David Hume

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David Hume
LahirDavid Home
7 May NS [26 April OS] 1711
Edinburgh, Scotland
Meninggal dunia25 Ogos 1776(1776-08-25) (umur 65)
Edinburgh, Scotland
Zaman18th-century philosophy
Minat utama
Idea penting
Alma materUniversity of Edinburgh

David Hume ([hium], nama lahir David Home; 7 Mei 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 Ogos 1776) adalah seorang filsuf, sejarah, ekonomi, dan penulis dari Scotland yang dikenali hari ini untuk sistem falsafah empirisisme, keraguan, dan naturalisnya yang sangat berpengaruh.

Hume mempengaruhi fahaman-fahaman utilitarianisme, positivisme logik, Immanuel Kant, falsafah sains, falsafah analisis awal, sains kognitif, teologi dan pergerakan dan pemikir yang lain. Kant sendiri menyatakan Hume sebagai pencetus pemikiran falsafahnya yang telah membangkitkan dia dari "tidur lena dogmanya".

Hume merupakan filsuf besar pertama dari era moden yang membuat falsafah naturalistks. Falsafah ini sebahagiannya mengandungi penolakan atas prevalensi dalam pembentukan fikiran manusia yang merupakan suatu miniatur dari kesedaran suci; sebuah pernyataan Edward Craig yang dimasukan dalam doktrin 'Image of God'.[4] Doktrin ini dikaitkan dengan kepercayaan dalam kekuatan akal manusia dan penglihatan dalam hakikat, di mana kekuatan tersebut berisi seritikasi Tuhan. Skeptisisme Hume datangnya dari penolakannya atas ideal di dalam'.[5]

Senarai karya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • A Kind of History of My Life (1734) Mss 23159 National Library of Scotland.[6]
  • A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to introduce the experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects (1739–40) - tidak lengkap.
  • An Abstract of a Book lately Published: Entitled A Treatise of Human Nature etc. (1740) Diterbitkan secara awanama tetapi hampir dipastikan sebagai penulisan Hume[7] dalam suatu percubaan mempopularkan karya sebelumnya.
  • Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary (first ed. 1741–2) - koleksi karya nukilan dan terbitan sepanjang beberaoa tahun, terutamanya antara 1753–4. Karya ini menampakkan pengaruh dairpadanThe Essays show some influence from Addison's Tatler dan The Spectator, which Hume read avidly in his youth.
  • A Letter from a Gentleman to His Friend in Edinburgh: Containing Some Observations on a Specimen of the Principles concerning Religion and Morality, said to be maintain'd in a Book lately publish'd, intituled A Treatise of Human Nature etc. Edinburgh (1745). mengandungi sepucuk surat tulisan Hume mempertahankan dirinuaof atheism and scepticism, while applying for a chair at Edinburgh University.
  • An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748) Contains reworking of the main points of the Treatise, Book 1, with the addition of material on free will (adapted from Book 2), miracles, the Design Argument, and mitigated scepticism. Of Miracles, section X of the Enquiry, was often published separately.
  • An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751) A reworking of material from Book 3 of the Treatise, on morality, but with a significantly different emphasis. It "was thought by Hume to be the best of his writings".[8]
  • Political Discourses, (part II of Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary within vol. 1 of the larger Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects) Edinburgh (1752). Included in Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (1753–56) reprinted 1758–77.
  • Political Discourses/Discours politiques (1752–1758), My Own life (1776), Of Essay writing, 1742. Bilingual English-French (translated by Fabien Grandjean). Mauvezin, France: Trans-Europ-Repress, 1993, 22 cm, V-260 p. Bibliographic notes, index.
  • Four Dissertations London (1757). Included in reprints of Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (above).
  • The History of England (Sometimes referred to as The History of Great Britain) (1754–62) More a category of books than a single work, Hume's history spanned "from the invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution of 1688" and went through over 100 editions. Many considered it the standard history of England in its day.
  • The Natural History of Religion. Included in "Four Dissertations" (1757)
  • "Sister Peg" (1760) Hume claimed to have authored an anonymous political pamphlet satirizing the failure of the British Parliament to create a Scottish militia in 1760. Although the authorship of the work is disputed, Hume wrote Dr. Alexander Carlyle in early 1761 claiming authorship. The readership of the time attributed the work to Adam Ferguson, a friend and associate of Hume's who has been sometimes called "the founder of modern sociology." Some contemporary scholars concur in the judgment that Ferguson, not Hume, was the author of this work.
  • "My Own Life" (1776) Penned in April, shortly before his death, this autobiography was intended for inclusion in a new edition of Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects. It was first published by Adam Smith who claimed that by doing so he had incurred "ten times more abuse than the very violent attack I had made upon the whole commercial system of Great Britain."[9]
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779) Published posthumously by his nephew, David Hume the Younger. Being a discussion among three fictional characters concerning the nature of God, and is an important portrayal of the argument from design. Despite some controversy, most scholars agree that the view of Philo, the most sceptical of the three, comes closest to Hume's own.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ David Bostock, Philosophy of Mathematics: An Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, m/s. 43: "All of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume supposed that mathematics is a theory of our ideas, but none of them offered any argument for this conceptualist claim, and apparently took it to be uncontroversial."
  2. ^ Fisher 2011, m/s. 527–528.
  3. ^ Martin Orejana 1991, m/s. ?.
  4. ^ Rujuk The Mind of God and the Works of Man nukilan Craig (Oxford, 1987).
  5. ^ Term borrowed from Craig's book cited in previous fn.
  6. ^ David Fate Norton (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hume, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 345–350.
  7. ^ For this see the introduction by J. M. Keynes and P. Sraffa in: Hume, David (1965). An Abstract of A Treatise of Human Nature 1740. Connecticut: Archon Books
  8. ^ "Samson, G., ''The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature'', CUP Archive, 1941, p. 548". Books.google.com. Dicapai pada 16 March 2017.
  9. ^ "Berry, CJ., Paganelli, MP. and Smith, C., ''The Oxford Handbook of Adam Smith'', Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 466". Books.google.com. 2013-05-16. Dicapai pada 16 March 2017.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]