Frekuensi teramat rendah

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Jump to navigation Jump to search


1982 aerial view of the Clam Lake, Wisconsin ELF facility.

Frekuensi Teramat Rendah (Bahasa Inggeris: Extremely Low Frequency, ELF) ialah istilah yang digunakan untuk menerangkan frekuensi radiasi dari 3 hingga 30 Hz. Dalam sains atmosfera, istilah alternatif biasanya diberikan, dari 3 Hz ke 3 kHz.[1][2] Dalam sains magnetosfera yang berkaitan, ayunan lower frequency electromagnetic oscillations (pulsations occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie in the julat frekuensi tersangat rendah, which is thus also defined differently from the Jalur Radio ITU.

Description[sunting | sunting sumber]

ELF ialah subradio frequency.[3] Some medical peer-reviewed journals refer to ELF in the context of "extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF)" dengan frekuensi 50 Hz[4] dan 50–80 Hz.[5] United States Government agencies, such as NASA, describe ELF as non-ionizing radiation with frekuensi antara 0 dan 300 Hz.[3] The World Health Organization (WHO) have used ELF to refer to the concept of "extremely low frequency (ELF) electric dan magnetic fields (EMF)"[6] dan have also referred to "ELF electric dan magnetic fields in the frequency range >0 to 100,000 Hz (100 kHz)."[7] The WHO also stated that at frekuensi between 0 dan 300 Hz, "the wavelengths in air are very long (6000 km at 50 Hz dan 5000 km at 60 Hz), dan, in practical situations, the electric dan magnetic fields act independently of one another dan are measured separately."[6]

Komunikasi Tentera[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tentera Laut Amerika Syarikat telah menggunakan frekuensi teramat rendah sebagai jalur radio dan komunikasi radio. Sistem Antenna Integrasi Kapal Selam (Submarine Integrated Antena System, SIAS) adalah usaha research dan development untuk berkomunikasi dengan kapal selam.[8] Tentera Laut Rusia/Soviet juga menggunakan ELF untuk sistem komunikasi kapal selamnya, ZEVS.[9]

Keterangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Disebabkan kekonduksian elektrik air laut, kapal selam biasanya dilindungi daripada pelbagai electromagnetic communication. Namun, isyarat dalam julat frekuensi ELF, dapat menembusi dengan lebih dalam. Dua faktor mengehadkan kebolehgunaan saluran komunikasi ELF: kadar pemancaran data rendah iaitu beberapa huruf seminit dan, to a lesser extent, the one-way nature due to the impracticality of installing[meragukan ] a transmitter of the required size on a submarine (transmitters need to be of exceptional size for the users to achieve successful communication). Biasanya, isyarat ELF digunakan untuk mengarahkan kapal selam timbul ke kedalaman yang lebih rendah dimana ia dapat menerima komunikasi dalam bentuk lain.

Kesusahan komunikasi ELF[sunting | sunting sumber]

Antara masalah yang dialami ketika memancar dalam julat frekuensi teramat rendah ialah saiz antenna. Hal ini kerana antenna mesti sekurang-kurangnya substantial fraction saiz (dalam sekurang-kurangnya satu dimensi) panjang gelombang frekuensi gelombang EM. Dalam erti kata lain, sebuah isyarat 1 Hz (kitaran sesaat) akan mempunyai panjang gelombang yang sama dengan jarak yang dilalui gelombang EM dalam sesuatu medium dalam satu saat. Bagi ELF, panjang gelombangnya lebih perlahan daripada kelajuan cahaya dalam vakuum. Seperti yang digunakan dalam aplikasi tentera, panjang gelombang adalah ~299,792 km(~187,370 mi) sesaat dibahagikan dengan 50–85 Hz, yang sama dengan 3,450 hingga 5,996 km (2,144 hingga 3,726 mi) panjangnya; sebagai bandingan, diameter Earth kira-kira 12,735 km (7,913 mi). Because of this huge size requirement dan, untuk memancar isyarat antarabangsa menggunakan julat ELF, Bumi sendirinya mesti digunakan sebagai antena, dengan wayar teramat panjang yang dimasukkan ke dalam tanah. Pelbagai cara lain digunakan untuk membina stesen radio dengan saiz yang lebih kecil, contohnya pemanjangan elektrik.

