Liga Hansa

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Peta menunjukkan peluasan pengaruh Liga Hansa serata Eropah Utara tahun 1400

Liga Hansa (Bahasa Jerman: Deutsche Hanse; Bahasa Belanda: De Hanze; Bahasa Latin: Hansa Teutonica)[1] adalah gabungan kelompok-kelompok saudagar komersial dan pertahanan serta bandar pasar yang pernah wujud serata pantai timur Eropah Tengah. Liga ini lama menguasai perdagangan laut Baltik selama berkurun-kurun lamanya daripada asasnya sebagai gabungan beberapa kota di Jerman Utara pada akhir tahun 1100-an. Gabungan ini menjangkau dari laut Baltik hinggalah ke Laut Utara dan jauh ke darat semasa Akhir Zaman Pertengahan dan merosost secara perlahan-lahan selepas tahun 1450.

Hansa[2] merupakan perkataan bahasa Jerman Tinggi lama merujuk kepada "iringan" yakni kelompok saudagar yang diiring berurusan dagang antara kota-kota daratan atau tepi laut ini.[3]

Gabungan ini dibentuk bagi melindungi kepentingan ekonomi dan keistimewaan diplomatik gencana dalam kota dan negara sokongan mereka serta laluan yang digunakan para saudagar untuk perniagaan mereka. Gabungan ini mempunyai sistem perundangan mereka sendiri serta balatentera untuk tujuan pertolongan dan perlindungan bersama. Walau bagaimanapun, ia tidaklah merupakan sebuah negara yang tersendiri mahupun suatu gabungan negara kota - hanyak segelintir sahaja kota yang mendapat kebebasan dan keistimewaan berautonomi dalam Liga ini yang setaraf dengan kota yang mempunyai perwakilan sendiri dalam sesebuah empayar (kota imperial bebas, free imperial city).[4]

Pentadbiran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kota-kota anggota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama-nama bahagian kuarter disingkat dalam jadual:

