Senarai pemilihan Angkasawan
||Rencana ini memerlukan rujukan tambahan untuk pengesahan. (June 2008)|
Artikel ini merupakan senarai pemilihan angkasawan mengikut tahun, individu dipilih untuk latihan human spaceflight program untuk mengarah, menerbangkan, atau berkhidmat sebagai seorang anak kapal serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Sehingga masa kini, para angkasawan ditaja dan dilatih secara eksklusif oleh kerajaan, sama ada oleh pihak tentera atau oleh agensi angkasa awam. However, with the first sub-orbital flight of the privately-funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created - the commercial astronaut.
Sementara terma angkasawan kadangkala merujuk kepada sesiapa yang menjelajah ke angkasa, termasuk para saintis, ahli politik, wartawan dan para pelancong, artikel ini hanya menyenaraikan angkasawan profesional. A list of everyone who has flown in space can be found at List of space travelers by name.
Setakat 2008, lebih daripada 480 orang telah dilatih menjadi angkasawan
|1957 1958 1959 1960 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1976 1978|
|1979 1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 1987 1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2003 2004 2006|
1957[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Man In Space Soonest Kumpulan 1 - USA
- Neil A. Armstrong, Albert S. Crossfield, Iven C. Kincheloe, John B. McKay, Joseph A. Walker, Alvin S. White, Robert M. White
- Nota: Pada 1957, tujuh juruterbang ujian dari National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), United States Air Force (USAF), dan North American Aviation (NAA) telah dipilih untuk projek Man In Space Soonest, inisiatif tentera U.S. untuk menghantar manusia ke angkasalepas. Ketika projek aspek penerbangan angkasa dibatalkan, 2 angkasawan kemudiannya telah sampai ke angkasalepas, Joe Walker sebagai sebahagian daripada program X-15 dan Neil Armstrong sebagai sebahagian daripada program Gemini dan Apollo.
1958[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Man In Space Soonest Kumpulan 2 - USA
- Nota: Rushworth telah dimasukkan bagi menggantikan Iven Kincheloe dari pemilihan tahun 1957 yang telah mati dalam penerbangan ujian.
1959[sunting | sunting sumber]
April 9 - NASA Group 1 - Mercury Seven - USA
- Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton.
- Note: The first group of astronauts selected by NASA were for Project Mercury in April 1959. All seven were military test pilots, a requirement specified by President Eisenhower to simplify the selection process. All seven eventually flew in space, although one, Deke Slayton, did not fly a Mercury mission due to a medical disqualification, instead flying later on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. The other six each flew one Mercury mission. For two of these, Scott Carpenter and John Glenn, the Mercury mission was their only flight in the Apollo era (Glenn later flew on the Space Shuttle). Three of the Mercury astronauts, Gus Grissom, Gordon Cooper and Wally Schirra, also each flew a mission during the Gemini program. Alan Shepard was slated to fly Mercury 10 before its cancellation and was the original commander for the Gemini 3 mission, but did not fly due to a medical disqualification. After surgery to correct the problem, he later flew as commander of Apollo 14. He was the only Mercury astronaut to go to the Moon. Wally Schirra also flew on Apollo as commander of Apollo 7, as well as Mercury and Gemini, the only astronaut to fly on all three types of spacecraft. (Gus Grissom was scheduled to fly the first Apollo flight, but died in a fire on the launch pad during training. It is also widely assumed that had he lived, he would have been the first man to walk on the moon.) Gordon Cooper was a backup commander for Apollo 10, the "dress rehearsal" flight for the lunar landing, and would have commanded another mission (likely to have been Apollo 13, according to the crew rotation), but was bumped from the rotation after a disagreement with NASA management.
- At least one member of the Mercury Seven flew on every NASA class of manned spacecraft of the 20th century, from Mercury, through Gemini and Apollo, and ending with John Glenn's flight on the STS-95 Space Shuttle mission.
1960[sunting | sunting sumber]
Mac 7 - Kumpulan Tentera Udara 1 - USSR
- Ivan Anikeyev, Pavel Belyayev, Valentin Bondarenko, Valery Bykovsky, Valentin Filatyev, Yuri Gagarin, Viktor Gorbatko, Anatoli Kartashov, Yevgeny Khrunov, Vladimir Komarov, Aleksei Leonov, Grigori Nelyubov, Andrian Nikolayev, Pavel Popovich, Mars Rafikov, Georgi Shonin, Gherman Titov, Valentin Varlamov, Boris Volynov, and Dmitri Zaikin.
- Nota: Kumpulan awal kosmonot Soviet telah dipilih dari juruterbang jet Tentera Udara Soviet (Soviet Air Force).
April - Kumpulan Dyna-Soar 1 - USA
- Neil Armstrong, Bill Dana, Henry C. Gordon, Pete Knight, Russell L. Rogers, Milt Thompson, dan James W. Wood.
