Teater West End

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Teater West End ialah satu istilah masyhur untuk teater pentas profesional arus perdana di teater-teater besar Theatreland London, West End.[1] Bersama dengan Teater Broadway New York, teater West End biasanya dianggap mewakili taraf tertinggi teater komersil di dunia bertuturan Inggeris. Melihat persembahan West End adalah suatu aktiviti pelancong umum di London.[1]

Jumlah kehadiran mengatasi 12 juta buat pertama kali pada 2002, dan pada Jun 2005 The Times melaporkan angka ini mungkin dipecahkan pada 2005. Jumlah kehadiran mengatasi 13 juta pada 2007,[2] mencipta rekod baru untuk West End. Faktor jualan tinggi tiket pada separuh pertama 2005 termasuklah muzikal kegemaran ramai baru seperti Billy Elliot, The Producers dan Mary Poppins dan sejumlah besar bintang filem yang muncul. Sejak akhir 1990-an terdapat pertambahan pelakon filem Amerika Syarikat di pentas London, dan pada 2005 antaranya adalah Brooke Shields, Val Kilmer, Rob Lowe, David Schwimmer dan Kevin Spacey.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Theatre in London flourished after the English Reformation. The first permanent public playhouse, known simply as The Theatre, was constructed in 1576 in Shoreditch by James Burbage. It was soon joined by The Curtain. Both are known to have been used by William Shakespeare's company. In 1599, the timber from The Theatre was moved to Southwark, where it was used in building the Globe Theatre in a new theatre district formed, beyond the controls of the City corporation. These theatres were closed in 1642 during the interregnum.

At the restoration in 1660, two companies were licensed to perform, the Duke's Company and the King's Company. Performances were held in converted buildings, such as Lisle's Tennis Court. The first West End theatre, known as Theatre Royal in Bridges Street, was designed by Thomas Killigrew and built on the site of the present Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. It opened on 7 May 1663 and was destroyed by a fire nine years later. It was replaced by a new structure designed by Christopher Wren and renamed the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.[3][4][5]

Outside the West End, Sadler's Wells Theatre opened in Islington on 3 June 1683. Taking its name from founder Richard Sadler and monastic springs that were discovered on the property,[6][7] it operated as a "Musick House", with performances of opera; as it was not licensed for plays. In the West End, the Haymarket Theatre opened on 29 December 1720 on a site slightly north of its current location, and the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden opened in Covent Garden on 7 December 1732.

The Patent theatre companies retained their duopoly on drama well into the 19th century, and all other theatres could perform only musical entertainments. By the early 19th century, however, music hall entertainments became popular, and presenters found a loophole in the restrictions on non-patent theatres in the genre of melodrama. Melodrama did not break the Patent Acts, as it was accompanied by music. Initially, these entertainments were presented in large halls, attached to public houses, but purpose-built theatres began to be established in the East End at Shoreditch and Whitechapel.

The West End theatre district became established with the opening of many small theatres and halls, including the Adelphi in The Strand on 17 November 1806. South of the River Thames, the Old Vic, Waterloo Road, opened on 11 May 1818. The expansion of the West End theatre district gained pace with the Theatres Act 1843; which relaxed the conditions for the performance of plays, and the Strand gained another venue when the Vaudeville opened on 16 April 1870. The next several decades saw the opening of many new theatres in the West End. The Criterion Theatre opened on Piccadilly Circus on 21 March 1874, and in 1881, two more houses appeared: the Savoy Theatre in The Strand, built by Richard D'Oyly Carte specifically to showcase the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, opened on 10 October (the first theatre to be lit by cooler, cleaner electric lights), and five days later the Comedy Theatre opened as the Royal Comedy Theatre on Panton Street in Leicester Square. It abbreviated its name three years later.[5] The theatre building boom continued until about World War I.

Among the noted performers who began their careers in the early days of West End theatre are Robert William Elliston, John Liston, Nell Gwynne, and later Henry Irving, Ellen Terry, John Lawrence Toole, Nellie Farren, Marie Tempest, Seymour Hicks, Ellaline Terriss, and Marie Brema.

During the 1950s and 1960s, many plays were produced in theatre clubs, in order to evade the censorship then exercised by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The Theatres Act 1968 finally abolished censorship of the stage in the United Kingdom.

Theatreland[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Lyceum Theatre, home to Disney's The Lion King

Now rebranded - by Westminster council and the Society of London Theatre - as "Theatreland", London's main theatre district, which contains approximately forty venues, is located in the heart of the West End of Central London, and is traditionally defined by The Strand to the south, Oxford Street to the north, Regent Street to the west, and Kingsway to the east. Prominent theatre streets include Drury Lane, Shaftesbury Avenue, and The Strand. The works staged are predominantly musicals, classic or middle-brow plays, and comedy performances.