  • Wend: kuarter Wend dan Pomerania[5] (atau Wend saja)[6]:120
  • Sachsen: kuarter Sachsen, Thuringen dan Brandenburg[5] (atau Sachsen saja)[6]:120
  • Baltik: kuarter Prusia, Livonia dan Sweden[5] (atau Baltik Timur)[6]:120
  • Westfalen: kuarter Rhein-Westfalen dan Belanda[5] (atau Rheinland)[6]:120
  • Kontor: bukanlah kota anggota Hansa, namun pos dagang asing milik Liga ini.
Kuarter Kota Kawasan Kini dirangkum dalam Tahun masuk Tahunkeluar Notes Rujukan
Wend
Lübeck
Free City of Lübeck
 Jerman Kota pusat liga, kota lingkungan-lingkungan Wend dan Pomerania
Wend
Hamburg
Free City of Hamburg
 Jerman
Wend
Lüneburg
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 Jerman
Wend
Wismar
Duchy of Mecklenburg
 Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty (Rostocker Landfrieden) in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards).
Wend
Rostock
Duchy of Mecklenburg
 Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293).
Wend
Stralsund
Principality of Rügen
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01293.&&&&&01,293 Rügen was a fief of the Danish crown to 1325. Stralsund joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Stralsund menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Greifswald, Demmin dan Anklam.
Wend
Demmin
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Demmin menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Stralsund, Greifswald dan Anklam.
Wend
Greifswald
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Greifswald menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Stralsund, Demmin and Anklam.
Wend
Anklam
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Anklam menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Stralsund, Greifswald and Demmin.
Wend
Stettin (Szczecin)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01278.&&&&&01,278 Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards); since the 14th century gradually adopted the role of a chief city for the Pomeranian Hanseatic towns to its east
Wend
Pasewalk
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman
Wend
Kolberg (Kołobrzeg)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland
Wend
Rügenwalde (Darłowo)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland
Wend
Stolp (Słupsk)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland
Baltik
Visby
Kingdom of Sweden
 Sweden &&&&&&&&&&&01470.&&&&&01,470 In 1285 at Kalmar, the League agreed with Magnus III, King of Sweden, that Gotland be joined bersama Sweden.[petikan diperlukan] In 1470, Visby's status was rescinded by the League, bersama Lübeck razing the city's churches in May 1525.
Baltik
Stockholm
Kingdom of Sweden
 Sweden
Sachsen
Brunswick
Duchy of Saxony
 Jerman 13th century 17th century Capital of the Sachsen, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle
Sachsen
Bremen
Free City of Bremen
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01260.&&&&&01,260
Sachsen
Magdeburg
Archbishopric of Magdeburg
 Jerman 13th century Capital of the Sachsen, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle
Sachsen
Goslar
Imperial City of Goslar
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01267.&&&&&01,267 &&&&&&&&&&&01566.&&&&&01,566 Goslar merupakan fief Saxony sehingga tahun 1280.
Sachsen
Erfurt
Archbishopric of Mainz
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01430.&&&&&01,430
Sachsen
Stade
Archbishopric of Bremen
 Jerman
Sachsen
Berlin
Margraviate of Brandenburg
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01442.&&&&&01,442 Brandenburg was raised to an Electorate in 1356. Elektor Frederick II menyebabkan semua kota Brandenburg keluar dari Liga tahun 1442..
Sachsen
Frankfurt an der Oder
Margraviate of Brandenburg
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01430.&&&&&01,430 &&&&&&&&&&&01442.&&&&&01,442 Elektor Frederick II menyebabkan semua kota Brandenburg keluar dari Liga tahun 1442..
Baltik
Gdańsk - Danzig (Gdańsk)
Teutonic Order
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01358.&&&&&01,358 Kota lingkungan-lingkungan Prusia, Livonia dan Sweden (atau Baltik Timur). Danzig had been first a part of the Duci Pomerelia, a fief of the Polish Crown, with Polish-Kashubian population, then part of the State of the Teutonic Order from 1308 sehingga 1457. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia including Gdańsk sebahagian daripada Kerajaan Poland.
Baltik
Elbing (Elbląg)
Teutonic Order
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01358.&&&&&01,358 Elbing pada asalnya sebahagian Old Prussians, sehingga 1230-an when it became part of the State of the Teutonic Order. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Elbląg sebahagian daripada Kerajaan Poland.
Baltik
Thorn (Toruń)
Teutonic Order
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01280.&&&&&01,280 Toruń sebahagian daripada State of the Teutonic Order from 1233 sehingga 1466. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Toruń, sebahagian daripada Kerajaan Poland.
Baltik
Kraków
Kingdom of Poland
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01370.&&&&&01,370 &&&&&&&&&&&01500.&&&&&01,500 Kraków ibukota Kerajaan Poland, 1038–1596/1611. It adopted Magdeburg town law and 5000 Poles and 3500 Germans lived within the city proper in the 15th century; Poles steadily rose in the ranks of guild memberships reaching 41% of guild members in 1500. It was very loosely associated bersama Hansa, and paid no membership fees, nor sent representatives to League meetings.
Baltik
Breslau, (Wrocław)
Kingdom of Bohemia
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01387.&&&&&01,387 &&&&&&&&&&&01474.&&&&&01,474 Breslau, a part of the Duci Breslau and the Kerajaan Bohemia, was only loosely connected to the League and paid no membership fees nor did its representatives take part in Hansa meetings
Baltik
Königsberg (Kaliningrad)
Teutonic Order
Flag of Russia.svg Rusia &&&&&&&&&&&01340.&&&&&01,340 Königsberg kota markas Teutonic Order, becoming the capital of Ducal Prussia on the Order's secularisation in 1466. Ducal Prussia was a German principality that was a fief of the Polish crown sehingga gaining its independence in the 1660 Perjanjian Oliva. Kota ini dinamakan semula sebagai Kaliningrad tahun 1946 berikutan pembahagian Prusia Timur antara Republik Rakyat Poland dan Kesatuan Soviet semasa Persidangan Potsdam.
Baltik
Riga
Terra Mariana (Livonia)
 Latvia &&&&&&&&&&&01282.&&&&&01,282 During the Livonian War (1558–83), Riga became a Free imperial city sehingga the 1581 Perjanjian Drohiczyn ceded Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth sehingga the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).
Baltik
Reval (Tallinn)
Terra Mariana (Livonia)
 Estonia &&&&&&&&&&&01285.&&&&&01,285 On joining the Hanseatic League, Reval was a Danish fief, but was sold, bersama the rest of northern Estonia, to the Teutonic Order in 1346. After the Livonian War (1558–83), northern Estonia became a part of the Swedish Empire.
Baltik
Dorpat (Tartu)
Terra Mariana (Livonia)
 Estonia 1280s The Bishopric of Dorpat gained increasing autonomy within the Terra Mariana. During the Livonian War (1558–83), Dorpat fell under the rule of the Grand Duci Lithuania, with the 1581 Perjanjian Drohiczyn definitively ceding Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth sehingga the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).
Westfalen
Cologne
Imperial City of Cologne
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01669.&&&&&01,669 Capital of the Rhine-Westfalen and Netherlands Circle sehingga after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), when the city was prosecuted in 1475 with temporary trade sanctions (Jerman: Verhanst) for some years for having supported England; Dortmund was made capital of the Circle. Cologne also was called "Electorate of Cologne" (German: Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln). In June 1669 the last Hanseday was held in the town of Lübeck by the last remaining Hanse members, amongst others Cologne.
Westfalen
Dortmund
Imperial City of Dortmund
 Jerman After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westfalen and Netherlands Circle.
Westfalen
Deventer
Bishopric of Utrecht
 Belanda &&&&&&&&&&&01000.&&&&&01,000 &&&&&&&&&&&01500.&&&&&01,500
Westfalen
Kampen
Bishopric of Utrecht
 Belanda &&&&&&&&&&&01441.&&&&&01,441
Westfalen
Groningen
Friesland
 Belanda
Westfalen
Münster
Prince-Bishopric of Münster
 Jerman
Westfalen
Osnabrück
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück
 Jerman 12th century
Westfalen
Soest
Imperial City of Soest
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01609.&&&&&01,609 The city was a part of the Electorate of Cologne sehingga acquiring its freedom in 1444–49, after which it aligned bersama Duci Cleves.

Pelabuhan dengan pejabat berhubungan Liga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kota lain dengan hubungan Hansa tersendiri[sunting | sunting sumber]


Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]