Penerbit

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Penerbit adalah orang yang di dalam proses menerbitkan dan menyerbarkan kesusasteraan atau maklumat – aktiviti membuatkan maklumat dapat diperolehi kepada pandangan umum. Di dalam beberapa kes, pengarang mungkin menjadi penerbitnya sendiri, bermaksud: Pengasas dan pembina kandungan juga menyediakan media untuk menghantar dan memaparkan kandungan. Tradisinya, istilah berkenaan merujuk kepada pengagihan kerja percetakan seperti buku-buku ("perniagaan buku") dan suratkhabar. Dengan kemunculan sistem maklumat digital dan Internet, ruang lingkup penerbitan telah diperluaskan kepada sumber-sumber elektronik, seperti versi buku-buku elektronik dan majalah, seperti juga penerbitan mikro, laman, blog-blog, permainan video dan lain-lain sepertinya.


Sebuah mesin cetak di Kabul, Afghanistan.



Proses penerbitan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penerbit buku dan majalah menghabiskan banyak masa mereka membeli atau mentauliah salinan; sebaliknya, penerbit suratkhabar, lazimnya menggaji pekerja mereka untuk menghasilkan salinan, walaupun mereka mungkin mengupah wartawan bebas, yang dipanggil wartawan sambilan. Di percetakan kecil, ia mungkin bertahan dengan bergantung sepenuhnya kepada bahan-bahan komisen. Akan tetapi apabila aktiviti meningkat, keperluan untuk kerja-kerja mungkin akan menanggalkan terus lingkaran penulis-penulis yang mantap.


Penerimaan dan rundingan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebaik sahaja menerima kerja berkenaan, penyunting bertauliah akan membincangkan harga hak cipta dan bersetuju dengan kadar royalti.


Percetakan[sunting | sunting sumber]

When editing and design work are completed, the printing phase begins. The first step is the creation of a pre-press proof, which is sent for final checking and sign-off by the publisher. This proof shows the book precisely as it will appear once printed and is the final opportunity for the publisher to find and correct any errors. Some printing companies use electronic proofs rather than printed proofs. Once the proofs have been approved by the publisher, printing—the physical production of the published work—begins.


Pengagihan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The final stage in publication is making the product available to the public, usually by offering it for sale. In previous centuries, an author was frequently also his own editor, printer, and bookseller, but these functions are usually separated now. Once a book, newspaper, or other publication is printed, the publisher may use a variety of channels to distribute it. Books are most commonly sold through booksellers and other retailers. Newspapers and magazines are typically sold directly by the publisher to subscribers, and then distributed either through the postal system or by newspaper carriers. Periodicals are also frequently sold through newsagents and vending machines.


Percetakan sebagai sebuah perniagaan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Pembahagian kecil industri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penerbitan suratkhabar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Newspaper

Newspapers are regularly scheduled publications that present recent news, typically on a type of inexpensive paper called newsprint. Most newspapers are primarily sold to subscribers or are distributed as advertising-supported free newspapers. About one-third of publishers in the United States are newspaper publishers.[1]

Penerbitan berkala[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: enerbitan berkala

Nominally, periodical publishing involves publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. Newspapers and magazines are both periodicals, but within the industry, the periodical publishing is frequently considered a separate branch that includes magazines and even academic journals, but not newspapers.[1] About one-third of publishers in the United States publish periodicals (not including newspapers).[1]

Penerbitan buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

Book publishers represent less than a sixth of the publishers in the United States.[1] Most books are published by a small number of very large book publishers, but thousands of smaller book publishers exist. Many small- and medium-sized book publishers specialize in a specific area. Additionally, thousands of authors have created their own publishing companies, and self-published their own works.

Within the book publishing industry, the "publisher of record" for a book is the entity in whose name the book's ISBN is registered. The publisher of record may or may not be the actual publisher.

Penerbitan direktori[sunting | sunting sumber]

Directory publishing is a specialized genre within the publishing industry. These publishers produce mailing lists, telephone books, and other types of directories.[1] With the advent of the Internet, many of these directories are now online.

Penerbitan akademik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Academic publishing

Academic publishers are typically either book or periodical publishers that have specialized in academic subjects. Some, like university presses, are owned by scholarly institutions. Others are commercial businesses that focus on academic subjects.


Pembangunan terbaru[sunting | sunting sumber]

The 21st century has brought a number of new technological changes to the publishing industry. These changes include e-books, print on demand and accessible publishing. E-books have been quickly growing in availability since 2005. Google, Amazon.com and Sony have been leaders in working with publishers and libraries to digitize books. As of early 2011 Amazon's Kindle reading device is a significant force in the market, along with the Apple iPad and the Nook.[petikan diperlukan]


Piawaian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Refer to the ISO divisions of ICS 01.140.40 and 35.240.30 for further information.[2][3]

Isu perundangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Penerbitan


Penerbitan kecil[sunting | sunting sumber]

Privishing is an industry term for publishing a book in such a small amount, or with such lack of marketing, advertising, or sales support from the publisher, that the book effectively does not reach the public.[4] The book, whilst nominally published, is almost impossible to obtain through normal channels such as bookshops, often cannot be special-ordered and will have a notable lack of support from its publisher, including refusals to reprint the title. A book that is privished may be referred to as "killed". Depending on the motivation, privishing may constitute breach of contract, censorship,[5] or good business practice (e.g., not printing more books than the publisher believes will sell in a reasonable length of time).

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menerbitkan kandungan khusus:

Publishing tools:

Notakaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Bureau of Labor Statistics (17 December 2009). "Career Guide to Industries, 2010-11 Edition: Publishing, Except Software". U.S. Department of Labor. Diperoleh pada 28 May 2010. 
  2. International Organization for Standardization. "01.140.40: Publishing". Diperoleh pada 14 July 2008. 
  3. International Organization for Standardization. "35.240.30: IT applications in information, documentation and publishing". Diperoleh pada 14 July 2008. 
  4. David Winkler (11 July 2002). "Journalists Thrown 'Into the Buzzsaw'". CommonDreams.org. 
  5. Sue Curry Jansen of Muhlenberg College, Pennsylvania and Brian Martin of University of Wollongong, Australia (July 2003). "Making censorship backfire". Counterpoise 7. 

Rujukans[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Epstein, Jason. Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future.
  • Schiffrin, André (2000). The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read.
  • Ugrešić, Dubravka (2003). Thank You for Not Reading.
  • Abelson et al. (2005). Open Networks and Open Society: The Relationship between Freedom, Law, and Technology

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Book Publishing Process