Amerika Syarikat maintained two sites, di Hutan Negara Chequamegon-Nicolet, Wisconsin dan Hutan Negeri Sungai Escanaba, Michigan (originally named Project Sanguine, then downsized dan rechristened Project ELF prior to construction), until they were dismantled, bermula lewat September 2004. Both sites used long power lines, so-called ground dipoles, as leads. These leads were in multiple strands ranging from 22.5 hingga 45 kilometre (14.0 hingga 28.0 mi) long. Disebabkan ketidakcekapan menggunakan cara ini, kuasa elektrik yang banyak diperlukan untuk mengoperasikan sistem itu.

Kesan Ekologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

There have been some concerns over the possible ecological impact of ELF signals. In 1984 a federal judge halted construction requiring more environmental dan health studies. This judgment was overruled by a federal appeals court on the basis that the US Navy claimed to have spent over 25 million dollars studying the effects of the electromagnetic fields with results indicating that they were similar to the effect produced by standard power distribution lines. The judgment was not accepted by everyone dan during the time ELF was in use, some Wisconsin politicians such as Senators Herb Kohl, Russ Feingold dan Congressman Dave Obey called for its closure. Similar concerns have in the past been raised about electromagnetic radiation dan health.

Kegunaan Lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemancar dalam julat 20 Hz juga dijumpai dalam pipeline inspection gauge, juga dikenali sebagai "PIGs".

Segelintir radio hams merakam isyarat ELF (atau lebih rendah) menggunakan antena buatan rumah yang sangat besar, lalu dimainkan balik pada kelajuan yang lebih tinggi untuk to catch natural fluctuations in the medan elektromagnet Bumi. Increasing the playback increases the pitch, so that it is brought into the audio frequency range.

Sumber semulajadi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Naturally occurring ELF waves are present on Earth, resonating in the region between ionosphere dan surface. They are initiated by lightning strikes that make electrons in the atmosphere oscillate.[10] Though VLF signals were predominantly generated from lightning discharges, it was found that an observable ELF component (slow tail) followed the VLF component in almost all cases.[11] The fundamental mode of the Earth-ionosphere cavity has the wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth, which gives a resonance frequency of 7.8 Hz. Frekuensi ini, dan mod resonans lebih tinggi iaitu 14, 20, 26 dan 32 Hz appear as peaks in the ELF spectrum dan dinamai resonans Schumann.

They have also been tentatively identified on Saturn's moon Titan. Titan's surface is thought to be a poor reflector of ELF waves, so the waves may instead be reflecting off the liquid-ice boundary of a subsurface ocean of water dan ammonia, the existence of which is predicted by some theoretical models. Titan's ionosphere is also more complex than Earth's, with the main ionosphere at an altitude of 1,200 km (750 mi) but with an additional layer of charged particles at 63 km (39 mi). This splits Titan's atmosphere to some extent Templat:Weasel-inline into two separate resonating chambers. The source of natural ELF waves on Titan is unclear as there doesn't appear to be extensive lightning activity.[10]

Finally, huge ELF radiation power outputs of 100,000 times the Sun's output in visible light may be radiated by magnetars. The pulsar in the Crab nebula radiates powers of this order at the frequency 30 hertz [1]. Radiation of this frequency is below the frekuensi plasma of the interstellar medium, thus this medium is opaque to it, dan tidak boleh dilihat dari Bumi.

