Yahudi Amerika

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Yahudi Amerika
Jumlah penduduk
6,400,000
2.1% dari penduduk AS[1]
Kawasan ramai penduduk
Timur Laut, Florida, Pantai Barat, Chicago
Bahasa

Bahasa-bahasa Yahudi Asli
Ibrani, Yiddish, Ladino, dan bahasa-bahasa Yahudi yang lain (yang terancam, dan sesetengahnya sudah pupus) Bahasa-bahasa Keagamaan
Ibrani and Aramia
Bahasa-bahasa utama dan yang digunakan
Bahasa Inggeris

Agama

Agama Yahudi

Yahudi Amerika, adalah warganegara Amerika Syarikat yang merupakan keturunan Yahudi. Sebahagian besar tinjauan pendapat kependudukan memperkirakan jumlah penduduk mereka adalah antara 5.2 juta [2] sehingga 6.4 juta orang [3]. Dengan demikian penduduk masyarakat Yahudi di Amerika Syarikat dapat dianggap yang terbesar atau nombor dua terbesar di dunia setelah Israel. Masyarakat Yahudi Amerika Syarikat sebahagian besar adalah keturunan Yahudi Ashkenazi [4], meskipun juga terdapat keturunan Yahudi Sefardim dan Yahudi Mizrahi, serta beberapa suku Yahudi lainnya. Kepercayaan yang dianut juga meliputi pelbagai aliran agama Yahudi; daripada masyarakat Ultra-Ortodoks Haredi sampai ke masyarakat Yahudi yang benar-benar berfahaman duniawi.


Taburan Yahudi Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut Pusat Kajian Glenmary, yang menerbitkan Religious Congregations and Membership di Amerika Syarikat [5], 100 daerah dan bandar pada 2000 dengan masyarakat Yahudi yang terbesar, berdasarkan peratusan jumlah penduduk, adalah:

Daerah Penduduk
Yahudi
 %
jumlahnya
1 Rockland County, New York 90,000 31.4%
2 New York County, New York[5] 314,500 20.5%
3 Falls Church, Virginia 1,800 17.4%
4 Fairfax, Virginia 3,600 16.7%
5 Nassau County, New York 207,000 15.5%
6 Kings County, New York[6] 379,000 15.4%
7 Palm Beach County, Florida 167,000 14.8%
8 Broward County, Florida 213,000 13.1%
9 Queens County, New York 238,000 10.7%
10 Monmouth County, New Jersey 65,000 10.6%
11 Westchester County, New York 94,000 10.2%
12 Sullivan County, New York 7,425 10.0%
13 Essex County, New Jersey 76,200 9.6%
14 Bergen County, New Jersey 83,700 9.5%
15 Montgomery County, Maryland 83,800 9.1%
16 Baltimore, Maryland 56,500 8.7%
17 Fulton County, Georgia 65,900 8.1%
18 Montgomery County, Pennsylvania 59,550 7.9%
19 Middlesex County, Massachusetts 113,700 7.8%
20 Richmond County, New York[7] 33,700 7.6%
21 Marin County, California 18,500 7.5%
22 Camden County, New Jersey 36,000 7.1%
22 Morris County, New Jersey 33,500 7.1%
24 Suffolk County, New York 100,000 7.0%
25 Denver County, Colorado 38,100 6.6%
26 Oakland County, Michigan 77,200 6.5%
27 San Francisco County, California 49,500 6.4%
28 Bronx County, New York 83,700 6.3%
29 Middlesex County, New Jersey 45,000 6.0%
30 Los Angeles County, California 564,700 5.9%
30 Norfolk County, Massachusetts 38,300 5.9%
32 Atlantic County, New Jersey 14,600 5.8%
32 Bucks County, Pennsylvania 34,800 5.8%
32 Union County, New Jersey 30,100 5.8%
35 Cuyahoga County, Ohio 79,000 5.7%
35 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 86,600 5.7%
37 Clark County, Nevada 75,000 5.5%
37 Miami-Dade County, Florida 124,000 5.5%
39 Baltimore County, Maryland 38,000 5.0%
39 Pitkin County, Colorado 750 5.0%
39 Plymouth County, Massachusetts 23,600 5.0%
42 St. Louis County, Missouri 47,100 4.6%
43 Boulder County, Colorado 13,200 4.5%
43 Washington, District of Columbia 25,500 4.5%
45 Cook County, Illinois 234,400 4.4%
45 Fairfield County, Connecticut 38,800 4.4%
45 Orange County, New York 15,000 4.4%
48 Alexandria, Virginia 5,400 4.2%
49 Albany County, New York 12,000 4.1%
49 Alpine County, California 50 4.1%
49 Sarasota County, Florida 13,500 4.1%
Daerah Penduduk
Yahudi
 %
jumlahnya
52 Howard County, Maryland 10,000 4.0%
53 Lake County, Illinois 25,000 3.9%
54 Portsmouth, Virginia 3,800 3.8%
55 Somerset County, New Jersey 11,100 3.7%
55 West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana 800 3.7%
57 Rockdale County, Georgia 2,500 3.6%
57 Suffolk County, Massachusetts 24,700 3.6%
59 Bristol County, Rhode Island 1,760 3.5%
59 Custer County, Idaho 150 3.5%
59 Hartford County, Connecticut 30,000 3.5%
59 New Haven County, Connecticut 28,900 3.5%
59 Passaic County, New Jersey 17,000 3.5%
59 San Mateo County, California 24,500 3.5%
59 Schenectady County, New York 5,200 3.5%
66 Ulster County, New York 5,900 3.3%
67 Norfolk, Virginia 7,600 3.2%
67 Santa Clara County, California 54,000 3.2%
69 Burlington County, New Jersey 13,000 3.1%
69 Monroe County, New York 22,500 3.1%
71 Essex County, Massachusetts 21,700 3.0%
72 Berkshire County, Massachusetts 3,900 2.9%
72 Delaware County, Pennsylvania 15,700 2.9%
72 Monroe County, Michigan 4,200 2.9%
72 Multnomah County, Oregon 19,300 2.9%
76 Hennepin County, Minnesota 31,600 2.8%
76 Sussex County, New Jersey 4,100 2.8%
78 Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 34,600 2.7%
78 Fayette County, Georgia 2,500 2.7%
78 Hamilton County, Ohio 22,500 2.7%
78 Johnson County, Kansas 12,000 2.7%
82 Mercer County, New Jersey 9,100 2.6%
82 Nantucket County, Massachusetts 250 2.6%
82 Ozaukee County, Wisconsin 2,100 2.6%
82 Pinellas County, Florida 24,200 2.6%
82 Prince George's County, Maryland 20,700 2.6%
82 Worcester County, Massachusetts 19,500 2.6%
88 San Diego County, California 70,000 2.5%
89 New Castle County, Delaware 11,900 2.4%
89 Pima County, Arizona 20,000 2.4%
91 Alameda County, California 32,500 2.3%
91 Chester County, Pennsylvania 10,100 2.3%
91 Contra Costa County, California 22,000 2.3%
91 Cumberland County, Maine 6,000 2.3%
91 Hampden County, Massachusetts 10,600 2.3%
91 Ocean County, New Jersey 11,500 2.3%
91 Santa Cruz County, California 6,000 2.3%
98 Bristol County, Massachusetts 11,600 2.2%
98 Clay County, Georgia 75 2.2%
98 Washtenaw County, Michigan 7,000 2.2%