Beyond the West End are the Royal National Theatre and Old Vic, in Southwark; and the Barbican Theatre, in the City of London. London also has many smaller theatres, both around the West End and its periphery.

Many theatres in the West End are of late Victorian or Edwardian construction and are privately owned. The majority of them have great character, and the largest and best maintained feature grand neo-classical, Romanesque, or Victorian façades and luxurious, detailed interior design and decoration. On the other hand, leg room is often cramped, and audience facilities such as bars and toilets are often much smaller than in modern theatres. The protected status of the buildings and their confined urban locations, combined with financial constraints, make it is very difficult to make substantial improvements to the level of comfort offered. In 2004, it was estimated an investment of £250 million was required for modernisation, and the theatre owners unsuccessfully requested tax concessions to help them meet the costs.

Long-running shows[sunting | sunting sumber]

The length of West End shows depend on ticket sales. Musicals tend to have longer runs than dramas. The longest running musical in West End history is Les Misérables. It overtook Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats, which closed in 2002 after running for 8,949 performances and 21 years, as the longest running West End musical of all time on 8 October 2006. Other long-runners include Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera and Willy Russell's Blood Brothers which have also subsequently overtaken Cats. However the non-musical Agatha Christie play The Mousetrap is the longest running show in the world, and has been showing since 1952.

The St Martin's Theatre, home to The Mousetrap, the longest running play in the world.

List of West End theatres[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • If no show is currently running, the play listed is the next show planned (dates marked with an *).
  • If the next show planned is not announced, the applicable columns are left blank.
Theatre Current show Capacity Opening
Adelphi Theatre Love Never Dies 1500 2010-03-09March 9 2010* Open-ended
Aldwych Theatre Dirty Dancing 1200 2006-09-28September 28 2006 Open-ended
Ambassadors Theatre Stomp 330 2007-10-04October 4 2007 Open-ended
Apollo Jerusalem 796 2010-01-28January 28 2009* 2010-04-24 April 24, 2010
Apollo Victoria Theatre Wicked 2292 2006-09-27September 27 2006 Open-ended
Arts Theatre Party 350 2010-03-01March 1 2010 2010-01-13 March 13 2010
Cambridge Theatre Chicago 1231 2006-04-27April 27 2006 Open-ended
Coliseum Theatre Repertory theatre 2358
Comedy Theatre The Misanthrope 796 2009-12-17December 17 2009 2010-03-13 March 13 2010
Criterion Theatre The 39 Steps 588 2006-09-20September 20 2006 Open-ended
Dominion Theatre We Will Rock You 2163 2002-05-14May 14 2002 Open-ended
Duchess Theatre Ghosts 479 2010-02-11February 11 2010 2010-05-18May 18 2010
Duke of York's Theatre Bedroom Farce 640 2010-03-24March 24 2010 2010-07-10July 10 2010
Fortune Theatre The Woman in Black 432 1989-06-07June 7 1989 Open-ended
Garrick Theatre The Little Dog Laughed 656 2010-01-20January 20 2010 2010-04-10April 10 2010
Gielgud Theatre Avenue Q 937 2009-06-01June 1 2009 Open-ended
Her Majesty's Theatre The Phantom of the Opera 1216 1986-10-09October 9 1986 Open-ended
London Palladium Sister Act 2286 2009-05-07 June 2 2009 Open-ended
Lyceum Theatre The Lion King 2100 1999-09-24September 24 1999 Open-ended
Lyric Theatre Thriller - Live 967 2009-02-01February 1 2009 Open-ended
New London Theatre War Horse 1100 2009-04-03April 3rd 2009 Open-ended
Noël Coward Theatre ENRON 872 2010-01-26January 26 2010* 2010-08-14August 14 2010
Novello Theatre Cat on a Hot Tin Roof 1050 2009-12-01December 1 2009 2010-04-10 April 10 2010
Palace Theatre Priscilla Queen of The Desert 1400 2009-03-10March 10 2009 Open-ended
Piccadilly Theatre Grease 1232 2007-07-24July 24 2007 Open-ended
Phoenix Theatre Blood Brothers 1012 1991-11-21November 21 1991 Open-ended
Playhouse Theatre Dreamboats and Petticoats 786 2010-01-07January 7 2010 Open-ended
Prince Edward Theatre Jersey Boys 1618 2008-03-18March 18 2008 Open-ended
Prince of Wales Theatre Mamma Mia! 1160 2004-06-09June 9 2004 Open-ended
Queen's Theatre Les Misérables 989 2004-04-03April 3 2004 Open-ended
Royal Opera House Repertory opera and ballet 2262
Savoy Theatre Legally Blonde The Musical 1150 2010-01-12January 12 2010 Open-ended
Shaftesbury Theatre Hairspray 1400 2007-10-11October 11 2007 2010-03-28March 28 2010
St Martin's Theatre The Mousetrap 550 1974-03-25March 25 1974 Open-ended
Theatre Royal, Haymarket Waiting for Godot 888 2010-01-27January 27 2010* 2010-04-03April 3 2010
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Oliver! 2196 2009-01-14January 14 2009 Open-ended
Trafalgar Studios The Caretaker 380 2010-01-18January 18 2010 2010-04-17 April 17 2010
Vaudeville Theatre Private Lives 690 2010-02-24February 24 2010* 2010-05-01May 1 2010
Victoria Palace Theatre Billy Elliot 1550 2005-05-11May 11 2005 Open-ended
Wyndhams Theatre An Inspector Calls 759 2009-12-03December 12 2009 2010-03-13March 13 2010

