Batu ahmar

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Carnelian
Carnelian sard (mineral specimen).jpg
Maklumat am
KategoriKepelbagaian kalsedon
Formula kimiaSilika (silikon dioksida, SiO2)
Pengecaman
Berat molekul60 g/mol
WarnaRed, orange, reddish
Sistem hablurTrigonal
PembelahanAbsent
FrakturUneven, splintery, conchoidal
Kekerasan skala Mohs6.5 – 7.0
KilauWaxy to resinous
Indeks biasan1.535 to 1.539
Sifat-sifat optikUniaxial +
Dwibiasan0.003 to 0.009
PleokroismeNone
GurisWhite
Graviti tentu2.58 - 2.64
Diafaneiti Lutsinar kepada legap

Batu ahmar (juga dieja carnelian[1]) ialah mineral merah keperangan yang biasa digunakan sebagai batu permata separa berharga. Serupa dengan carnelian ialah sard, yang biasanya lebih keras dan lebih gelap (perbezaannya tidak ditakrifkan secara tegar, dan kedua-dua nama itu sering digunakan secara bergantian). Kedua-dua carnelian dan sard adalah jenis kalsedon mineral silika yang diwarnai oleh kekotoran oksida besi. Warnanya boleh berbeza-beza, dari oren pucat hingga warna hampir hitam pekat. Kawasan penting termasuk Yanacodo, Peru dan Ratnapura, Sri Lanka . [2] Ia telah ditemui di Indonesia, Brazil, India, Rusia ( Siberia ), dan Jerman .[petikan diperlukan]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Websters New World College Dictionary. Fourth Edition. 2001. Editor in chief Michael Agnes.
  2. ^ Carnelian on Gemdat.org

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Beck, H. C. 1933. "Etched carnelian beads". – The Antiquaries Journal, 13, 4, 384–398.
  • Bellina, B. 2003. "Beads, social change and interaction between India and South-east Asia". – Antiquity, 77, 296, 285–297.
  • Brunet, O. 2009. "Bronze and Iron Age carnelian bead production in the UAE and Armenia: new perspectives". – Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 39, 57–68.
  • Carter, A. K., L. Dussubieux. 2016. "Geologic provenience analysis of agate and carnelian beads using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): A case study from Iron Age Cambodia and Thailand". – J. Archeol. Sci.: Reports, 6, 321–331.
  • Cornaline de l'Inde. Des pratiques techniques de Cambay aux techno-systèmes de l'Indus (Ed. J.-C. Roux). 2000. Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme, Paris, 558 pp.
  • Glover, I. 2001. "Cornaline de l'Inde. Des pratiques techniques de Cambay aux techno-systèmes de l'Indus (sous la direction de V. Roux). – Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient, 88, 376–381.
  • Inizan, M.-L. 1999. "La cornaline de l’Indus à la Mésopotamie, production et circulation: la voie du Golfe au IIIe millénaire". – In: Cornaline et pierres précieuses. De Sumer à l'Islam (Ed. by F. Tallon), Musée du Louvre, Paris, 127–140.
  • Insoll, T., D. A. Polya, K. Bhan, D. Irving, K. Jarvis. 2004. "Towards an understanding of the carnelian bead trade from Western India to sub-Saharan Africa: the application of UV-LA-ICP-MS to carnelian from Gujarat, India, and West Africa". – J. Archaeol. Sci., 31, 8, 1161–1173.
  • Kostov, R. I.; Pelevina, O. (2008). "Complex faceted and other carnelian beads from the Varna Chalcolithic necropolis: archaeogemmological analysis". Proceedings of the International Conference "Geology and Archaeomineralogy". Sofia, 29–30 October 2008. Sofia: Publishing House "St. Ivan Rilski": 67–72.
  • Mackay, E. 1933. "Decorated carnelian beads". – Man, 33, Sept., 143–146.
  • Theunissen, R. 2007. "The agate and carnelian ornaments". – In: The Excavations of Noen U-Loke and Non Muang Kao (Eds. C. Higham, A. Kijngam, S. Talbot). The Thai Fine Arts Department, Bangkok, 359–377.