Jeongjong dari Joseon

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Yi Bang-gwa
Yi Gyeong
Raja Joseon
Pemerintahan14 Oktober 1398 – 28 November 1400
Didahului olehTaejo dari Joseon
Diikuti olehTaejong dari Joseon
Raja Emeritus Joseon
Pemerintahan28 November 1400 – 15 Oktober 1419
Didahului olehTaejo dari Joseon
Keputeraan18 Julai 1357
Kemangkatan15 Oktober 1419(1419-10-15) (umur 62)
PasanganPermaisuri Jeongan
Nama selepas mangkat
Raja Jeongjong Gongjeong Uimun Jangmu Onin Sunhyo yang Agung dari Korea
정종공정의문장무온인순효대왕
定宗恭靖懿文莊武溫仁順孝大王
Nama tokong
Jeongjong
KerabatJeonju Yi
AyahandaTaejo dari Joseon
BondaPermaisuri Shinui
Nama Korea
Hangul
Hanja
Perumian SemakanJeongjong
McCune–ReischauerChŏngjong
Nama lahir
Hangul
Hanja
Perumian SemakanI Bang-gwa
McCune–ReischauerI Panggwa

Jeongjong dari Joseon (18 Julai 1357 - 15 Oktober 1419), dilahirkan Yi Bang-gwa, yang nama diubahnya ialah Yi Gyeong, ialah raja kedua Dinasti Joseon (atau Chosun) (1399-1400). Baginda ialah anak kedua Raja Taejo Joseon, pengasas dan raja pertama dinasti itu.

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dilahirkan pada tahun 1357 sebagai Yi Bang-Gwa, beliau seorang pegawai tentera yang bijak, murah hati, berani dan berkebolehan. Semasa hari-hari terakhir Dinasti Goryeo, Jeongjong mengikuti bapanya, Yi Seonggye, ke pelbagai pertempuran dan berjuang di sisinya. Ketika ayahnya menjadi raja pada tahun 1392, baginda menjadi putera.

Raja Taejo mempunyai dua orang isteri—yang pertama, yang melahirkan enam orang putera raja termasuk Jeongjong, meninggal sebelum Raja Taejo ditabal. Taejo mempunyai isteri kedua, yang mempunyai 2 orang putera. Raja menyukai putera bongsunya, yang ibunya adalah isteri kedua Taejo. Perdana Menteri Jeong Dojeon juga menyokongnya sebagai pengganti takhta, menyebabkan kekecewaan putera-putera lain. Pada 1398, anak kelima Raja Taejo, Yi Bang-won, yang kemudiannya menjadi Raja Taejong dari Joseon, mengetuai rampasan kuasa bersama beberapa pegawai tentera dan membunuh dua adinda lelakinya itu, Perdana Menteri Jeong, dan banyak puak pengikutnya. Yi Bang-won yang pada mulanya cuba menunjukkan bahawa baginda tidak bermaksud untuk mengambil takhta, memberi sokongan kepada kakandanya, Jeongjong (yang juga yang paling tua ketika itu), menjadi putera mahkota. Raja Taejo kecewa dengan peristiwa tragis itu lalu menuruni takhta, dan Jeongjong menjadi raja pada tahun berikutnya, 1399. Tahun yang sama baginda memindahkan ibu kota kembali ke Gaegyeong, ibu kota Goryeo yang lama.

Pada tahun 1400, konflik berlaku antara Yi Bang-won dan kakandanya, Yi Bang-gan. Pasukan Yi Bang-won menyerang dan mengalahkan Bang-gan, Bang-gan kemudian dihantar ke pengasingan bersama keluarganya. Ketua Bak Bo, yang memujuk Bang-gan untuk memerangi Bangwon, telah dibunuh. Raja Jeongjong, mengetahui yang kini pemangku kerajaan itu adalah adindanya Bangwon, lalu melantiknya sebagai putera mahkota dan menuruni takhta beberapa hari kemudian.

Beliau adalah seorang pentadbir yang bijak walaupun pemerintahannya yang singkat dicemari dengan pertumpahan darah di dalam keluarga diraja. Beliau mengharamkan semua jenis tentera peribadi atas nasihat Putera Mahkota Bangwon. Baginda mangkat pada tahun 1419, dan dikebumikan berhampiran Kaeseong.