- Nota: Dalam bulan April 1960, tujuh lelaki telah dipilih secara rahsia untuk program Dyna-Soar. Armstrong sebelumnya merupakan sebahagian daripada program MISS. Armstrong dan Dana meninggalkan program tersebut pada musim panas tahun 1962.
1962[sunting | sunting sumber]
March 12 - Female Group - USSR
- Tatyana Kuznetsova, Valentina Ponomaryova, Irina Solovyova, Valentina Tereshkova, and Zhanna Yorkina.
- Note: On March 12, 1962, a group of five civilian women with parachuting experience was added to the cosmonaut training program. Only Tereshkova would fly. A leading Soviet high-altitude parachutist, 20-year-old Tatyana Kuznetsova was, and remains, the youngest person ever selected to train for spaceflight.
September 17 - NASA Group 2 - The Next Nine (Also: The Nifty Nine, The New Nine) - USA
- Neil Armstrong, Frank Borman, Charles Conrad, Jim McDivitt, Jim Lovell, Elliott See, Tom Stafford, Ed White and John Young.
- Note: A second group of nine astronauts was selected by NASA in September 1962. All of this group flew missions in the Gemini program except Elliott See, who died in a flight accident while preparing for the Gemini 9 flight. All of the others also flew on Apollo, except for Ed White, who died in the Apollo 1 launchpad fire. Three of this group, McDivitt, Borman and Armstrong, made single flights in both Gemini and Apollo. Four others, Young, Lovell, Stafford and Conrad, each made two flights in Gemini and at least one flight in Apollo. Young and Lovell both made two Apollo flights. Conrad and Stafford also made second flights in Apollo spacecraft, Conrad on Skylab 2 and Stafford in Apollo-Soyuz. Six of this group, Borman, Lovell, Stafford, Young, Armstrong and Conrad, made flights to the Moon. Lovell and Young went to the Moon twice. Armstrong, Conrad, and Young walked on the Moon. McDivitt was later Apollo Program Director and became the first general officer and would have been either the prime LM Pilot or backup commander for Apollo 14, but left NASA due to a conflict between Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton. John Young also later flew on the Space Shuttle (STS-1 and STS-9) and would retire from NASA in 2004. He was both the first and last of his group to go into space.
September 19 - Dyna-Soar Group 2 - USA
- Note: On September 19, 1962, Crews was added to the Dyna-Soar program and the names of the six active Dyna-Soar astronauts were announced to the public.
1963[sunting | sunting sumber]
Januari 10 - Kumpulan 2 Tentera Udara - USSR
- Yuri Artyukhin, Eduard Buinovski, Lev Demin, Georgi Dobrovolski, Anatoli Filipchenko, Aleksei Gubarev, Vladislav Gulyayev, Pyotr Kolodin, Eduard Kugno, Anatoli Kuklin, Aleksandr Matinchenko, Vladimir Shatalov, Lev Vorobyov, Anatoli Voronov, Vitali Zholobov
Oktober 17 - Kumpulan 3 NASA - The Fourteen - USA
- Buzz Aldrin, William Anders, Charles Bassett, Alan Bean, Eugene Cernan, Roger Chaffee, Michael Collins, Walter Cunningham, Donn Eisele, Theodore Freeman, Richard Gordon, Russell Schweickart, David Scott, Clifton Williams
- Nota: Kesemua kumpulan ketiga (kecuali mereka yang telah mati) terbang di dalam program Apollo - Aldrin, Bean, Cernan dan Scott berjalan di atas bulan. Lima daripada mereka (Aldrin, Cernan, Collins, Gordon dan Scott) juga melaksanakan beberapa misi ketika program Gemini. Cernan mungkin satu-satunya angkasawan dari kumpulan ini yang terbang ke bulan sebanyak dua kali (Apollo 10 dan Apollo 17), sementara Bean akan mengemudi misi Skylab 3.
- Bassett, Chaffee, Freeman dan Williams telah mati sebelum sempat mereka terbang ke angkasa - Chaffee di dalam kebakaran Apollo 1, yang lain-lain di dalam kemalangan kapal terbang.
1964[sunting | sunting sumber]
January 25 - Air Force Group 2 Supplemental - USSR
May 26 - Voskhod Group (Medical Group 1) - USSR
June 11 - Civilian Specialist Group 1 - USSR
1965[sunting | sunting sumber]
June 1 - Journalist Group 1 - USSR
- Note: In 1965, three civilian journalists were selected for cosmonaut training in preparation for flight on a Voskhod mission. When the Voskhod program was canceled, Golovanov and Letunov were dismissed. Rebrov, on the other hand, stayed with the space program as a journalist until 1974.
June 1 - Medical Group 2 - USSR
- Note: These physicians were selected for the long-duration Voskhod flights, all of which were subsequently canceled to make way for the Soviet Moon program. All three were dismissed at the beginning of the following year.