Exposure[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Undue-section In electromagnetic therapy dan electromagnetic radiation dan health research, electromagnetic spectrum frekuensi between 0 dan 100 hertz are considered extremely-low-frequency fields.[12] Since the late 1970s, questions have been raised whether exposure to ELF electric dan magnetic fields (EMF) within this range of frekuensi produces adverse health consequences.[7] In October 2005, WHO convened a Task Group of scientific experts to assess any risks to health that might exist from "exposure to ELF electric dan magnetic fields in the frequency range >0 to 100,000 Hz (100 kHz)."[7] Research has shown that ELF electrical dan magnetic fields at a high-level short-term exposure have a negative impact on health (ICNIRP, 2003). However, in regards to recognized ELF safety standards, the "Health effects related to short-term, high-level exposure have been established dan form the basis of two international exposure limit guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998; IEEE, 2002). At present, these bodies consider the scientific evidence related to possible health effects from long-term, low-level exposure to ELF fields insufficient to justify lowering these quantitative exposure limits."[7] A common source of ELF fields in the United States is 60 Hz electric dan magnetic fields from high-voltage electric power transmission lines dan secondary distribution lines, such as those found in residential neighbourhoods.[6][7][12] The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated the scientific data dan has classified ELF magnetic fields as being "possibly carcinogenic" or, in other words, that there is some evidence that EMFs may contribute to an increased risk of cancer to humans or animals.[13][14]

Patents[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Liemohn, Michael W. dan A. A. CHAN, "Unraveling the Causes of Radiation Belt Enhancements". EOS, TRANSACTIONS, AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, Volume 88, Number 42, 16 October 2007, pages 427-440. Republished by NASA dan accessed online, 8 Feb 2010. Adobe File, page 2.
  2. ^ R. Barr, D. Llanwyn Jones, C. J. Rodger, "ELF dan VLF radio waves", Journal of Atmospheric dan Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 62, Issues 17-18, November 2000, Pages 1689-1718, ISSN 1364-6826, DOI:10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00121-8.
  3. ^ a b, page 8. ">0 to 300 Hz ... Extremely low frequency (ELF)"
  4. ^ Legros, A; Beuter, A (2006). "Individual subject sensitivity to extremely low frequency magnetic field". Neurotoxicology. 27 (4): 534–46. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.02.007. PMID 16620992. 
  5. ^ ESTECIO, Marcos Roberto Higino dan SILVA, Ana Elizabete. Alterações cromossômicas causadas pela radiação dos monitores de vídeo de computadores. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2002, vol.36, n.3, pp. 330-336. ISSN 0034-8910. Republished by Accessed 8 Feb 2010.
  6. ^ a b c "Electromagnetic Fields dan Public HealthL - Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)". Fact Sheet N205. November 1998. World Health Organization. Accessed 12 Feb 2010. "ELF fields are defined as those having frekuensi up to 300 Hz. ... the electric dan magnetic fields act independently of one another dan are measured separately."
  7. ^ a b c d e "Electromagnetic fields dan public health". Fact Sheet No. 322, June 2007. World Health Organization, Accessed 7 Feb 2010.
  8. ^ "U.S. Navy: Vision...Presence...Power." SENSORS - Subsurface Sensors. US Navy. Accessed 7 Feb 2010.
  9. ^ ZEVS, the Russian 82 Hz ELF transmitter
  10. ^ a b "Titan's Mysterious Radio Wave". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2007-06-01. Dicapai 2007-06-02.  Republished as "Casini - Unlocking Saturn's Secrets - Titan's mysterious radio wave". 22 November 2007. NASA. Accessed 7 February 2010.
  11. ^ Tepley, Lee R. "A Comparison of Sferics as Observed in the Very Low Frequency dan Extremely Low Frequency Bands". Stanford Research Institute Menlo Park, California. 10 August 1959. 64(12), 2315–2329. Summary republished by American Geophysical Union. Accessed 13 Feb 2010
  12. ^ a b Cleary, Stephen F. "Electromagnetic Field: A Danger?". The New Book of Knowledge - Medicine And Health. 1990. 164-74. ISBN 0-7172-8244-9.
  13. ^
  14. ^ "Expertise de l'Afsset sur les effets sanitaires des champs électromagnétiques d'extrêmement basses fréquences" (dalam bahasa french). 6 April 2010. Dicapai 23 April 2010. 

Maklumat am[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]