Kerajaan Beraja Bosnia

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Kerajaan Beraja Bosnia
Bosansko kraljevstvo

1377–1463


Jata

Perluasan wilayah Bosnia pada Zaman Pertengahan
Ibu negara Visoko
Jajce
Bobovac
Agama Gereja Bosnia, Katolik Rom, Ortodoks Timur
Kerajaan Monarki feudal
Raja
 •  1377–1391 Tvrtko I (pertama)
 •  1461–1463 Stephen Tomašević (terakhir)
Era sejarah Zaman Pertengahan
 •  Pertabalan Tvrtko I 26 Oktober 1377
 •  Penaklukan Uthmaniyyah 5 Jun 1463
Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply

Kerajaan Beraja Bosnia (Serbia-Croatia: Bosansko kraljevstvo, Босанско краљевство) adalah sebuah kerajaan pada Zaman Pertengahan yang bermula dengan Banate Bosnia (1154–1377). Bosnia menikmati kemerdekaan de facto sehingga kurun ke-13 dan ke-14 meskipun menjadi sebahagian daripada Wilayah Takhta Hungary. Keadaan muka bumi yang sukar dan terasing membolehkan penduduk Bosnia melepaskan diri daripada dua buah jirannya yang berkuasa iaitu Hungary dan Serbia. Beberapa para pemerintah yang berkaliber membenarkan Bosnia bermain peranan sebagai kuasa setempat untuk jangka masa yang pendek pada kurun ke-14. Selepas tahun 1290, Bosnia memperolehi kemerdekaan secara maya daripada Hungary dan memperolehi wilayah yang luas di Dalmatia daripada Serbia. Raja Tvrtko I (r. 1353–91) memperolehi sebahagian kawasan barat Serbia dan kebanyakan pantai Adriatic, di selatan sungai Neretva: pada waktu-waktu terakhir pemerintahan beliau. Bosnia menjadi kuasa terkuat buat waktu singkat di Semenanjung Balkan. Bagaimanapun, perpecahan kepada kuasa feudal berlaku di Bosnia, dan selepas kematian beliau, Bosnia hilang kepentingannya. Empayar Uthmaniyyah mengilhak sebahagian timur Bosnia pada tahun 1440-an dan 1450-an, dan terus berusaha untuk menakluk Herzegovina sehingga kubu pertahanan terakhir jatuh pada tahun 1481.[1]

Latar belakang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Banate Bosnia

Banate Bosnia adalah sebuah kerajaan pada Zaman Pertengahan yang kemuncaknya terdiri daripada wilayah (kini) Bosnia dan Herzegovina, selain sebahagian daripada kawasan Dalmatia (kini di Croatia), Serbia dan Montenegro. Meskipun buat waktu singkat ia berada di bawah naungan Hungary, Bosnia merupakan sebuah negara de facto merdeka.[2][3] Banate Bosnia wujud sehingga tahun 1377, apabila ia menjadi sebuah kerajaan beraja dengan pertabalan Tvrtko I.

History[sunting | sunting sumber]

By the mid-14th century, Bosnia reached its peak under Ban Tvrtko I of the House of Kotromanić, who was officially crowned on 26 October 1377. By having done so, he became a ruler of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Bosnia, a state that followed the Banate of Bosnia. At its peak the Kingdom became one of the most influential and powerful states in the Balkan peninsula prior to Ottoman conquest.

Throughout the Middle Ages, Herzegovina was made up of several smaller polities: Zahumlje (Hum), centered around the town of Blagaj, and Travunia, centered on the town of Trebinje. These statelets were in periods ruled by semi-independent princes, mostly under suzerainty of the Serbian medieval monarchy. Their territories included modern Herzegovina and parts of Montenegro and southern Dalmatia. The name Herzegovina was adopted when Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, the "Duke of St. Sava" asserted its independence in 1435–48. The assembly of these noblemen was called stanak and was quite influential.

Tvrtko I's reign[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bosnia reached its peak under Ban Tvrtko I, a member of the Kotromanić dynasty, who came to power in 1353. In 1372, Tvrtko formed an alliance with Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović, one of the regional lords in the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire.[4] The next year, Tvrtko and Lazar attacked the domain of Nikola Altomanović, who was the most powerful Serbian noble at the time. After defeating Altomanović, they divided his lands, except for his littoral districts of Dračevica, Konavle, and Trebinje, which were seized by Đurađ I Balšić, the Lord of Zeta. Tvrtko received parts of Zahumlje, the upper reaches of the Drina and Lim rivers, as well as the districts of Onogošt and Gacko. This acquisition included the important Serbian Orthodox monastery of Mileševa (which held the relics of Saint Sava, the first Serbian Archbishop).[5]