June 28 - NASA Group 4 - The Scientists - USA
- Note: Graveline and Michel left NASA without flying in space. Schmitt walked on the Moon on Apollo 17. Garriott, Gibson and Kerwin all flew to Skylab. Garriott also flew on the Space Shuttle and was the first Amateur radio operator to operate from orbit.
October 28 - Air Force Group 3 - USSR
- Boris Belousov, Vladimir Degtyarov, Anatoli Fyodorov, Yuri Glazkov, Vitali Grishchenko, Veygeni Khludeyev, Leonid Kizim, Pyotr Klimuk, Gennadi Kolesnikov, Aleksandr Kramarenko, Mikhail Lisun, Aleksandr Petrushenko, Vladimir Preobrazhensky, Valeri Rozhdestvensky, Gennadi Sarafanov, Ansar Sharafutdinov, Vasili Shcheglov, Aleksandr Skvortsov, Eduard Stepanov, Valeri Voloshin, Oleg Yakovlev, Vyacheslav Zudov
- Note: This group of cosmonauts was selected for participation in five separate Soyuz programmes that the USSR was running. These included military programs (with and without the Almaz/Salyut space stations) and two lunar programs (only one of which aimed at an actual lunar landing). In the end, only the orbital program and the space station program went ahead, and few of the cosmonauts from this group ever were given the chance to fly.
November - USAF MOL Group 1 - USA
- Michael J. Adams, Albert H. Crews Jr., John L. Finley, Richard E. Lawyer, Lachlan Macleay, Francis G. Neubeck, James M. Taylor, Richard H. Truly.
- Note: This group was selected for training for the U.S. Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. Of this group, only Truly transferred to NASA after the cancellation of the MOL program and later flew on the Space Shuttle. In 1989, Truly became the first astronaut to be NASA Administrator.
1966[sunting | sunting sumber]
April 4 - NASA Group 5 - The Original 19 - USA
- Vance Brand, John S. Bull, Gerald Carr, Charles Duke, Joseph Engle, Ronald Evans, Edward Givens, Fred Haise, James Irwin, Don Lind, Jack Lousma, Ken Mattingly, Bruce McCandless II, Edgar Mitchell, William Pogue, Stuart Roosa, John Swigert, Paul Weitz, Alfred Worden.
- Note: This group -- except John Bull, who left NASA due to a medical disqualification; Edward Givens, who died; Joseph Engle, who was bumped from Apollo 17 for Harrison Schmitt; and Bruce McCandless and Don Lind, who were candidates for one of the canceled Apollo flights -- flew on all Apollo flights after Apollo 12. Fred Haise and John Swigert flew on Apollo 13, the latter replacing Ken Mattingly after he was scrubbed due to measles exposure although he later flew on Apollo 16. Edgar Mitchell and Stuart Roosa both flew on Apollo 14 with Alan Shepard, while Alfred Worden and James Irwin flew with David Scott on Apollo 15. Charles Duke, who was CAPCOM for Apollo 11, flew on Apollo 16 with John Young and Mattingly, while Ron Evans served as Command Module Pilot with Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt on Apollo 17. Paul Weitz, Jack Lousma, Gerald Carr and William Pogue flew aboard Skylab while Vance Brand, a backup Skylab astronaut, flew aboard ASTP with Thomas Stafford and Deke Slayton in 1975. Joseph Engle and Fred Haise, in 1977, commanded crews on the Space Shuttle Enterprise landing tests, with Engle, Mattingly, Bruce McCandless, and Don Lind later flying actual Space Shuttle flights. Engle, with MOL transferee Richard H. Truly, would command the last all-rookie US spaceflight crew (STS-2) in November, 1981, as current NASA policy requires that the Shuttle commander be an experienced astronaut.
May 23 - Civilian Specialist Group 2 - USSR
- Sergei Anokhin, Vladimir Bugrov, Gennadi Dolgopolov, Georgi Grechko, Valeri Kubasov, Oleg Makarov, Vladislav Volkov, Aleksei Yeliseyev
June 30 - USAF MOL Group 2 - USA
- Note: This group was selected for training for the U.S. Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. All transferred to NASA after the MOL program was canceled and all five flew on the Space Shuttle as pilot astronauts.
1967[sunting | sunting sumber]
January 31 - Civilian Specialist Group 2 Supplemental - USSR
May 7 - Air Force Group 4 - USSR
- Vladimir Alekseyev, Vladimir Beloborodov, Mikhail Burdayev, Sergei Gaidukov, Vladimir Isakov, Vladimir Kovalyanok, Vladimir Kozelsky, Vladimir Lyakhov, Yuri Malyshev, Viktor Pisarev, Nikolai Porvatkin, Mikhail Sologub
May 22 - Academy of Sciences Group - USSR
- Mars Fathulin, Rudolf Gulyayev, Ordinard Kolomitsev, Vsevolod Yegorov, Valentin Yershov
June - USAF MOL Group 3 - USA
- Note: This group was selected for training for the US Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. Lawrence was the first African-American to be chosen as an astronaut, but was killed in a jet accident before the MOL program was canceled in 1969 (had Lawrence not died, he would have been, if accepted by NASA, the first African-American astronaut for the agency, pre-dating Guion Bluford by nine years). Peterson transferred to NASA in 1969 after the MOL cancellation and would fly on the Space Shuttle. Herres would later become the first Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under the Goldwater-Nichols Act in 1987.
