Perang Parsi-Uthmaniyyah

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Bagi kesemua kinflik antara negara-negara Parsi dan Turkic, lihat Perang Parsi-Turco.

Perang Parsi-Uthmaniyyah atau Perang Iran-Uthmaniyyah merupakan satu siri-siri peperangan antara Empayar Uthmaniyyah dan dinasti-dinasti Safawiyyah, Afsharid, Zand dan Qajar dari Iran (Parsi) sepanjang kurun ke-16 sehingga kurun ke-19. Uthmaniyyah yang terdiri daripada kawasan yang hari ini merupakan wilayah Turki pada kurun ke-15, secara beransur-ansur mula berkonflik dengan negara jirannya, Parsi, diketuai oleh Ismail I dari dinasti Safawiyyah. Dua negara ini menjadi musuh ketat, yang mana juga dipecahkan kerana berlainan mazhab, Uthmaniyyah menganut mazhab Sunni manakala Safawiyyah pula adalah Syiah. Satu siri konflik ketenteraan berlaku selama berkurun-kurun di mana dua buah empayar ini bersaing untuk mengawal wilayah Anatolia timur, Caucasus, dan Iraq.

Nama peperangan Sultan Uthmaniyyah Shah Parsi Perjanjian pada akhir peperangan Pemenang
Pertempuran Chaldiran (1514)[1] Selim I Ismail I Tiada Uthmaniyyah
Perang 1532–1555[2] Suleiman I Tahmasp I Perjanjian Amasya (1555) Uthmaniyyah[3]
Perang 1578–1590[4] Murad III Mohammad Khodabanda, Abbas I Perjanjian Constantinople (1590) Uthmaniyyah
Perang 1603–1618, tahap pertama

Kakhetian Abbas I dan Kempen Kartlian

Ahmed I Abbas I Perjanjian Nasuh Pasha (1612) Parsi
Perang 1603–1618, tahap kedua[5] Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II Abbas I Perjanjian Serav (1618) Parsi
Perang 1623–1639[6] Murad IV Abbas I, Safi Perjanjian Zuhab (1639) Uthmaniyyah
Perang 1730–1735, tahap pertama

Kempen Tahmasp 1731

Ahmed III, Mahmud I Tahmasp II Perjanjian Ahmet Pasha (1732) Uthmaniyyah[7][8][9]
Perang 1730–1736, tahap kedua[10] Mahmud I Abbas III, Nader Shah Perjanjian Constantinople (1736) Parsi
Perang 1743–1746[11] Mahmud I Nader Shah Perjanjian Kerden (1746) Seri[12]
Perang 1775–1776[13] Abdulhamid I Karim Khan Zand Tiada Basra ditawan oleh Persia,[14] retaken by Ottomans three years later.[14]
Perang 1821–1823[15] Mahmud II Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Perjanjian Erzurum (1823) Gencatan senjata

Antara beberapa penjanjian, Perjanjian Zuhab pada tahun 1639 dianggap sebagai paling penting,Templat:By whom? kerana ia mengesahkan sempadan TurkiIran dan IraqIran pada hari ini. Dalam perjanjian selepasnya, terdapat banyak rujukan terhadap Perjanjian Zuhab.[petikan diperlukan]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 339-340
  2. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 277-281
  3. ^ Gábor Ágoston-Bruce Masters:Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire , ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1, p.280
  4. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 21-25
  5. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 43-45
  6. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 78-82
  7. ^ Erewantsʻi, Abraham; Bournoutian, George (1999). History of the wars: (1721-1736). Mazda Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 978-1568590851. (...) against Nader's advice, Shah Tahmasp marched against the Turks to force their withdrawal from Transcaucasia. The Ottomans routed the Persian forces in 1731, and in January 1732, the Shah concluded an agreement that left eastern Armenia, eastern Georgia, Shirvan, and Hamadan in Turkish hands. 
  8. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 729. ISBN 978-1851096725. Pursued by the Turks, Tahmasp is decisively defeated in the second Battle of Hamadan. In order to prevent a general Turkish invasion, he agrees to cede the territory conquered by Nadir in 1730 and recognizes all Turkish acquisitions 
  9. ^ A ́goston, Ga ́bor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. pp. 415–416. ISBN 978-1438110257. But while Nadir pursued conquests in the east, Shah Tahmasp reopened hostilities with the Ottomans in an effort to regain his lost territories. He was defeated and agreed to a treaty that restored Tabriz but left Kermanshah and Hamadan in Ottoman hands. Nadir was incensed at the treaty (...) 
  10. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 1-8
  11. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 22-25
  12. ^ Selcuk Aksin Somel (2010), The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire, quote: "This indecisive military conflict resulted in the preservation of the existing borders.", The Scarecrow Press Inc., p. 170
  13. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/karim-khan-zand
  14. ^ a b Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf: 1745-1900. SUNY Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781438402376. 
  15. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 193-195

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 027596891X.