Liga Hansa

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Liga Hansa adalah gabungan gencana saudagar komersial dan pertahanan serta bandar pasar mereka. Liga ini lama menguasai perdagangan laut Baltik selama berkurun-kurun lamanya daripada asasnya sebagai gabungan beberapa kota di Jerman Utara pada akhir tahun 1100-an. Gabungan ini menjangkau dari laut Baltik hinggalah ke Laut Utara dan jauh ke darat semasa Akhir Zaman Pertengahan dan merosost secara perlahan-lahan selepas tahun 1450.

Gabungan ini dibentuk bagi melindungi kepentingan ekonomi dan keistimewaan diplomatik gencana dalam kota dan negara sokongan mereka serta laluan yang digunakan para saudagar untuk perniagaan mereka. Gabungan ini mempunyai sistem perundangan mereka sendiri serta balatentera untuk tujuan pertolongan dan perlindungan bersama. Walau bagaimanapun, ia tidaklah merupakan sebuah negara yang tersendiri mahupun suatu gabungan negara kota - hanyak segelintir sahaja kota yang mendapat kebebasan dan keistimewaan berautonomi dalam Liga ini yang setaraf dengan kota yang mempunyai perwakilan sendiri dalam sesebuah empayar (kota imperial bebas, free imperial city).[1]

Pentadbiran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kota-kota anggota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama-nama bahagian kuarter disingkat dalam jadual:

  • Wend: kuarter Wend dan Pomerania[2] (atau Wend saja)[3]:120
  • Sachsen: kuarter Sachsen, Thuringen dan Brandenburg[2] (atau Sachsen saja)[3]:120
  • Baltik: kuarter Prusia, Livonia dan Sweden[2] (atau Baltik Timur)[3]:120
  • Westfalen: kuarter Rhein-Westfalen dan Belanda[2] (atau Rheinland)[3]:120
  • Kontor: bukanlah kota anggota Hansa, namun pos dagang asing milik Liga ini.
Kuarter Kota Kawasan Kini dirangkum dalam Tahun masuk Tahunkeluar Notes Rujukan
Wend
Lübeck
Free City of Lübeck
 Jerman Capital of the Hanseatic League, capital of the Wend and Pomeranian Circle
Wend
Hamburg
Free City of Hamburg
 Jerman
Wend
Lüneburg
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 Jerman
Wend
Wismar
Duchy of Mecklenburg
 Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty (Rostocker Landfrieden) in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards).
Wend
Rostock
Duchy of Mecklenburg
 Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards).
Wend
Stralsund
Principality of Rügen
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01293.&&&&&01,293 Rügen was a fief of the Danish crown to 1325. Stralsund joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Stralsund was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Greifswald, Demmin and Anklam.
Wend
Demmin
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Demmin was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Greifswald and Anklam.
Wend
Greifswald
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Greifswald was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Demmin and Anklam.
Wend
Anklam
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Anklam was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Greifswald and Demmin.
Wend
Stettin (Szczecin)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01278.&&&&&01,278 Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards); since the 14th century gradually adopted the role of a chief city for the Pomeranian Hanseatic towns to its east
Wend
Pasewalk
Duchy of Pomerania
 Jerman
Wend
Kolberg (Kołobrzeg)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland
Wend
Rügenwalde (Darłowo)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland
Wend
Stolp (Słupsk)
Duchy of Pomerania
 Poland
Baltic
Visby
Kingdom of Sweden
 Sweden &&&&&&&&&&&01470.&&&&&01,470 In 1285 at Kalmar, the League agreed with Magnus III, King of Sweden, that Gotland be joined with Sweden.[petikan diperlukan] In 1470, Visby's status was rescinded by the League, with Lübeck razing the city's churches in May 1525.
Baltic
Stockholm
Kingdom of Sweden
 Sweden
Sachsen
Brunswick
Duchy of Saxony
 Jerman &0000000000001200.000000 13th century &0000000000001600.000000 17th century Capital of the Sachsen, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle
Sachsen
Bremen
Free City of Bremen
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01260.&&&&&01,260
Sachsen
Magdeburg
Archbishopric of Magdeburg
 Jerman &0000000000001200.000000 13th century Capital of the Sachsen, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle
Sachsen
Goslar
Imperial City of Goslar
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01267.&&&&&01,267 &&&&&&&&&&&01566.&&&&&01,566 Goslar was a fief of Saxony until 1280.
Sachsen
Erfurt
Archbishopric of Mainz
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01430.&&&&&01,430
Sachsen
Stade
Archbishopric of Bremen
 Jerman
Sachsen
Berlin
Margraviate of Brandenburg
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01442.&&&&&01,442 Brandenburg was raised to an Electorate in 1356. Elector Frederick II caused all the Brandenburg cities to leave the League in 1442.
Sachsen
Frankfurt an der Oder
Margraviate of Brandenburg
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01430.&&&&&01,430 &&&&&&&&&&&01442.&&&&&01,442 Elector Frederick II caused all the Brandenburg cities to leave the League in 1442.
Baltic
Gdańsk - Danzig (Gdańsk)
Teutonic Order
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01358.&&&&&01,358 Capital of the Prussian, Livonian and Swedish (or East Baltic) Circle. Danzig had been first a part of the Duchy of Pomerelia, a fief of the Polish Crown, with Polish-Kashubian population, then part of the State of the Teutonic Order from 1308 until 1457. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia including Gdańsk was part of the Kingdom of Poland.
Baltic
Elbing (Elbląg)
Teutonic Order
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01358.&&&&&01,358 Elbing had originally been part of the territory of the Old Prussians, until the 1230s when it became part of the State of the Teutonic Order. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Elbląg was part of the Kingdom of Poland.
Baltic
Thorn (Toruń)
Teutonic Order
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01280.&&&&&01,280 Toruń was part of the State of the Teutonic Order from 1233 until 1466. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Toruń, was part of the Kingdom of Poland.
Baltic
Kraków
Kingdom of Poland
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01370.&&&&&01,370 &&&&&&&&&&&01500.&&&&&01,500 Kraków was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland, 1038–1596/1611. It adopted Magdeburg town law and 5000 Poles and 3500 Germans lived within the city proper in the 15th century; Poles steadily rose in the ranks of guild memberships reaching 41% of guild members in 1500. It was very loosely associated with Hansa, and paid no membership fees, nor sent representatives to League meetings.
Baltic
Breslau, (Wrocław)
Kingdom of Bohemia
 Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01387.&&&&&01,387 &&&&&&&&&&&01474.&&&&&01,474 Breslau, a part of the Duchy of Breslau and the Kingdom of Bohemia, was only loosely connected to the League and paid no membership fees nor did its representatives take part in Hansa meetings
Baltic
Königsberg (Kaliningrad)
Teutonic Order
Flag of Russia.svg Rusia &&&&&&&&&&&01340.&&&&&01,340 Königsberg was the capital of the Teutonic Order, becoming the capital of Ducal Prussia on the Order's secularisation in 1466. Ducal Prussia was a German principality that was a fief of the Polish crown until gaining its independence in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. The city was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after East Prussia was divided between the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union at the Potsdam Conference.
Baltic
Riga
Terra Mariana (Livonia)
 Latvia &&&&&&&&&&&01282.&&&&&01,282 During the Livonian War (1558–83), Riga became a Free imperial city until the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn ceded Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).
Baltic
Reval (Tallinn)
Terra Mariana (Livonia)
 Estonia &&&&&&&&&&&01285.&&&&&01,285 On joining the Hanseatic League, Reval was a Danish fief, but was sold, with the rest of northern Estonia, to the Teutonic Order in 1346. After the Livonian War (1558–83), northern Estonia became a part of the Swedish Empire.
Baltic
Dorpat (Tartu)
Terra Mariana (Livonia)
 Estonia &0000000000001280.000000 1280s The Bishopric of Dorpat gained increasing autonomy within the Terra Mariana. During the Livonian War (1558–83), Dorpat fell under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn definitively ceding Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).
Westfalen
Cologne
Imperial City of Cologne
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01669.&&&&&01,669 Capital of the Rhine-Westfalen and Netherlands Circle until after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), when the city was prosecuted in 1475 with temporary trade sanctions (Jerman: Verhanst) for some years for having supported England; Dortmund was made capital of the Circle. Cologne also was called "Electorate of Cologne" (German: Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln). In June 1669 the last Hanseday was held in the town of Lübeck by the last remaining Hanse members, amongst others Cologne.
Westfalen
Dortmund
Imperial City of Dortmund
 Jerman After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westfalen and Netherlands Circle.
Westfalen
Deventer
Bishopric of Utrecht
 Belanda &&&&&&&&&&&01000.&&&&&01,000 &&&&&&&&&&&01500.&&&&&01,500
Westfalen
Kampen
Bishopric of Utrecht
 Belanda &&&&&&&&&&&01441.&&&&&01,441
Westfalen
Groningen
Friesland
 Belanda
Westfalen
Münster
Prince-Bishopric of Münster
 Jerman
Westfalen
Osnabrück
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück
 Jerman &0000000000001100.000000 12th century
Westfalen
Soest
Imperial City of Soest
 Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01609.&&&&&01,609 The city was a part of the Electorate of Cologne until acquiring its freedom in 1444–49, after which it aligned with the Duchy of Cleves.

Pelabuhan dengan pejabat berhubungan Liga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kota lain dengan hubungan Hansa tersendiri[sunting | sunting sumber]


Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]