Genealogi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Leluhur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Keluarga[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Permaisuri Jeongan dari Gyeongju Kim (22 January 1355 – 2 August 1412) (정안왕후 김씨)[2][3]
  2. Royal Noble Consort Seong dari keluarga Chungju Ji (성빈 지씨)[4]
    1. Yi Hu-Saeng, Putera Deokcheon (1397 – 1465) (이후생 덕천군)[5]
    2. Yi Mal-Saeng, Putera Dopyeong (1402 – 1439) (이말생 도평군)
  3. Pasangan Diraja Suk-ui dari keluarga Chungju Ji (숙의 지씨)[4]
    1. Yi Won-Saeng, Putera Uipyeong (? – 1461) (이원생 의평군)
    2. Yi Mu-Saeng, Putera Seonseong (10 December 1396 – 7 July 1460) (이무생 선성군)[6]
    3. Yi Ho-Saeng, Putera Imseong (이호생 임성군)[7]
    4. Puteri Hamyang (함양옹주)[8][9][10]
  4. Pasangan Diraja Suk-ui dari keluarga Haengju Ki (? – 1457) (숙의 기씨)[11]
    1. Yi Gun-Saeng, Putera Sunpyeong (? – 1456) (이군생 순평군)
    2. Yi Ui-Saeng, Putera Geumpyeong (? – 1435) (이의생 금평군)
    3. Puteri Sukshin (1401 – 1486) (숙신옹주)[12]
    4. Yi Yung-Saeng, Putera Jeongseok (1409 – 1464) (이융생 정석군)
    5. Yi Seon-Saeng, Putera Murim (1410 – 1474) (이선생 무림군)
    6. Puteri Goseong (고성옹주)[8][13][14]
    7. Puteri Sangwon (상원옹주)[8][15][16]
    8. Puteri Jeonsan (전산옹주)[8][17][18]
  5. Pasangan Diraja Suk-ui dari keluarga Mun (숙의 문씨)
    1. Yi Gwi-Saeng, Putera Jongui (1393 – 1451) (이귀생 종의군)
  6. Pasangan Diraja Suk-ui dari keluarga Lee (숙의 이씨)
    1. Yi Jong-Saeng, Putera Jinnam (1406 – 1470) (이종생 진남군)
  7. Pasangan Diraja Suk-ui dari keluarga Haepyeong Yun (1368 - 1417) (숙의 윤씨)[19]
    1. Yi Deok-Saeng, Putera Sudo (? – 1449) (이덕생 수도군)
    2. Yi Nok-Saeng, Putera Imeon (1399 – 1432) (이녹생 임언군)
    3. Yi Bok-Saeng, Putera Seokbo (1399 – 1447) (이복생 석보군)[7]
    4. Yi Bo-Saeng, Putera Jangcheon (이보생 장천군)[20]
    5. Puteri Incheon (인천옹주)[8][21][22]
    6. Puteri Haman (함안옹주)[8][23][24]
  8. Puteri Gaui dari keluarga Yu (가의궁주 유씨)
    1. Puteri Deokcheon (덕천옹주)[8][25]
  9. Cho Gung-Jang (초궁장)[26]
  10. Ki-Mae (기매)

Nama penuh anumerta[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Raja Jeongjong Gongjeong Uimun Jangmu Onin Sunhyo yang Agung dari Korea
  • 정종공정의문장무온인순효대왕
  • 定宗恭靖懿文莊武溫仁順孝大王