October 4 - NASA Group 6 - XS-11 (The Excess Eleven) - USA
- Joseph Allen, Philip Chapman, Anthony England, Karl Henize, Donald Holmquest, William B. Lenoir, Anthony Llewellyn, Story Musgrave, Brian O'Leary, Robert Parker, William Thornton.
- Note: This second group of scientist-astronauts were assigned as backup crew members for the last three Apollo missions or as backup crew members for Skylab. Except for Chapman, Holmquest, Llewellyn, and O'Leary, the group members eventually flew as Mission Specialists during the Space Shuttle program. With his flight on STS-61 (a Hubble Space Telescope repair flight) at the age of 58, Musgrave held the title of "oldest astronaut" prior to John Glenn's second flight.
1968[sunting | sunting sumber]
May 27 - Civilian Specialist Group 3 - USSR
- Vladimir Fartushny, Viktor Patsayev, Valeri Yazdovsky
1969[sunting | sunting sumber]
August 14 - NASA Group 7 - USA
- Karol Bobko, Robert Crippen, Gordon Fullerton, Henry Hartsfield, Robert Overmyer, Donald H. Peterson, Richard Truly.
- Note: This group is all USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory astronauts who transferred to NASA after the cancellation of the MOL program in 1969. All flew on early Space Shuttle flights. Truly, in 1989, would become the first astronaut to become NASA Administrator, holding the position until 1992.
September 10 - Civilian Engineer Group - USSR
1970[sunting | sunting sumber]
April 27 - Air Force Group 5 - USSR
- Anatoli Berezovoi, Aleksandr Dedkov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Nikolai Fefelov, Valeri Illarianov, Yuri Isaulov, Vladimir Kozlov, Leonid Popov, Yuri Romanenko
1971[sunting | sunting sumber]
February 25 - 1971 Scientific Group - USSR
- Gurgen Ivanyan
May - Shuguang Group 1970 - China
- Chai Hongliang, Dong Xiaohai, Du Jincheng, Fang Guojun, Hu Zhanzi, Li Shichang, Liu Chongfu, Liu Zhongyi, Lu Xiangxiao, Ma Zizhong, Meng Senlin, Shao Zhijian, Wang Fuhe, Wang Fuquan, Wang Quanbo, Wang Rongsen, Wang Zhiyue, Yu Guilin, Zhang Ruxiang
1972[sunting | sunting sumber]
March 22 - Civilian Specialist Group 4 - USSR
- Boris Andreyev, Valentin Lebedev, Yuri Ponomaryov
March 22 - Medical Group 3 - USSR
- Georgi Machinski, Valeri Polyakov, Lev Smirenny
1973[sunting | sunting sumber]
March 27 - Civilian Specialist Group 5 - USSR
- Vladimir Aksyonov, Vladimir Gevorkyan, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov, Valeri Romanov, Valery Ryumin, Gennady Strekalov
1974[sunting | sunting sumber]
January 1 - Physician Group - USSR
- Zyyadin Abuzyarov
1976[sunting | sunting sumber]
August 23 - Air Force Group 6 - USSR
- Leonid Ivanov, Leonid Kadenyuk, Nikolai Moskalenko, Sergei Protchenko, Yevgeni Saley, Anatoly Solovyev, Vladimir Titov, Vladimir Vasyutin, Alexander Volkov
November 25 - 1976 Intercosmos Group - USSR
- Miroslaw Hermaszewski, Zenon Jankowski, Sigmund Jähn, Eberhard Köllner, Oldrich Pelcak, Vladimír Remek
1978[sunting | sunting sumber]
January 16 - NASA Group 8 - TFNG (Thirty-Five New Guys) - USA
- Pilots: Daniel Brandenstein, Michael Coats, Richard Covey, John Creighton, Robert Gibson, Frederick D. Gregory, Frederick Hauck, Jon McBride, Francis "Dick" Scobee, Brewster Shaw, Loren Shriver, David Walker, Donald Williams
- Mission specialists: Guion Bluford, James Buchli, John Fabian, Anna Fisher, Dale Gardner, S. David Griggs, Terry Hart, Steven Hawley, Jeffrey Hoffman, Shannon Lucid, Ronald McNair, Richard Mullane, Steven Nagel, George Nelson, Ellison Onizuka, Judith Resnik, Sally Ride, Rhea Seddon, Robert Stewart, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Norman Thagard, James van Hoften
- Due to the long delay between the last Apollo mission and the first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1981, few astronauts from the older groups stayed with NASA. Thus in 1978 a new group of 35 astronauts was selected after 9 years without new astronauts, including the first female astronauts, and also the first black astronauts Guion Bluford and Frederick D. Gregory. Bob Stewart was the first Army astronaut to be selected (almost 19 years after the original Mercury Seven). Since then, a new group has been selected roughly every two years.