Upcoming productions[sunting | sunting sumber]

London's non-commercial theatres[sunting | sunting sumber]

The exterior of the Old Vic

It should be noted that the term West End Theatre is sometimes used to refer specifically to commercial productions in Theatreland. However the leading non-commercial (usually government subsidised) theatres in London, such as the National Theatre, the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Globe Theatre, the Old Vic, the Young Vic, the Royal Court Theatre, the Almeida Theatre, and the Open Air Theatre, most of which are not located in Theatreland, arguably enjoy greater artistic prestige. These theatres stage a higher proportion of more demanding work, including Shakespeare, other classic plays and premieres of new plays by leading highbrow playwrights. Hit plays from the non-commercial theatres sometimes transfer to one of the commercial Theatreland houses for an extended second run.

The Royal Opera House is one of London's most famous theatres and widely regarded as one of the greatest opera houses in the world, comparable with the Palais Garnier, La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera House, New York. Commonly known simply as Covent Garden due to its location, it is unique to other West End theatres in many ways, not least in having three resident performance companies, The Royal Ballet, Royal Opera and a resident symphony orchestra. It has three performance spaces (19th Century Main Auditorium, Linbury Theatre and Clore Studio) and hosts guest performances from other leading opera, ballet and performance companies from around the world.

Producing houses[sunting | sunting sumber]

Whilst the vast majority of West End theatres are receiving houses (houses that receive productions from elsewhere), there are a number of established producing houses, both within the heart of the West End and in other parts of London. Some of the more famous ones (along with their artistic directors) are listed:

Other London theatre[sunting | sunting sumber]

There is a great deal of theatre in London outside of the West End. Much of this is known as fringe theatre which is the equivalent of Off Broadway Theatre in New York. Fringe venues range from well-equipped small theatres to rooms above pubs, and the performances range from classic plays, to cabaret, to plays in the languages of London's ethnic minorities. The performers range from emerging young professionals to amateurs.

Finally, there are also local theatres in the suburbs which stage a wide range of work, often including touring productions, such as the New Wimbledon Theatre or the Churchill Theatre in Bromley.

Anugerah[sunting | sunting sumber]

There are a number of annual awards for outstanding achievements in London theatre:

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Christopher Innes, "West End" dalam The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), m/s. 1194–1195. ISBN 0521434378.
  2. ^ Singh, Anita (2008-07-08). "TV talent shows help West End shows to record audience - Telegraph". Telegraph. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  3. ^ "TheatreHistory.com". TheatreHistory.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  4. ^ USA. "Helium.com". Helium.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  5. ^ a b "''Time Out London''". Timeout.com. 2006-12-12. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  6. ^ "StoryOfLondon.com". StoryOfLondon.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  7. ^ "Londontown.com". Londontown.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  8. ^ "The Mousetrap London theatre tickets and information". Thisistheatre.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  9. ^ "Phantom of The Opera London - information on the theatre show". Thisistheatre.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  10. ^ "Blood Brothers London - information on the theatre show". Thisistheatre.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  11. ^ "Fortune Theatre London - information and tickets". Thisistheatre.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Long Runs – Broadway, Off Broadway, London, Toronto & Other Major Cities". World-theatres.com. Dicapai pada 2010-01-17.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Theatres in London Koordinat: 51°30′41″N 0°07′41″W / 51.51139°N 0.12806°W / 51.51139; -0.12806