Masyarakat Yahudi Amerika yang terbesar[sunting | sunting sumber]

(Menurut huruf mengikut negeri dan daerah)

California
Northern California Berkeley · Marin County · Oakland · Pleasanton · San Francisco · Santa Clara County · Walnut Creek
Southern California Agoura Hills · Bel Air · Beverly Hills · Brentwood, Los Angeles · Burbank · Calabasas · Coachella Valley · Fairfax District, Los Angeles · Glendale · Irvine · Lake Forest · Newport Beach · Palm Springs · Pasadena · San Fernando Valley (west and south) · Santa Monica · Sun City · Thousand Oaks · Ventura County · West Hollywood · Westlake Village · West Los Angeles
Connecticut
Hamden · Stamford · West Hartford · Westport · Woodbridge
Florida
Central Florida Ormond Beach
South Florida Aventura · Bradenton · Boca Raton · Boynton Beach · Delray Beach · Fort Lauderdale · Golden Beach · Lake Worth · Miami Beach · Miami · Sarasota · Sunny Isles Beach · West Palm Beach
Georgia
Atlanta
Illinois
Arlington Heights · Buffalo Grove · Chicago (Gold Coast · Hyde Park · West Rogers Park) · Deerfield · Des Plaines · Evanston · Flossmoor · Glenview · Highland Park · Lincolnwood · Long Grove · Morton Grove · Northbrook · Skokie · Wilmette
Maryland · District of Columbia
Baltimore · Owings Mills · Pikesville · Reisterstown · Aspen Hill · Bethesda · Chevy Chase · Gaithersburg · Kemp Mill · Kensington · Olney · Potomac · Rockville · Silver Spring · Takoma Park · Washington, D.C. · Wheaton · White Oak
Massachusetts
Brighton · Brookline · Lexington · Marblehead · Newton · Sharon · Wayland
Michigan
Ann Arbor · Detroit (Bloomfield Hills · Bloomfield Township · West Bloomfield · Farmington Hills · Huntington Woods · Oak Park · Southfield)
Minnesota
Minneapolis (St. Louis Park · Minnetonka) · St. Paul
Missouri
St. Louis (University City · Clayton · Ladue)
New Jersey[8]
Cherry Hill · East Brunswick · Edison · Elizabeth · Englewood · Fair Lawn · Highland Park · Lakewood · Livingston · Manalapan Township · Marlboro Township · Millburn · Morristown · Newark · South Orange · West Orange · Passaic · Springfield · Teaneck · Tenafly · Wayne · Woodcliff Lake · Englewood Cliffs · Paramus · Fort Lee
New York
Long Island[8] Baldwin · Bellmore · Dix Hills · East Hampton · "Five Towns" · Great Neck · Huntington · Jericho · Merrick · Oceanside · Old Bethpage · Plainview · Roslyn · Port Washington · Syosset
New York City[8] Brooklyn Bensonhurst · Borough Park · Brighton Beach · Brooklyn Heights · Coney Island · Crown Heights · Dyker Heights · Midwood · Prospect-Lefferts Gardens · Prospect Heights · Sheepshead Bay · Williamsburg
Bronx Castle Hill · City Island · Co-op City · Norwood · Pelham Gardens · Pelham Parkway · Riverdale · Van Cortlandt Park · Woodlawn
Queens Forest Hills · Kew Gardens · Little Neck · Fresh Meadows · Rego Park
Manhattan Lower East Side · Inwood · Midtown · Upper West Side, Manhattan
Staten Island Willowbrook · New Springville
Orange County Kiryas Joel
Rockland County Kaser · Monsey · Montebello · New City · New Square · Spring Valley · Suffern · Viola · Wesley Hills
Westchester County[8] Chappaqua · Harrison · Hartsdale · Larchmont · Mamaroneck · New Rochelle · Rye · Scarsdale · White Plains
North Carolina
Cary · Charlotte · Greensboro · Raleigh
Ohio
Cincinnati Amberley · Blue Ash · Reading
Cleveland Beachwood · Cleveland Heights · Lyndhurst · Moreland Hills · Orange · Pepper Pike · Shaker Heights · Solon · South Euclid · University Heights
Columbus Bexley
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia Cheltenham Township (Elkins Park) · Overbrook · Lower Merion Township (Bala Cynwyd · Gladwyne · Merion · Wynnewood) · Narberth · Oxford Circle · Rhawnhurst · Richboro · Spring House · Upper Dublin Township (Abington Township · Dresher · Fort Washington) · West Chester
