunakan terutamanya oleh ahli sains politik moden untuk "Parti Republikan" yang pertama (yang bertentangan dengan Parti Republikan yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1854). Ia juga dikenali sebagai Republikan Jefferson. Sejarawan biasanya menggunakan nama "Parti Republikan".

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Anti-Federalist vs. Federalist". Diffen. 
  2. ^ "Democratic-Republican Party". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Dicapai 7 Disember 2014. 

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adams, Henry, History of the United States during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1889; Library of America ed. 1987)
  • Adams, Henry, History of the United States during the Administrations of James Madison (1891; Library of America ed. 1986)
  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1980)
  • Beard, Charles A. Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915)
  • Brown, Stuart Gerry. The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison 1954.
  • Chambers, Wiliam Nisbet. Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776–1809 (1963)
  • Cornell, Saul. The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America, 1788–1828 (1999) (ISBN 0-8078-2503-4)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. Jeffersonian Republicans: The formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801 (1957)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801–1809 (1963)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Process of Government Under Jefferson (1978
  • Dawson, Matthew Q. Partisanship and the Birth of America's Second Party, 1796–1800: Stop the Wheels of Government. Greenwood, 2000.
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995), detailed political history of 1790s
  • Ferling, John. Adams Vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 (2004)(ISBN 0-19-516771-6)
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea. The Presidential Campaign of 1832 (1922)
  • Gould, Lewis. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (2003) (ISBN 0-375-50741-8) concerns the party founded in 1854
  • Onuf, Peter S., ed. Jeffersonian Legacies. (1993) (ISBN 0-8139-1462-0)
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. et al. eds. Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic (2004)
  • Ray, Kristofer. "The Republicans Are the Nation? Thomas Jefferson, William Duane, and the Evolution of the Republican Coalition, 1809–1815." American Nineteenth Century History 14.3 (2013): 283–304.
  • Risjord, Norman K.; The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson (1965) on the Randolph faction.
  • Sharp, James Roger. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (1993) detailed narrative of 1790s
  • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic 1801–1815 (1968), survey of political history
  • Van Buren, Martin. Van Buren, Abraham, Van Buren, John, ed. Inquiry Into the Origin and Course of Political Parties in the United States (1867) (ISBN 1-4181-2924-0)
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935)
  • Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (2005), detailed narrative history, 1800–1860
  • Wills, Garry. Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), a close reading of Henry Adams (1889–91)

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason The Life of Thomas Jefferson (ISBN 0-345-35380-3) (1987)
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager", William and Mary Quarterly, 13 (Jan. 1956), 40–52, in JSTOR
  • Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full-scale biography
  • Peterson; Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1975), full-scale biography
  • Remini, Robert. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1991), a standard biography
  • Rutland, Robert A., ed. James Madison and the American Nation, 1751–1836: An Encyclopedia. (1994)
  • Schachner, Nathan. Aaron Burr: A Biography (1961), full-scale biography
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. John C. Calhoun, Nationalist, 1782–1828 (1944)

Kajian negeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Beeman, Richard R. The Old Dominion and the New Nation, 1788–1801 (1972), on Virginia politics
  • Formisano, Ronald P. The Transformation of Political Culture. Massachusetts Parties, 1790s–1840s (1984) (ISBN 0-19-503509-7)
  • Gilpatrick, Delbert Harold. Jeffersonian Democracy in North Carolina, 1789–1816 (1931)
  • Goodman, Paul. The Democratic-Republicans of Massachusetts (1964)
  • Klein, Philip Shriver. Pennsylvania Politics, 1817–1832: A Game without Rules 1940.
  • Prince, Carl E. New Jersey's Jeffersonian Republicans: The Genesis of an Early Party Machine, 1789–1817 (1967)
  • Risjord; Norman K. Chesapeake Politics, 1781–1800 (1978) on Virginia and Maryland
  • Tinkcom, Harry M. The Republicans and Federalists in Pennsylvania, 1790–1801 (1950)
  • Young, Alfred F. The Democratic Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763–1797 (1967)

Akhbar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Humphrey, Carol Sue The Press of the Young Republic, 1783–1833 (1996)
  • Knudson, Jerry W. Jefferson And the Press: Crucible of Liberty (2006) how 4 Republican and 4 Federalist papers covered election of 1800; Thomas Paine; Louisiana Purchase; Hamilton-Burr duel; impeachment of Chase; and the embargo
  • Jeffrey L. Pasley. "The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2003) (ISBN 0-8139-2177-5)
  • Stewart, Donald H. The Opposition Press of the Federalist Era (1968), highly detailed study of Republican newspapers
  • National Intell & Washington Advertister. January 16, 1801. Issue XXXIII COl. B
  • The complete text, searchable, of all early American newspapers are online at Readex America's Historical Newspapers, available at research libraries.

Sumber utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adams, John Quincy. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848 Volume VII (1875) edited by Charles Francis Adams; (ISBN 0-8369-5021-6). Adams, son of the Federalist president, switched and became a Republican in 1808
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. The Making of the American Party System 1789 to 1809 (1965) excerpts from primary sources
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. Circular Letters of Congressmen to Their Constituents 1789–1829 (1978), 3 vol; reprints the political newsletters sent out by congressmen
  • Kirk, Russell ed. John Randolph of Roanoke: A study in American politics, with selected speeches and letters, 4th ed., Liberty Fund, 1997, 588 pp.  ISBN 0-86597-150-1; Randolph was a leader of the "Old Republican" faction
  • Smith, James Morton, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826 Volume 2 (1994)

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]