Stesen kereta api
Stesen kereta api ialah satu kemudahan tempat di mana para penumpang dapat menaiki dan menuruni kereta api, dan/atau di mana kereta api pengangkut barangan dapat diisi atau dipunggah. Lazimnya terdapat pengangkutan awam lain yang berhubung dengan stesen kereta api seperti bas dan teksi.
Sebuah stesen biasanya terdiri dari sekurang-kurangnya satu bangunan untuk para penumpang (dan kemungkinan barangan) dan ditambah pemasangan lain berkaitan dengan kefungsian landasan. Sebuah stesen kecil dengan sedikit kemudahan dan/atau kegunaan terhad dapat dipanggil sebagai "perhentian".
Stesen dibina sama ada bersebelahan dengan atau melintangi sebuah laluan keretapi, atau di hujung laluan (di mana ia menjadi terminal laluan). Biasanya pelantar ternaik disediakan untuk membenarkan para penumpang menaiki kereta api secara mudah dan selamat. Pelantar dapat dihubungkan dengan laluan bawah tanah, jambatan jalan kaki, atau lintasan kereta api; kemudahan penumpang seperti tempat berlindung, jualan tiket dan bangku boleh dijumpai di pelantar atau (di stesen besar) dalam bangunan stesen.
The first stations had little in the way of buildings or amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830. As of 2008, Manchester's Liverpool Road Station is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses.
Stesen-stesen terdahulu kadang-kadang dibina dengan kemudahan untuk para penumpang dan barangan, walaupun sesetengah laluan kereta api adalah barangan sahaja atau penumpang sahaja, dan jika sebuah laluan mempunyai dwi-tujuan sering kali akan ada sebuah depot barangan di stesen penumpang. Stesen dwi-tujuan masih dapat dijumpa hari ini, walaupun dalam banyak hal kemudahan barangan dihadkan ke stesen utama.
In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop. Such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations".
Many railway stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived later may still have such architecture, as later stations often imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of railway stations, from those boasting grand, intricate, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs, and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies.
Stations built more recently, like Berlin's new Hauptbahnhof station, often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany.
A "terminal" or "terminus" is a station at the end of a railway line. Trains arriving there have to end their journeys or reverse out. Depending on the layout of the station, this usually permits travellers to reach all the platforms without the need to cross any tracks – the public entrance to the station and the main reception facilities being at the far end of the platforms.
In a few cases, however, the railway line continues for a short distance beyond the station, and terminating trains continue forwards after depositing their passengers, before either proceeding to sidings or reversing back to the station to pick up departing passengers.
A terminus is frequently, but not always, the final destination of trains arriving at the station. However a number of cities, especially in continental Europe, have a terminus as their main railway stations, and all main lines converge on this station. There may also be a bypass line, used by freight trains that do not need to stop at the main station. In such cases all trains passing through that main station must leave in the reverse direction from that of their arrival. There are several ways in which this can be accomplished:
- arranging for the service to be provided by a multiple unit, or push-pull train, both of which are capable of operating in either direction. The driver simply walks to the other end of the train and takes control from the other cab. This is increasingly the normal method in Europe.
- by detaching the locomotive which brought the train into the station and then either
- using another track to "run it around" to the other end of the train, to which it then re-attaches;
- attaching a second locomotive to the outward-bound end of the train; or
- by the use of a "Y", i.e. a roughly triangular arrangement of track and switches (points) where a train can reverse direction and back into the terminal;
Some former termini have a newer set of through platforms underneath (or above, or alongside) the terminal platforms on the main level. They are used by a cross-city extension of the main line, often for commuter trains, while the terminal platforms may serve long-distance services. Examples of underground through lines include the Thameslink platforms at St. Pancras in London, the Argyle and North Clyde lines of Glasgow's suburban rail network, the newly rebuilt Antwerp station in Belgium, the RER at the Gare du Nord in Paris, and many of the numerous S-Bahn lines at terminal stations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, such as at Zurich Hauptbahnhof.
An American example of a terminal with this feature is Washington, DC's Union Station, where there are higher-level platforms, Gates A through G serving the terminating trains, such as some Northeast Regionals, the Vermonter and all Acela Expresses. Some other Northeast Regional trains and Atlantic Coast service trains use lower-level platforms, Gates H through L (with no I) that tunnel right under the concourse and continue to Florida or Virginia. Auto Train uses Lorton, Virginia Station for three primary reasons:
- the tri-level auto racks used to carry the cars are too tall to fit in the tunnels;
- the platforms would be too short to accommodate the 30-60 coach trainset;
- there is not enough room and there are too many tracks, trains, buildings and people around, so loading cars would be quite tricky.