- Two different astronaut groups were formed: pilots and mission specialists. Additionally the shuttle program has payload specialists who are selected for a single mission and are not part of the astronaut corps - among them were mostly scientists, also a few politicians and many international astronauts.
- Of the first of the post-Apollo group, Sally Ride would become the first American woman in space (STS-7). Later, she would fly with Kathryn Sullivan on a Shuttle flight, in which Sullivan would become the first American woman to perform an EVA. Dr. Thagard, who flew with Ride on STS-7, would later become the first American to be launched on a Russian rocket (Soyuz TM-18 or "Mir-18") to the Mir space station, while Shannon Lucid would serve on the Mir for slightly over 6 months, breaking all American space duration records (both the Skylab 4 record and Thagard's) in 1996-97 until Sunita Williams (who was selected 20 years later) broke Lucid's record. Of this group, Scobee, Resnik, Onizuka, and McNair would perish in the Challenger Disaster. Of the astronauts chosen, only Anna Fisher still remains on active duty (although her tenure included an extended leave of absence from 1989 to 1996), while Robert Gibson and Rhea Seddon became the first active duty astronauts to marry (both are now retired). Although classed as inactive, Shannon Lucid continues to serve as CAPCOM to shuttle missions setakat 2009[update]. After the Challenger Disaster, Sally Ride would serve on both the Rogers Commission and the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.
March 1 - 1978 Intercosmos Group - USSR
- Aleksandr P. Aleksandrov, Dumitru Dediu, Jose Lopez Falcon, Bertalan Farkas, Maidarzhavyn Ganzorig, Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa, Georgi Ivanov, Bela Magyari, Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez, Dumitru Prunariu
May 1 - Spacelab Payload Specialists Group 1 - ESA
1979[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Frank J. Casserino, Jeffrey E. Detroye, Michael A. Hamel, Terry A. Higbee, Daryl J. Joseph, Malcolm W. Lydon, Gary E. Payton, Jerry J. Rij, Paul A. Sefchek, Eric E. Sundberg, David M. Vidrine, John B. Watterson, Keith C. Wright
April 1 - 1979 Intercosmos Group - USSR
1980[sunting | sunting sumber]
May 29 - NASA Group 9 - USA
- Pilots: John Blaha, Charles Bolden, Roy Bridges, Guy Gardner, Ronald Grabe, Bryan O'Connor, Richard N. Richards, Michael J. Smith
- Mission specialists: James Bagian, Franklin Chang-Diaz, Mary Cleave, Bonnie Dunbar, William Fisher, David Hilmers, David Leestma, John Lounge, Jerry Ross, Sherwood Spring, Robert Springer
- Of this group, Franklin Chang-Diaz would become the first Hispanic-American in space, Michael Smith would perish in the Challenger Disaster, while John Blaha would fly aboard the Mir space station. Both Jerry Ross and Chang-Diaz currently jointly hold the record of number of manned spaceflights flown at seven. Bolden, the second African-American to be selected as a NASA astronaut and the first as a pilot astronaut (Bluford was selected as a mission specialist astronaut), was chosen on May 23, 2009, to become the second NASA astronaut and the first African-American to the post of NASA Administrator on a full-time basis (although Frederick Gregory, who is also African-American and a former Shuttle commander, held the post on a temporary basis between the departure of Sean O'Keefe and the appointment of Michael Griffin in 2005). The announcement, made a day before the conclusion of the STS-125 flight to the Hubble Space Telescope, was coincidental, because Bolden was the pilot on the telescope's deployment flight in 1990.
1980 - 1980 CNES Group - Jean-Loup Chrétien and Patrick Baudry would become the first Frenchmen in space. Chrétien flight with Soviets to Salyut 7 in 1982, and Baudry on the STS-51-G flight in 1985. Chrétien would later fly to the Space Station Mir and would become a regular Mission Specialist astronaut for NASA in the 1990's.
1982[sunting | sunting sumber]
- James B. Armor, Jr., Michael W. Booen, Livingston L. Holder, Jr., Larry D. James, Charles E. Jones, Maureen C. LaComb, Michael R. Mantz, Randy T. Odle, William A. Pailes, Craig A. Puz, Katherine E. Roberts, Jess M. Sponable, W. David Thompson, Glenn S. Yeakel
December 1 - Spacelab Payload Specialists Group - Germany
1983[sunting | sunting sumber]
December - NRC Group - Canada
- This first Canadian astronaut group was selected by the National Research Council of Canada and were transferred to the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) when it was created in 1989. All the astronauts flew on the U.S. Space Shuttle by 1997 except Kenneth Money, who resigned from CSA in 1992.
