Program Perbatasan Baru

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Program Perbatasan Baru (Bahasa Inggeris:Program New Frontiers) adalah satu siri misi penjelajahan yang dilakukan oleh NASA dengan tujuan untuk menyelidiki beberapa planet sistem Suria termasuklah Musytari, Zuhrah, dan planet kerdil Pluto. NASA menggalakkan ahli-ahli sains tempatan dan antarabangsa untuk menyerahkan cadangan-cadangan misi bagi projek berkenaan.

New Frontiers telah dibina berasaskan pendekatan innovatif oleh misi-misi yang diketuai ketua pemeriksa yang menggunakan Discovery dan Explorer. Ia direkabentuk untuk misi-misi berkelas sederhana yang tidak boleh dijayakan di dalam kekangan kos dan masa bagi Discovery, tetapi tidak sebesar misi-misi berkelas Flagship. Terdapat dua misi-misi New Frontiers, New Horizons yang dilancarkan pada Januari 19, 2006, dan Juno yang dilancarkan pada Ogos 5, 2011.

Misi-misi sedang berlangsung[sunting | sunting sumber]

New Horizons[sunting | sunting sumber]

New Horizons, satu misi ke Pluto, telah dilancarkan pada Januari 19, 2006, dan berada di dalam perjalanannya ke planet kerdil tersebut. Selepas suatu bantuan graviti Musytari pada bulan Februari 2007 pesawat itu menyambung perjalanannya ke Pluto. Misi utama lintas terbang akan wujud pada bulan Julai 2015 dan kemudiannya pesawat angkasa itu akan disasarkan ke satu atau lebih objek di Lingkaran Kuiper di antara tahun 2015 dan 2020.

Juno[sunting | sunting sumber]

Juno di hadapan Musytari

Juno adalah misi penjelajahan Musytari yang telah dilancarkan pada 5 Ogos 2011. Ia adalah kapal angkasa berkuasa suria yang pertama untuk menjelajahi planet luar. Pesawat ini akan mencapai satu orbit kutub untuk mengkaji medan magnet planet dan stuktur dalamannya. Misi Galileo NASA ke Musytari akan memberikan pengetahuan yang terperinci mengenai mission atmosfera atasnya. Kajian lanjut terhadap Musytari bukan sahaja sangat penting untuk memahami asal usulnya malah juga penting untuk pengkajian sistem suria dan juga merintis kepada kajian yang lebih mendalam bagi planet-planet ekstrasolar gergasi secara umumnya. Cadangan ini menghantar[Penjelasan diperlukan] bagi pemeriksaan kapal angkasa yang boleh menjayakanspacecraft investigations that can achieve the majoriti kepada objektif-objektif Musytari yang berikut:

  • Memahami sifat-sfat struktur dan dinamik kasar Musytari menerusi penilaian jisim dan saiz teras, medan magnet dan graviti serta arus perolakan haba Musytari;
  • Menyukat komposisi atmosfera Musytari, terutamanya kelimpahan gas boleh wap cair (H2O, NH3, CH4 dan H2S), profil suhu atmosfera Musytari, profil halaju angin, dan tahap kelegapan awan dengan lebih mendalam berbanding dengan keupayaan kuar entri Galileo dengan matlamat mencapai 100 bar pada latitud berbilang; dan
  • Menyiasat dan memberi gambaran struktur tiga dimensi magnetosfera kutub Musytari.

New Frontiers 3[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: OSIRIS-REx

Pada 25 Mei 2011, NASA telah memutuskan kuar OSIRIS-REx (The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer spacecraft) akan menjadi misi Program Perbatasan Baru yang ke-3.[1] Kuar angkasa ini dijangka akan tiba di sekitar asteroid primitif 1999 RQ36 pada tahun 2020 dan mengorbitnya. Selepas proses pengukuran yang terperinci dijalankan, material di atas permukaan asteroid akan dikumpul dan dibawa pulang ke Bumi pada tahun 2023. Misi ini telah dijangka mencecah kos kira-kira $AS 800 juta. Para saintis bakal memanfaatkan sampel ini dari segi mencari jawapan kepada persoalan rumit mengenai pembentukan sistem suria dan pembentukan molekul kompleks yang penting untuk kehidupan.[2]

New Frontiers 4[sunting | sunting sumber]

The next New Frontiers mission will be selected during the decade 2013-2022. Based on their science value and projected costs, the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee identified five candidate New Frontiers missions.[3]

Venus In Situ Explorer[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Venus In Situ Explorer would study the composition and surface properties of Venus. The primary science objectives of this mission would be to examine the physics and chemistry of Venus’s atmosphere and crust. The mission should attempt to characterize variables that cannot be measured from orbit, including the detailed composition of the lower atmosphere, and the elemental and mineralogical composition of surface materials. Had the proposed SAGE mission been selected, the Venus In Situ Explorer would have been removed from consideration.[3]

Although the exploration of the surface and lower atmosphere of Venus provides a major technical challenge, the scientific rewards are major. Venus is Earth’s sister planet, yet its tectonics, volcanism, surface-atmospheric processes, atmospheric dynamics and chemistry are all remarkably different from those on Earth, which has resulted in remarkably different end states for its surface crust and atmosphere. While returning physical samples of its surface and/or atmosphere may not be possible within the New Frontiers cost cap, innovative approaches might achieve the majority of the following objectives:

  • Understand the physics and chemistry of Venus’ atmosphere through measurement of its composition, especially the abundances of its trace gases, light stable isotopes, and noble gas isotopes;
  • Understand the physics and chemistry of Venus’ crust through analysis of near-IR descent images from below the clouds to the surface and through measurements of elemental abundances and mineralogy from a surface sample;
  • Understand the properties of Venus’ atmosphere down to the surface through meteorological measurements and improve our understanding of Venus’ zonal cloud-level winds through temporal measurements over at least two Earth days; and
  • Understand the weathering environment of the crust of Venus in the context of the dynamics of the atmosphere of Venus and the composition and texture of its surface materials.

Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return) would return samples of the early Moon's deep crust. Had Moonrise been selected as the 3rd New Frontiers mission, Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return would have been removed from consideration.

The surface of the South Pole-Aitken basin, located on the Moon’s far side southern polar region, is likely to contain some fraction of the mineralogy of the Moon’s lower crust. Samples of these ancient materials that are not biased by nearside impact basin formation are highly desirable to further understand the history of Earth’s Moon. Therefore, a mission to return a sufficient sample of material from the heretofore-unsampled South Pole-Aitken basin terrain, including useful samples from the deep crust of the early Moon, should accomplish (following chemical, isotopic, and petrologic analysis of returned materials as well as radiometric age dating on Earth) the majority of following science objectives:

  • Elucidate the nature of the Moon’s lower crust and mantle by direct measurements of its composition and of sample ages;
  • Determine the chronology of basin-forming impacts and constrain the period of late, heavy bombardment in the inner solar system, and thus, address fundamental questions of inner solar system impact processes and chronology;
  • Characterize a large lunar impact basin through "ground truth" validation of global, regional, and local remotely sensed data of the sampled site;
  • Elucidate the sources of thorium and other heat-producing elements in order to understand lunar differentiation and thermal evolution; and
  • Determine ages and compositions of far-side basalts to determine how mantle source regions on the far side of the Moon differ from regions sampled by Apollo and Luna basalts.[4]

Trojan Tour and Rendezvous[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission would fly by two or more Jupiter Trojans, asteroids that orbit around the L4 and L5 Lagrange points at the same distance from the sun as Jupiter, and then settle into orbit around one of them - similar goals to the Dawn mission, though significantly further from the Sun.

Comet Surface Sample Return[sunting | sunting sumber]

A Comet Surface Sample Return mission would acquire and return to Earth a macroscopic sample from the surface of a comet nucleus using a sampling technique that preserves organic material in the sample.

Detailed study of comets promises the possibility of understanding the physical condition and constituents of the very early solar system, including the early history of water and the biogenic elements and the compounds containing them. Therefore, a mission that would sample and return the dust and organics from at least one if not several locations on the surface of a comet nucleus, including one in the vicinity of an active vent, is of prime interest in order to achieve the majority of the following science objectives:

  • Understand the structure and composition of a comet through measurement of the chemical complexity of the sampled material, grain micro texture and its cohesive forces, age and composition of ices and organic and silicate grains;
  • Understand the real time dynamics and evolution of a comet’s surface under the influence of sunlight by study of the diurnal conditions of its atmosphere and surface; and
  • Investigate a comet’s overall physical structure in order to assess its internal heterogeneity.

Saturn Probe[sunting | sunting sumber]

A Saturn Probe mission would deploy a probe into Saturn’s atmosphere to determine the structure of the atmosphere as well as noble gas abundances and isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. A carrier/relay craft with the probe would arrive at Saturn approximately seven years after launch. Thirty days or more before arrival, the probe separates from the carrier/relay craft. The probe would enter the atmosphere and begin measurements at 0.1 bars (a bar is the atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth). At 1 bar, the probe would detach from its parachute for a more rapid descent to 5 bars and the end of the nominal mission after 55 minutes of data collection. The probe would be designed to survive to 10 bars, and the carrier/relay would continue to listen for as long as the entry site remains visible.

[5]

New Frontiers 5[sunting | sunting sumber]

In addition to the five mission concepts listed above, for the 5th New Frontiers mission, the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee identified two additional candidates that will be added to the list.[3]

Io Observer[sunting | sunting sumber]

The focus of this mission is to determine the internal structure of Io and to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the satellite’s intense volcanic activity from a highly elliptical orbit around Jupiter, making multiple flybys of Io. This mission depends on sufficient advances in system power and radiation protection.[5]

Lunar Geophysical Network[sunting | sunting sumber]

This mission consists of several identical landers distributed across the lunar surface, each carrying geophysical instrumentation. The primary science objectives are to characterize the Moon’s internal structure, seismic activity, global heat flow budget, bulk composition, and magnetic field. It would expand the instruments left on the surface on the moon left by Apollo program missions to include coverage of the far side of the moon as well.[5]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. NASA. "NASA to Launch New Science Mission to Asteroid in 2016". Diperolehi pada 25 Mei 2011. 
  2. NASA. "NASA Selects OSIRIS-REx as Next New Frontiers Mission". Diperolehi pada 25 Mei 2011. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Washington, DC: National Academies. 2011. pp. ES–1. ISBN 978-0-309-20951-9. 
  4. "SAMPLING THE SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN: OBJECTIVES AND SITE SELECTION CRITERIA". Lunar Planetary Institute. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Squres, Steven. "Vision and Voyages". National Research Council. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:NASA planetary exploration programs