Bertrand Russell

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Bertrand Russell
Honourable Bertrand Russell.jpg
Warganegara British
Pekerjaan Ahli Falsafah
Terkenal kerana Sumbangan kepada bidang Falsafah dan
Pemenang Hadiah Nobel dalam Kesusasteraan
Tandatangan BetrandRussell Autograph.jpg

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 Mei 1872 – 2 Februari 1970) ialah seorang ahli falsafah, logik matematik, matematik, sejarah dan pengkritik sosial British.[1] Dalam beberapa detik kehidupannya, beliau menganggap dirinya sebagai seorang liberal, sosialis, dan pencinta damai. Beliau dilahirkan di Monmouthshire, ke dalam keluarga bangsawan Britain.[2]

Russell mengetuai "revolusi British terhadap idealisme" pada wal abad ke-20. Beliau dianggap seorang daripada pengasas falsafah analitik bersama-sama pendahulunya, Gottlob Frege dan anak didiknya Ludwig Wittgenstein. Beliau juga dianggap sebagai ahli logik terunggul abad ke-20.[1] Bersama-sama A. N. Whitehead, beliau menghasilkan Principia Mathematica, satu percubaan untuk meletakkan logik sebagai asas matematik. Esei falsafahnya On Denoting dianggap sebuah "paradigma falsafah."[3] Karyanya mempengaruhi logic, matematik, teori set, linguistik, sains komputer, dan falsafah, khususnya falsafah bahasa, epistemologi, dan metafizik.

Russell seorang aktivis anti-perang dan anti-imperialisme,[4][5] dan dipenjarakan kerana kempen anti-perangnya semasa Perang Dunia Pertama.[6] Kemudian, beliau berkempen menentang Adolf Hitler, mengkritik sistem totalitarian Stalin, menyerang penglibatan Amerika Syarikat dalam Perang Vietnam, dan menyokong kuat pergerakan pelucutan senjata nuklear.[7] Dalam tahun 1950 Russell dikurniakan hadiah Nobel dalam bidang Kesusasteraan sebagai "pengiktirafan penulisan yang pelbagai dan bernilai yang memperjuangkan cita-cita kemasnusiaan dan kebebasan fikiran]]"[8]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Bertrand Russell", 1 May 2003
  2. Hestler, Anna (2001). Wales. Marshall Cavendish. m/s. 53. ISBN 978-0-7614-1195-6. 
  3. Ludlow, Peter, "Descriptions", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = [1].
  4. Richard Rempel (1979). "From Imperialism to Free Trade: Couturat, Halevy and Russell's First Crusade". Journal of the History of Ideas (University of Pennsylvania Press) 40 (3): 423–443. doi:10.2307/2709246. JSTOR 2709246. 
  5. Bertrand Russell (1988) [1917]. Political Ideals. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10907-8. 
  6. Samoiloff, Louise Cripps. C.L.R. James: Memories and Commentaries, p. 19. Associated University Presses, 1997. ISBN 0-8453-4865-5
  7. The Nobel Foundation (1950). Bertrand Russell: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950. Retrieved on 11 June 2007.
  8. Structural Realism: entry by James Ladyman in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Rujukan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Russell[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • 1900, Sur la logique des relations avec des applications à la théorie des séries, Rivista di matematica 7: 115–148.
  • 1901, On the Notion of Order, Mind (n.s.) 10: 35–51.
  • 1902, (with Alfred North Whitehead), On Cardinal Numbers, American Journal of Mathematics 23: 367–384.
  • 1948, BBC Reith Lectures: Authority and the Individual A series of six radio lectures broadcast on the BBC Home Service in December 1948.

Rujukan sekunder[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • John Newsome Crossley. A Note on Cantor's Theorem and Russell's Paradox, Australian Journal of Philosophy 51: 70–71.
  • Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 2000. The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870–1940. Princeton University Press.
  • Bertrand Russell: A Political Life by Alan Ryan 1981

Buku berkaitan falsafah Russell[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, edited by A. D. Irvine, 4 volumes, London: Routledge, 1999. Consists of essays on Russell's work by many distinguished philosophers.
  • Bertrand Russell, by John Slater, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1994.
  • Bertrand Russell's Ethics. by Michael K. Potter, Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2006. A clear and accessible explanation of Russell's moral philosophy.
  • The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, edited by P.A. Schilpp, Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University, 1944.
  • Russell, by A. J. Ayer, London: Fontana, 1972. ISBN 0-00-632965-9. A lucid summary exposition of Russell's thought.
  • The Lost Cause: Causation and the Mind-Body Problem, by Celia Green. Oxford: Oxford Forum, 2003. ISBN 0-9536772-1-4 Contains a sympathetic analysis of Russell's views on causality.
  • Russell's Idealist Apprenticeship, by Nicholas Griffin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Buku biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Baccan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bertrand Russell. 1967–1969, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, 3 volumes, London: George Allen & Unwin.
  • Wallechinsky, David & Irving Wallace. 1975–1981, "Famous Marriages Bertrand Russell & Alla Pearsall Smith, Part 1" & "Part 3", on "Alys" Pearsall Smith, webpage content from The People's Almanac, webpages: Part 1 & Part 3 (accessed 8 November 2008).
  • Russell B, (1944) "My Mental Development", in Schilpp, Paul Arturn "The Philosophy of Betrand Russell", New York, Tudorm 1951, pp 3–20

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penulisan lain dalam talian
Audio
Lain-lain
Bangsawan United Kingdom
Didahului oleh
Frank Russell
Earl Russell
1931–1970
Diikuti oleh:
John Russell

Templat:Nobel Prize in Literature Laureates 1926–1950