1984[sunting | sunting sumber]
May 23 - NASA Group 10 - The Maggots - USA
- Pilots: Kenneth Cameron, John Casper, Frank Culbertson, Sidney Gutierrez, Blaine Hammond, Michael McCulley, James Wetherbee
- Mission specialists: James Adamson, Ellen Baker, Mark Brown, Sonny Carter, Marsha Ivins, Mark Lee, David Low, William Shepherd, Kathryn Thornton, Charles Veach
- Of this group, William Shepherd would become the commander of the first International Space Station crew (Expedition 1). James Wetherbee would become the only person to command five spaceflight missions. Sonny Carter died in 1991 in a plane crash while on NASA business.
1985[sunting | sunting sumber]
June 4 - NASA Group 11 - USA
- Pilots: Michael A. Baker, Robert D. Cabana, Brian Duffy, Terence Henricks, Stephen Oswald, Stephen Thorne
- Mission Specialists: Jerome Apt, Charles Gemar, Linda Godwin, Richard Hieb, Tamara Jernigan, Carl Meade, Rodolfo Neri Vela, Pierre Thuot
- Note: Thorne was killed in the crash of a private airplane before his first flight assignment.
July 19 - NASA Teacher in Space Program - USA
- Note: McAuliffe and Morgan were selected as the prime and backup Payload Specialists for the STS-51-L mission in 1985. McAuliffe was killed in the Challenger Disaster, 73 seconds after lift-off. Morgan would later join the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1998. She flew on the STS-118 mission in 2007, 21 years after Challenger.
August 1 - 1985 NASDA Group - Japan
- Joseph J. Caretto, Robert B. Crombie, Frank M. DeArmond, David P. Staib, Jr., Teresa M. Stevens
1987[sunting | sunting sumber]
June 5 - NASA Group 12 - The GAFFers - USA
- Pilots: Andrew M. Allen, Kenneth Bowersox, Curtis Brown, Kevin Chilton, Donald McMonagle, William Readdy, Kenneth Reightler
- Mission specialists: Thomas Akers, Jan Davis, Michael Foale, Gregory Harbaugh, Mae Jemison, Bruce Melnick, Mario Runco, James Voss
- The group's informal nickname is an acronym for "George Abbey Final Fifteen". Of this group, Mae Jemison would become the first female African-American in space, while Michael Foale would fly aboard the Mir space station. At the time of the Columbia accident in 2003, William Readdy was Associate Administrator for Space Flight and Kenneth Bowersox was commanding the Expedition 6 crew on the ISS. Chilton, after leaving NASA, became the first NASA astronaut to become a full General in the U.S. Air Force (Lt. Gen. Thomas Stafford, USAF, and VADM Richard Truly, USN were three-star officers) and is currently the commander of U.S. Strategic Command.
August 3 - 1987 German Group
1990[sunting | sunting sumber]
January 17 - NASA Group 13 - The Hairballs - USA
- Pilots: Kenneth Cockrell, Eileen Collins, William G. Gregory, James Halsell, Charles Precourt, Richard Searfoss, Terrence Wilcutt
- Mission specialists: Daniel Bursch, Leroy Chiao, Michael Clifford, Bernard Harris, Susan Helms, Thomas David Jones, William McArthur, James Newman, Ellen Ochoa, Ronald Sega, Nancy Currie, Donald A. Thomas, Janice Voss, Carl E. Walz, Peter Wisoff, David Wolf
- Collins would go on to be the first female shuttle pilot, the first female shuttle commander, and then commander of the second "Return to Flight" mission in 2005. The "Hairballs" nickname, according to Jones in his book "Sky Walking," came after the group, the 13th NASA astronaut class, put a black cat on its group patch.
October 8 - 1990 German Group
1992[sunting | sunting sumber]
March 31 - NASA Group 14 - The Hogs - USA
- Mission specialists: Daniel T. Barry, Charles Brady, Catherine Coleman, Michael Gernhardt, John Grunsfeld, Wendy Lawrence, Jerry Linenger, Richard Linnehan, Michael Lopez-Alegria, Scott Parazynski, Winston Scott, Steven Smith, Joseph Tanner, Andy Thomas, Mary Weber
- International mission specialists: Marc Garneau (Canada), Chris Hadfield (Canada), Maurizio Cheli (Italy), Jean-François Clervoy (France), Koichi Wakata (Japan)
- Beginning with this NASA Group, non-US astronauts representing their home country's space agencies were brought in and trained alongside their NASA counterparts as full-fledged mission specialists, eligible to be assigned to any shuttle mission.
April - 1992 NASDA Group - Japan
June - CSA Group 2 - Canada
- The second Canadian astronaut group were selected by CSA. All the astronauts flew on the U.S. Space Shuttle except Michael McKay who resigned due to medical reasons.
