Perokok pasif

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Asap tembakau di pab Ireland sebelum larangan merokok mula berkuat kuasa pada 29 Mac 2004

Perokok pasif ialah penyedutan asap, yang dipanggil asap rokok terpakai (SHS), atau asap tembakau alam sekitar (ETS), oleh seseorang selain daripada perokok "aktif" yang dimaksudkan. Ia berlaku apabila asap tembakau meresap sebarang persekitaran, menyebabkan penyedutannya oleh orang-orang dipersekitaran itu. Pendedahan kepada asap tembakau terpakai menyebabkan penyakit, kecacatan, dan kematian.[1][2] Risiko kesihatan asap rokok adalah masalah konsensus saintifik.[3][4][5] Risiko ini menjadi motivasi utama untuk undang-undang bebas rokok di tempat kerja dan tempat awam tertutup, termasuk restoran, bar dan kelab malam, serta beberapa ruang awam terbuka.[6]

Kebimbangan di sekeliling asap rokok telah memainkan peranan utama dalam perdebatan mengenai kemudaratan dan pengawalseliaan produk tembakau. Sejak awal 1970-an, industri tembakau telah melihat kebimbangan orang ramai terhadap asap rokok sebagai ancaman serius terhadap kepentingan perniagaannya.[7] Amat berbahaya kepada pengamat dilihat sebagai motivator untuk peraturan ketat produk tembakau. Walaupun kesedaran industri mengenai kemudaratan asap rokok pada awal tahun 1980-an, industri tembakau menyelaraskan kontroversi saintifik dengan tujuan menghentikan peraturan produk mereka.[3][5]

Kesan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perokok pasif berisiko menghidap penyakit yang sama sebagai perokok aktif; termasuk penyakit kardiovaskular, kanser paru-paru, dan penyakit pernafasan.[8][9][10]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General" (PDF). Surgeon General of the United States. 2006-06-27. Dicapai 2012-07-24. Secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in children and in adults who do not smoke 
  2. ^ IARC 2004 "There is sufficient evidence that involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans"
  3. ^ a b Kessler 2006
  4. ^ Samet JM (2008). "Secondhand smoke: facts and lies". Salud Pública de México. 50 (5): 428–34. doi:10.1590/S0036-36342008000500016. PMID 18852940. 
  5. ^ a b Tong, EK; Glantz, SA (2007-10-16). "Tobacco industry efforts undermining evidence linking secondhand smoke with cardiovascular disease". Circulation. 116 (16): 1845–54. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.715888. PMID 17938301. 
  6. ^ "CDC - Fact Sheet - Smoke-Free Policies Reduce Smoking - Smoking & Tobacco Use". Smoking and Tobacco Use. Dicapai 2015-04-24. 
  7. ^ "Lifting the smokescreen: Tobacco industry strategy to defeat smoke free policies and legislation" (PDF). European Respiratory Society and Institut National du Cancer. February 2006. Diarkibkan daripada asal (PDF) pada 3 March 2016. Dicapai 2009-01-17. The industry quickly realised that, if it wanted to continue to prosper, it became vital that research did not demonstrate that tobacco smoke was a dangerous community air pollutant. This requirement has been the central pillar of its passive smoking policy from the early 1970s to the present day 
  8. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan sg-report2 tidak disediakan
  9. ^ a b c Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan IARC20042 tidak disediakan
  10. ^ a b "Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant". California Environmental Protection Agency. 2005-06-24. Dicapai 2009-01-12. 
  11. ^ Surgeon General 2006, halaman 30–46
  12. ^ Alberg, Anthony J.; Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D. (1 May 2013). "Epidemiology of Lung Cancer". CHEST Journal. 143 (5_suppl): e1S. doi:10.1378/chest.12-2345. 
  13. ^ Bhatnagar, A; Whitsel, LP; Ribisl, KM; Bullen, C; Chaloupka, F; Piano, MR; Robertson, RM; McAuley, T; Goff, D; Benowitz, N; American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes, Research (14 October 2014). "Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association". Circulation. 130 (16): 1418–36. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000107. PMID 25156991. 
  14. ^ "Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke". 24 November 2014. Dicapai 30 Mei 2015. 
  15. ^ Macacu, A; Autier, P; Boniol, M; Boyle, P (November 2015). "Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 154 (2): 213–24. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3628-4. PMID 26546245. 
  16. ^ Zhou, J; Wellenius, GA; Michaud, DS (Disember 2012). "Environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of pancreatic cancer among non-smokers: a meta-analysis". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 69 (12): 853–7. doi:10.1136/oemed-2012-100844. PMID 22843437. 
  17. ^ Cao, S; Yang, C; Gan, Y; Lu, Z (2015). "The Health Effects of Passive Smoking: An Overview of Systematic Reviews Based on Observational Epidemiological Evidence". PloS One. 10 (10): e0139907. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139907. PMC 4595077Boleh dicapai secara percuma. PMID 26440943. 
  18. ^ Cumberbatch, Marcus G.; Rota, Matteo; Catto, James W.F.; La Vecchia, Carlo (September 2016). "The Role of Tobacco Smoke in Bladder and Kidney Carcinogenesis: A Comparison of Exposures and Meta-analysis of Incidence and Mortality Risks". European Urology. 70 (3): 458–466. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.06.042. 
  19. ^ Surgeon General 2006, Bab 8
  20. ^ Lv, X; Sun, J; Bi, Y; Xu, M; Lu, J; Zhao, L; Xu, Y (15 November 2015). "Risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease associated with secondhand smoke exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis". International journal of cardiology. 199: 106–15. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.07.011. PMID 26188829. 
  21. ^ Dinas, PC; Koutedakis, Y; Flouris, AD (20 Februari 2013). "Effects of active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking on heart rate variability". International Journal of Cardiology. 163 (2): 109–15. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.10.140. PMID 22100604. 
  22. ^ Surgeon General 2006, halaman 555–8
  23. ^ Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I (2013). "Indoor air pollution and respiratory health in the elderly". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 48 (14): 1783–9. doi:10.1080/10934529.2013.826052. PMID 24007433. 
  24. ^ Surgeon General 2006, halaman 198–205
  25. ^ Cui, H; Gong, TT; Liu, CX; Wu, QJ (25 Januari 2016). "Associations between Passive Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies". PLoS One. 11 (1): e0147848. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147848. PMID 26808045. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Badan saintifik
Industri tembakau
Pautan lain