In 1377, Tvrtko took the littoral districts from Balšić. That year, on 26 October, he was crowned King of 'Serbia, Bosnia, the Primorje (Seaside), and the western lands'.[6] The acquisition of Serbian territory, including the important Monastery of Mileševa, combined with the fact that Tvrtko's grandmother had been a member of the Nemanjić dynasty prompted Tvrtko into also having himself crowned 'King of Serbia' thus asserting his pretensions to the Serbian throne. This was made possible by the royal Nemanjić line having died out with Uroš in 1371.[5] The crown was sent to him by Hungarian king Louis of Anjou. According to plurality of recent works, in historiography represented by scholars like Čošković, Anđelić, Lovrenović, Filipović, ceremony itself was conducted in Mile near Visoko in the church which was built in time of Stephen II Kotromanić's reign, where he was also buried alongside his uncle Stjepan II.[7][8][9] In contrast, some earlier historiographers, mostly represented by scholars from Serbia, consider that he was crowned in the Orthodox Monastery of Mileševa,[10] by the Metropolitan of Mileševa.[7][5]

However, after the defeat of Nikola Altomanović, Prince Lazar had emerged as the most powerful lord on the territory of the former Serbian Empire.[11] He wanted to reunite the Serbian state, and the Serbian Orthodox Church saw him as most fitted to succeed the Nemanjić dynasty. The Church, which was the strongest cohesive force among the Serbs at the time, did not support Tvrtko's aspirations in this regard.[12]

By 1390, Tvrtko I expanded his realm to include a part of Croatia and Dalmatia, and expanded his title to King of Rascia, Bosnia, Dalmatia, Croatia and the Littoral.[petikan diperlukan] Tvrtko's full title listed subject peoples and geographical dependencies, following the Byzantine norm. At the peak of his power, he was "King of Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Hum, Usora, Soli, Dalmatia, Donji Kraji".

Kejatuhan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selepas kematian Tvrtko I, kekuasaan dan pengaruh Bosnia jatuh perlahan-lahan. Empayar Uthmaniyyah telah memulakan perluasan kuasa di Eropah dan memberi ancaman kepada Balkan sepanjang penggal pertama kurun ke-15. Akhirnya, semasa pemerintahan Raja Stjepan Tomašević, beliau telah dikhianati dan dibiarkan berseorangan untuk mempertahankan diri oleh kuasa-kuasa Eropah. Secara rasminya, Bosnia ditakluk pada tahun 1463 dan menjadi wilayah Empayar Uthmaniyyah paling jauh di barat. Wilayah Herzegovina jatuh kepada Uthmaniyyah pada tahun 1482. Sekurun selepasnya, bahagian-bahagian barat Bosnia lainly jatuh sepenuhnya kepada Uthmaniyyah. Selepas kejatuhan kerajaan beraja ini, Catherine dari Bosnia melarikan diri ke Rom dengan menunggang kuda. Beliau memperdayakan Uthmaniyyah dengan mengatakan beliau meninggalkan negara untuk melawat anak lelaki beliau atau melawat Holy See.

Budaya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Agama bagi penduduk asal Bosnia dan Herzegovina bercampur-campur: terdapat Kristian Katolik dan Ortodoks, tetapi kebanyakan penduduk asli memanggil mereka secara ringkas sebagai orang Bosnia (atau "Bošnjani"),[13] tergolong dalam Gereja Bosnia.[14] Pengetahuan majoriti berkenaan akan gereja ini datangnya daripada sumber-sumber luar di mana asal sebenarnya masih menjadi perdebatan oleh para sarjana.

Para Ban dan raja Bosnia mengistiharkan mereka beragama Katolik semasa waktu pemerintahan mereka,[petikan diperlukan] kecuali untuk Stjepan Ostoja yang menunjukan minat pada Gereja Bosnia semasa beliau masih di atas takhta. Walaubagaimanapun, terdapat beberapa bangsawan penting yang beragama "Krstjani" (atau "Kristian"), seperti Hrvoje Vukčić, keluarga Radenović-Pavlović, Sandalj Hranić, Stjepan Vukčić, dan Paul Klešić. Ia menjadi kebiasaan bagi Holy See kepada para pemerintah Bosnia menolak sebarang hubungan dengan Gereja Bosnia atau keluar daripadanya sebagai balasan di atas sokongan yang diberikan.

Senarai pemerintah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:History of Bosnia

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Jean W Sedlar (1 March 2011). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-295-80064-6. 
  2. ^ Fine 1994, m/s. 44, 148.
  3. ^ Richard C. Frucht (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 627–. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. 
  4. ^ Fine 1994, m/s. 384.
  5. ^ a b c Fine 1994, m/s. 392–393.
  6. ^ Singleton, Frederick Bernard (1985). A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-521-27485-0. 
  7. ^ a b Velikonja 2003, m/s. 33.
  8. ^ Mile declared as national monument. 2003.
  9. ^ Anđelić Pavao, Krunidbena i grobna crkva bosanskih vladara u Milima (Arnautovićima) kod Visokog. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja XXXIV/1979., Zemaljski muzej Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo, 1980,183-247
  10. ^ Dr. Željko Fajfric: Kotromanići.
  11. ^ Fine 1994, m/s. 387–389.
  12. ^ Mihaljčić, Rade (2001) [1984]. Лазар Хребељановић: историја, култ, предање (dalam bahasa Serbian). Belgrade: Srpska školska knjiga; Knowledge. p. 75. ISBN 86-83565-01-7. 
  13. ^ Mark Pinson (1996). The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina: Their Historic Development from the Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia. Harvard CMES. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-932885-12-8. 
  14. ^ Florin Curta (31 August 2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250. Cambridge University Press. pp. 433–. ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0. 

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Middle Ages by region