May 15 - 1992 ESA Group - ESA
- Maurizio Cheli (Italy), Jean-François Clervoy (France), Pedro Duque (Spain), Christer Fuglesang (Sweden), Marianne Merchez (Belgium), Thomas Reiter (Germany)
1994[sunting | sunting sumber]
December 12 - NASA Group 15 - The Flying Escargot - USA
- Pilots: Scott Altman, Jeffrey Ashby, Michael Bloomfield, Joe Edwards, Dominic Gorie, Rick Husband, Steven Lindsey, Pamela Melroy, Susan (Still) Kilrain, Frederick Sturckow
- Mission specialists: Michael Anderson, Robert Curbeam, Kalpana Chawla, Kathryn Hire, Janet Kavandi, Edward Lu, Carlos Noriega, James Reilly, Stephen Robinson
- International mission specialists: Jean-Loup Chrétien (France), Takao Doi (Japan), Michel Tognini (France), Dafydd Williams (Canada)
- Husband, Anderson, and Chawla were crewmembers on the final Columbia mission. Chrétien trained as a backup Spacelab crew member in the 1980s and flew on both U.S. and Soviet/Russian spacecraft, along with being the first non-U.S. or Soviet/Russian astronaut to perform an space walk.
1996[sunting | sunting sumber]
February 9 - Cosmonaut Group MKS/RKKE-12 - Russia
May 1 - NASA Group 16 - The Sardines - USA
- Pilots: Duane Carey, Stephen Frick, Charles Hobaugh, James M. Kelly, Mark Kelly, Scott Kelly, Paul Lockhart, Christopher Loria, William McCool, Mark Polansky
- Mission Specialists: David Brown, Daniel Burbank, Yvonne Cagle, Fernando Caldeiro, Charles Camarda, Laurel B. Clark, Michael Fincke, Patrick Forrester, John Herrington, Joan Higginbotham, Sandra Magnus, Michael Massimino, Richard Mastracchio, Lee Morin, Lisa Nowak, Donald Pettit, John Phillips, Paul Richards, Piers Sellers, Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper, Daniel Tani, Rex Walheim, Peggy Whitson, Jeffrey Williams, Stephanie Wilson
- International mission specialists: Pedro Duque (Spain), Christer Fuglesang (Sweden), Umberto Guidoni (Italy), Steven MacLean (Canada), Mamoru Mohri (Japan), Soichi Noguchi (Japan), Julie Payette (Canada), Philippe Perrin (France), Gerhard Thiele (Germany)
- Brown, Clark, and McCool were crewmembers on the final Columbia mission. Mark and Scott Kelly are twin brothers, James Kelly is not related. Loria resigned from his shuttle mission due to injury and never flew before retiring from the astronaut corps. Nowak, who flew on STS-121, was arrested on February 5, 2007 after confronting a woman entangled in a love triangle with a fellow astronaut. She was dismissed by NASA on March 6, the first astronaut to be both grounded and dismissed (prior astronauts who were grounded due to non-medical issues usually resigned or retired).
June - NASDA Group - Japan
October - China Group 1996 - China
1997[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Ramon was the first Israeli astronaut to fly in space and also a Payload Specialist on the final Columbia mission.
1998[sunting | sunting sumber]
January - Chinese Group 1 - China
- Chen Quan 陈全, Deng Qingming 邓清明, Fei Junlong 费俊龙, Jing Haipeng 景海鹏, Liu Boming 刘伯明, Liu Wang 刘旺, Nie Haisheng 聂海胜, Pan Zhanchun 潘占春, Yang Liwei 杨利伟, Zhai Zhigang 翟志刚, Zhang Xiaoguan 张晓光, Zhao Chuandong 赵传东
In October 2003, Yang Liwei became the first man to be sent into space by the space program of China, and his mission, Shenzhou 5, made the PRC the third country to independently send people into space.
June 4 - NASA Group 17 - The Penguins - USA
- Pilots: Lee Archambault, Christopher Ferguson, Kenneth Ham, Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, William Oefelein, Alan Poindexter, George Zamka
- Mission Specialists: Clayton Anderson, Tracy Caldwell, Gregory Chamitoff, Timothy Creamer, Michael Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Stanley Love, Leland Melvin, Barbara Morgan, John D. Olivas, Nicholas Patrick, Garrett Reisman, Patricia Robertson, Steven Swanson, Douglas Wheelock, Sunita Williams, Neil Woodward
- International Mission Specialists: Léopold Eyharts (France), Paolo Nespoli (Italy), Marcos Pontes (Brazil), Hans Schlegel (Germany), Robert Thirsk (Canada), Bjarni Tryggvason (Canada), Roberto Vittori (Italy)
- Note: Group includes Barbara Morgan, who was the backup "Teacher-In-Space" for Christa McAuliffe for the ill-fated Challenger Disaster in 1986. While often referred to as an Educator Astronaut, Morgan was selected by NASA as a Mission Specialist, before the Educator Astronaut Project was formed.
- Patricia Robertson (née Hilliard) was killed in the crash of a private airplane before she was assigned to a Shuttle mission.