Pittsburgh Squirrel Hill
Texas
Dallas North Dallas (Preston Hollow, Devonshire, Melshire Estates, Bluff View, Greenway Parks, Turtle Creek, Bent Tree, Far North Dallas) · Plano
Houston Meyerland · Memorial · Maplewood · Braeburn · Inwood Forest · Addicks · Cypress · Jersey Village · Piney Point Village · Bunker Hill Village · Hedwig Village · Hilshire Village · Hunters Creek Village · West University Place · Sugar Land
Virginia
Alexandria · Fairfax · Falls Church
Washington
Bellevue · Mercer Island · Seattle
Wisconsin
Bayside · Glendale · Fox Point · Mequon · Whitefish Bay (All in metro Milwaukee)

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. See PR Newswire at [1]
  2. NJPS 2000-01 Report[2]
  3. PR Newswire [3]
  4. Jewish Virtual Library[4]
  5. Manhattan
  6. Brooklyn
  7. Staten Island
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 New Jersey, New York City, Long Island and Westchester County each have large Jewish communities, but the areas listed within and without have the highest concentrations.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Antler, Joyce., ed. Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in American Popular Culture. 1998.
  • Cohen, Naomi. Jews in Christian America: The Pursuit of Religious Equality. 1992.
  • Cutler, Irving. The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb. 1995
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004) online
  • Dinnerstein, Leonard. Antisemitism in America. 1994.
  • Dollinger, Marc. Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America. 2000.
  • Eisen, Arnold M. The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology. 1983.
  • Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. 2nd ed., 1989.
  • Goren, Arthur. The Politics and Public Culture of American Jews. 1999.
  • Gurock, Jeffrey S. From Fluidity to Rigidity: The Religious Worlds of Conservative and Orthodox Jews in Twentieth Century America. Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, 1998.
  • Hyman, Paula, and Deborah Dash Moore, eds. Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. 1997
  • Lederhendler, Eli. New York Jews and the Decline of Urban Ethnicity, 1950–1970. 2001
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L. A. 1994
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation (2006)
  • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. 1999.
  • Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. Columbia U. Press, 2003. 234 pp.
  • Sarna, Jonathan D. American Judaism Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-300-10197-X 512pp
  • Shapiro, Edward S. A Time for Healing: American Jewry since World War II. Jewish People in America, vol. 5. 1992.
  • Sorin, Gerald. Tradition Transformed: The Jewish Experience in America. 1997.
  • Staub, Michael E. ed. The Jewish 1960s: An American Sourcebook University Press of New England, 2004; 371 pp. ISBN 1-58465-417-1 online review
  • Svonkin, Stuart. Jews against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties. 1997
  • Waxman, Chaim I. "What We Don't Know about the Judaism of America's Jews." Contemporary Jewry (2002) 23: 72-95. Issn: 0147-1694 Uses survey data to map the religious beliefs of American Jews, 1973-2002.
  • Wertheimer, Jack, ed. The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed. 1987.
  • Whitfield, Stephen J. In Search of American Jewish Culture. 1999

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. NJPS 2000-01 Report, United Jewish Communities
  2. 2006 American Jewish Year Book Population Survey Finds 6.4 Million American Jews, PR Newswire
  3. The Jewish Population of the World (2005), Jewish Virtual Library