Budaya popular[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ By the time of Taejo's abdication and Jeongjong's accession on 14 October 1398, Taejo was already bestowed the title of Raja Bersara (태상왕 taesangwang).
  2. ^ Called "Consort Deok" (덕비) during her lifetime. In the aftermath of the Second Strife of Puteras when her husband abdicated in favor of his younger brother Taejong (who was then the newly-appointed Crown Putera) on 28 November 1400, along with his being bestowed the courtesy title of "Raja Bersara Inmun'gong'ye, " (인문공예상왕), she was bestowed the courtesy title of "Permaisuri Dowager Sundeok" (순덕왕대비; "Permaisuri Dowager" is the closest translation of her title even though her husband is still alive) by her royal brother-in-law. Her other little-known posthumous name is "Permaisuri Anjeong" (안정왕후) [Diary of Putera Yeonsan-gun, vol. 52, 08 April 1504, entry 1; Diary of Putera Gwanghae-gun, vol.18, 06 August 1609, entry 1].
  3. ^ Daughter of Kim Cheon-seo (김천서), Pembesar Wolseong (월성부원군); and Puan Besar Lee (이씨), Puan Besar Samhanguk (삼한국대부인).
  4. ^ a b Ji Yoon (지윤, ?–1377) and Puan Besar Ahn (안씨)'s 3 daughters each married to Taejo's 2 eldest sons: the eldest daughter married Putera Jinan-daegun (Taejo's eldest son) and became his princess consort (Puan Besar Samhanguk (삼한국대부인)). Their other 2 daughters became Jeongjong's concubines; the youngest daughter first became the Decent Beauty (숙의) while the 2nd daughter later became the Royal Concubine Seong (성빈) while .
  5. ^ Later married Puan Besar Lee dari keluarga Jangsu Lee (장수 이씨), Puteri Gotaek (고택군부인). Their grandson Seong Hui-an (성희안), thru their eldest daughter's husband Seong Chan (성찬), would be one of the leaders of the 1506 coup that ousted Putera Yeonsan-gun and placed to the throne his younger half-brother Putera Jinseong-'daegun.
  6. ^ His first wife was Jeong Mong-ju's granddaughter.
  7. ^ a b His wife Puan Besar Lee (군부인 이씨) had no issue with her husband, and as a remedy, he adopted his younger half-brother Putera Seokbo-gun's 3rd son Yi Geum-son, becoming Putera Gokseong-gun (이금손 곡성군).
  8. ^ a b c d e f g On 18 November 1431, Sejong summoned and held a discussion with 5 of his ministers regarding Jeongjong (then known thru his temple name as "Gongjeong" (공정대왕); Sukjong granted him his final temple name of "Jeongjong" on 03 July 1681 [Sukjong Sillok, vol.11, entry 2])'s illegitimate daughters as well as his 2 brothers Puteras Jin'an-daegun & Ik'an-daegun's legitimate daughters, whom Sejong wants to give due courtesy since his female cousins are still of royal blood, and also since he has his own illegitimate daughters and expects the same due courtesy addressed to them as well. Sejong proposed to emulate the system of the Jin Dynasty wherein the emperor's daughters were addressed as "Imperial Puteries" (full title 군공주 gun'gongju, shortened to 군주 gunju), and wants to bestow the same title, albeit lowered in rank and style. At Hwang Hui (황희)'s agreement, Sejong then ordered the discussion to be moved to the Hall of Worthies for further discussion & evaluation [Sejong Sillok, vol.54, entry 4]. On 22 November, Sejong finally bestowed the title of "Puteri" (군주) to 7 of Jeongjong's illegitimate daughters, as well as his brothers' legitimate daughters, and also on Sejong's eldest brother Putera Yangnyeong-daegun's legitimate 5th daughter [Sejong Sillok, vol.54, entry 3].
  9. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Puteri Ham'yang" (함양군주).
  10. ^ Later married Park Gaeng (박갱), son of Park Deuk-jung (박득중); created Pembesar Jidon (지돈녕).
  11. ^ Daughter of Ki Myeon (기면), & elder sister of Ki Geon (기건, ?-1460), Duke Jeongmu (정무공).
  12. ^ Later married Kim Se-min (김세민), son of Kim Gyeom (김겸); created Pembesar Pandon (판돈녕).
  13. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Puteri Goseong" (고성군주).
  14. ^ Later married Kim Han (김한), son of Kim Jeong-gyeong (김정경); created Pembesar Jijung (지중추).
  15. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Puteri Sang'won" (상원군주).
  16. ^ Later married Jo Hyo-san (조효산), son of Jo Eui-bang (조의방).
  17. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is "Puteri Ansong" (안성군주).
  18. ^ Later married Lee Hui-jong (이희종).
  19. ^ Daughter of Inspector General Yoo Bang-eon (대사헌 윤방언).
  20. ^ In 1444, Sejong bestowed the posthumous title of "Pembesar Jangcheon" (장천정) to Jeongjong's youngest son, and in 1872, Gojong upgraded the posthumous title to "Putera Jangcheon-gun".
  21. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Puteri Incheon" (인천군주).
  22. ^ Later married Lee Gwan-shik (이관식), son of Lee Seong-gan(이성간).
  23. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Puteri Ham'an" (함안군주).
  24. ^ Later married Yi Hang-shin (이항신), created Pembesar Bujidon (부지돈녕), Putera Consort Wollim (월림군), & Duke Sojeong (소정공).
  25. ^ Later married Byeon Sang-bok (변상복, ?–1455), son of Byeon Yi (변이).
  26. ^ A kisaeng from Hwangju who comforted Jeongjong after his abdication, and was involved in the eventual stripping of Putera Yangnyeong's title of "Crown Putera" [Taejong Sillok].
Jeongjong dari Joseon
Tarikh keputeraan: 18 Julai 1357 Tarikh kemangkatan: 15 Oktober 1419
Gelaran pemerintah
Didahului oleh
Taejo
Raja Joseon
14 Oktober 1398 - 28 November 1400
Diikuti oleh:
Taejong