Paradigma

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Dalam sains dan falsafah, paradigma (/ˈpærədm/) ialah satu set yang berbeza daripada konsep atau corak pemikiran, termasuk teori, kaedah penyelidikan, postulat dan piawai untuk apa yang merupakan sumbangan yang sah untuk bidang.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Clarke, Thomas and Clegg, Stewart (eds). Changing Paradigms. London: HarperCollins, 2000. ISBN 0-00-638731-4
  • Dogan, Mattei., "Paradigms in the Social Sciences," in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16, 2001)
  • Hammersley, Martyn (1992). "The Paradigm Wars: Reports from the Front". British Journal of Sociology of Education. 13 (1): 131–143. JSTOR 1392863. 
  • Handa, M. L. (1986) "Peace Paradigm: Transcending Liberal and Marxian Paradigms" Paper presented in "International Symposium on Science, Technology and Development, New Delhi, India, March 20–25, 1987, Mimeographed at O.I.S.E., University of Toronto, Canada (1986)
  • Harris, Matthew Edward. The Notion of Papal Monarchy in the Thirteenth Century: The Idea of Paradigm in Church History. Lampeter and Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7734-1441-9
  • Hutchin, Ted. The Right Choice : Using Theory of Constraints for Effective Leadership, Hoboken : Taylor and Francis, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4398-8625-0
  • Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd Ed. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN 0-226-45808-3 - Google Books Aug. 2011
  • Masterman, Margaret, "The Nature of a Paradigm," pp. 59–89 in Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1970. ISBN 0-521-09623-5
  • Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934 (as Logik der Forschung, English translation 1959), ISBN 0-415-27844-9.
  • The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery, Microsoft Research, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9825442-0-4 http://fourthparadigm.org
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, Univ. of Chicago, 2003, ISBN 0-85229-961-3