The largest and most famous rail terminus in the United States is Grand Central Terminal in New York City, United States. Often major cities, such as London, Boston, Paris, Tokyo and Milan have more than one terminus, rather than routes straight through the city. Train journeys through such cities often require alternative transport (metro, bus or taxi) from one terminus to the other. Some cities, including New York, have both termini and through lines. Chicago has four major rail terminals presently in service, of which only one provides Amtrak intercity service (see Rail stations of Chicago).
Terminals that have competing rail lines using the station frequently set up a jointly owned terminal railroad to own and operate the station and its associated tracks, switching operations.
Largest and busiest stations [sunting]
- The world's busiest passenger station, in terms of daily passenger throughput, is Shinjuku Station in Tokyo, Japan. The station was used by an average of 3.64 million people per day in 2007.
- The world's largest station by floor area is Nagoya Station in Nagoya, Japan.
- However, the Nagoya Station complex incorporates two office towers and an underground shopping concourse, so the railway terminal itself is not large in comparison to others.
- Shinjuku Station is the second largest.
- In terms of platform capacity, the world's largest station by platforms is Grand Central Terminal in New York City, USA with 67 platforms and, as part of the East Side Access Project, the MTA will be adding 6 more tracks to accommodate future LIRR trains.
- The Gare du Nord, Paris, is the second largest with 42 platforms.
- The Gare du Nord, in Paris, is Europe's busiest railway staion by total passenger numbers.
- Clapham Junction, in south London, is Europe's busiest railway station by daily rail traffic (one train every 13 seconds at peak times; one train every 30 seconds at off-peak times).
- Zurich Hauptbahnhof, Switzerland, is Europe's busiest railway terminus by daily rail traffic (Clapham Junction is a through station).
- Leipzig Hauptbahnhof is Europe's largest railway station by floor area (24 platforms and several levels of shopping facilities beneath).
- The Gare du Nord, in Paris, is Europe's largest railway staion by number of platforms.
North America [sunting]
Other records [sunting]
- Coney Island-Stillwell Avenue in New York City is the world's largest elevated terminal with 8 tracks and 4 island platforms.
- The Shanghai South Railway Station, opened in June 2006, has the world's largest circular transparent roof.
- Châtelet-Les Halles, in the centre of Paris, is the world's largest underground station.
Lihat juga [sunting]
- "Bishopsgate Goods Station (Goodsyard)". Subterranea Britannica. 2005-06-29. http://www.subbrit.org.uk/sb-sites/sites/b/bishopsgate_goods_station/index.shtml. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- "NS Station Furniture". Benelux Railways Society. http://www.netherlandsrailways.co.uk/NS%20Station%20Furniture.htm. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- Moss, John (2007-03-05). "Manchester Railway Stations". Manchester UK. Papillon. http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/transport/rail-stations.html. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- "The Inception of the English Railway Station". Architectural History 4: 63–76. 1961. doi:10.2307/1568245. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0066-622X(1961)4%3C63%3ATIOTER%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- "Stations of the Gatineau Railway". Historical Society of the Gatineau. http://collections.ic.gc.ca/gatineau/stations.html. Capaian 2006-05-11.
- Miserez, Marc-André. "Stations were gateways to the world", SwissInfo, 2004-06-02. Dicapai pada 2008-03-13.
- "Italian Railroad Stations". History of Railroad Stations. http://members.aol.com/Zacarious1/his.italy.html. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- "Machines & Engineering: Building the Biggest". Discovery Channel. 2008. http://www.discoverychannel.co.uk/machines_and_engineering/building_the_biggest/busiest_railway/index.shtml. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- "Nagoya Station". Japanese Lifestyle. 2007-12-17. http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/travel/nagoya_station.htm. Capaian 2008-03-13.
- Empire State Development (2007-10-23). State begins public review for new Moynihan Station. Kenyataan akhbar. Dicapai pada 2008-02-12.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed.. Encyclopedia of New York City,. m/s. 891.
- "The railway station with world's largest transparent roof", People's Daily, 2006-06-26. Dicapai pada 2008-03-13.
- "Un pôle de transport d'envergure régional" (dalam Bahasa French) (PDF). RATP. http://www.ratp.fr/common/ressources/concertation_p1.pdf. Capaian 2008-03-13.
Pautan luar [sunting]
|Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan: Stesen keretapi|
- A comprehensive technical article about stations from Railway Technical Web Pages
- Branch Line Britain gives details of many railway stations throughout Britain
- Old photos of UK railway stations old photos of British railway stations before the Beeching closures
- Railway stations photo album of railway stations around the world
- Heritage Railway Stations of Canada from Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
- [http://www.estacoesferroviarias.com.br Site about the seasons in Brazil Railways