October 7 - 1998 ESA Group - ESA
1999[sunting | sunting sumber]
February - 1999 NASDA Group - Japan
2000[sunting | sunting sumber]
Julai 26 - Kumpulan 18 NASA - The Bugs - USA
- Juruterbang: Dominic A. Antonelli, Eric A. Boe, Kevin A. Ford, Ronald J. Garan, Jr., Terry W. Virts, Jr., Barry E. Wilmore, Douglas G. Hurley
- Pakar Misi: Michael R. Barratt, Robert L. Behnken, Stephen G. Bowen, B. Alvin Drew, Andrew J. Feustel, Michael T. Good, Timothy L. Kopra, K. Megan McArthur, Karen L. Nyberg, Nicole P. Stott
2003[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Nota: Ini merupakan kumpulan pertama angkasawan komersil.
2004[sunting | sunting sumber]
Mei 6 - Kumpulan 19 NASA - The Peacocks - USA
- Pakar Misi: Thomas Marshburn, Christopher Cassidy, R. Shane Kimbrough, Jose Hernández, Robert Satcher, Shannon Walker
- Nota: Kumpulan ini merupakan kumpulan pertama yang memasukkan Educator mission specialists. Berdasarkan jadual persaraan Space Shuttle pada 2010, ini merupakan latihan yang terakhir angkasawan NASA dilatih untuk penerbangan Shuttle.
2006[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Note: In 2006, four Malaysians were chosen to train for a flight to the International Space Station through the Angkasawan program. Sheikh Muszaphar became the first Malaysian in space when he flew aboard Soyuz TMA-11.
October 11 - Cosmonaut Group - Russia
- Aleksandr Misurkin, Oleg Novitskiy, Aleksey Ovchinin, Maksim Ponomaryov, Sergey Ryzhikov, Yelena Serova, Nikolai Tikhonov
December 25 - Korean Astronaut Program Group
- Note: Ko San was chosen as the prime candidate over Yi So-yeon in September 2007. Yi So-yeon became prime candidate in March 2008.
2009[sunting | sunting sumber]
February 25 - JAXA Group - Japan
May 13 - CSA Group - Canada
May 20 - ESA Group - ESA 
- Samantha Cristoforetti (Italy), Alexander Gerst (Germany), Andreas Mogensen (Denmark), Luca Parmitano (Italy), Timothy Peake (United Kingdom), Thomas Pesquet (France)
June 29 - NASA Group 20 - Chumps - USA
- Pilots: Jack D. Fischer, Scott D. Tingle, Gregory R. (Reid) Wiseman
- Mission Specialists: Serena M. Auñón, Jeanette J. Epps, Michael S. Hopkins, Kjell N. Lindgren, Kathleen (Kate) Rubins, Mark T. Vande Hei
- International Mission Specialists: Samantha Cristoforetti, (Italy), Alexander Gerst, (Germany), Jeremy Hansen, (Canada), Andreas Mogensen, (Denmark), Takuya Onishi, (Japan), Luca Parmitano (Italy), Timothy Peake, (United Kingdom), Thomas Pesquet, (France), David Saint-Jacques (Canada), Kimiya Yui (Japan)
- Note: NASA selected the nine members of Group 20 from over 3,500 applicants.
September 8 - JAXA Group - Japan
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Cassutt, Michael. "The Manned Space Flight Engineer Programme" Spaceflight, January 1989.
- NASA (2007). "Barbara Radding Morgan - NASA Astronaut biography". NASA. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/morgan.html. Capaian September 15 2007.
- Encyclopedia Astronautica (2007). "Test Pilots". Encyclopedia Astronautica. http://www.astronautix.com/astrogrp/tessites.htm. Capaian October 27 2007.
- Space.com. "X Prize: The Competition is Heating Up". Space.com. http://www.space.com/php/multimedia/imagegallery/igviewer.php?imgid=1858&gid=154. Capaian October 27 2007.
- Asia Travel Tips.com (2006). "Virgin Atlantic Pilots offered chance to become Astronauts". Asia Travel Tips.com. http://www.asiatraveltips.com/news06/303-SpaceTravel.shtml. Capaian October 27 2007.
- Sushma Veera (2007). "Angkasawan: Space is only the beginning". The Malay Mail. http://www.mmail.com.my/Current_News/mm/Weekend/Hotnews/20071027111145/Article/index_html. Capaian October 27 2007.
- ESA (2009). "ESA prepares for the next generation of human spaceflight and exploration by recruiting a new class of European astronauts". ESA. http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMRO90OWUF_index_0.html. Capaian 20 May 2009.
- Robert Z. Pearlman (2009). "NASA's new astronaut class: call them the "Chumps"". collectSPACE. http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-100809a.html. Capaian October 8 2009.
- NASA HQ (June 29, 2009). "NASA Selects New Astronauts for Future Space Exploration". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/ascans2009.html. Capaian June 29, 2009.