Maimonides

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Mediterranean Arab
Falsafah Zaman Pertengahan
Maimonides-2.jpg
Imej digunakan secara umum mengindikasikan konsep seorang seniman pada rupawan Maimonides
Nama: Moses Maimonides
Kelahiran: {{{birth}}}
Mazhab: falsafah Yahudi, undang-undang Yahudi, etika Yahudi
Dipengaruhi: Talmud, Aristotle, al-Farabi, Avicenna, ibn Bajja, Averroes, Al-Ghazali[1][2]
Mempengaruhi: Spinoza, Aquinas, Bodin, Leibniz, Kaplan,[3] Newton[4], Strauss

Maimonides adalah ahli falsafah Yahudi zaman pertengahan yang cemerlang dan salah seorang sarjana Torah terhebat dari Zaman Pertengahan. Dia juga dikenali dengan nama Moses Maimonides, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon atau akronim Rambam (Bahasa Ibrani: רבי משה בן מימון; akronim bahasa Ibrani: רמב"ם; Bahasa Arab: موسى ابن ميمونMūsā ibn Maymūn, kependekan bagi ‏ أبو عمران موسى بن عبيد الله ميمون القرطبي Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin ʿUbaidallāh Maimūn al-Qurṭubī).

Dia dilahirkan di Cordoba, Sepanyol, pada Mac 30, 1135, dan meninggal dunia di Mesir pada 20hb Tevet, Disember 13, 1204.[5][6]

Dia bekerja sebagai seorang rabbi, doktor, dan ahli falsafah di Sepanyol, Maghribi dan Mesir. Dengan pendeta Islam sezaman Averroes, dia mengalakkan dan mengembangkan tradisi falfasah Aristotle. Sebagai hasil, Maimonides dan Averroes memperolahi suatu pengaruh berpengaruh dan berkontroversi di Barata, di mana fikiran ahli Aristotle telah hilang berabad-abad. Albert the Great dan Thomas Aquinas adalah para pembaca Barat terkenal Maimonides.

Salah satu dari ajaran berpusat falsafah Maimonides adalah bahawa ia tidak mungkin untuk kebenaran bertiba oleh daya fikir manusia untuk bercanggah dengan yang telah diwahyukan oleh Tuhan. Maimonides memegang pada teologi apofatik secar terhad di mana hanya kenyataan negatif terhadap penjelasan Tuhan dapat dianggapkan benar. Oleh itu, seorang tidak berkata "Tuhan adalah Satu", tetapi daripada itu, "Tuhan tidak berkali ganda".[7] Walaupun banyak gagasannya bertemu dengan pembangkangan ahli sezamannya, Maimonides telah diterima oleh para pemikir Yahudi kemudian. Mishneh Torah yang berjilid empat belas hari ini mengandungi otoriti berqanun sebagai kodifikasi hukum Talmud.

Walaupun karya salinan pada hukum dan etika Yahudi telah pada mulanya bertemu dengan pembangkangan sewaktu kehidupannya, setelah dia meninggal dunia dia dikenali sebagai salah seorang pengantara dan falsafah dalam sejarah Yahudi. Hari ini, karya-karyanya dan pandangannya dianggapkan suatu asas pemikiran dan pengajian Yahudi.

Nama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama penuh Ibrani Maimonides adalah Moshe ben Maimon (Bahasa Ibrani: משה בן מימון) dan nama Arabnya adalah ʼAbū ʻImrān Mūsā bin Maymūn ibn ʻAbdallāh al-Qurtubiyy al-ʼIsrāʼīliyy (أبو عمران موسى بن ميمون بن عبد الله القرطبي الإسرائيلي ). Meskipun dia telah secara umum digelarkan dengan nama Greeknya, Moses Maimonides (Μωυσής Μαϊμονίδης). Kesemuanya nama ini secara harfiah bermakna "Musa, anak Maimon." Beberapa karya Yahudi menggelarnya Maimoni (מימוני). Meskipun, kebanyakan karya Yahudi merujuknya dengan most Jewish akronim Ibrani acronym pada panggilan dan namanya—רבי משה בן מימון (Rabai Moshe ben Maimon‎)—oleh itu, di kalangan orang Yahudi dia digelarkan רמב"ם (Rambam.)

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun kelahirannya dipertikaikan, dengan Shlomo Pines menyarankan bahawa dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1138. Dia dilahirkan semasa zaman yang dianggap para sarjana sebagai akhir zaman keemasan tamadun Yahudi di Sepanyol, selepas kurun-kurun pertama peemrintahan orang Moor. Pada usia kanak-kanak, dia mula berminat dengan sains tulen dan falsafah. Di samping pembacaan karya-karya sarjana Islam, dia juga membaca karya-karya ahli falsafah Yunani yang tercapai menerusi terjemahan dalam bahasa Arab. Maimonides tidak dikenali sebagai penyokong Kabbalah. Dia menyuarakan tentangan kepada puisi, puisi terbaik pun diisytihar sebagai palsu, memandangkan ia diasaskan atas rekaan semata-mata - dan ini juga di dalam bumi yang telah menghasilkan sebegitu banyak ungkapan-ungkapan indah ilham Ibrani dan Arab. Pendeta ini yang dimuliakan kerana personaliti waraknya dan juga kerana tulisan-tulisannya, menjalani kehidupan yang tidak tenteram, dan menulis banyak karya-karyanya ketika berkelana atau bermukim.[8] Maimonides mempelajari Torah daripada bapanya Maimon yang pula belajar dari Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash - seorang pelajar Isaac Alfasi.

Rumah Maimonides di Fes

Dinasti al-Muwahhidun dari Afrika Utara menakluki Cordoba pada tahun 1148, dan mengancam masyarakat Yahudi di Sepanyol dengan pilihan samada memeluk Islam, mati atau buang negeri.[8] Keluarga Maimonides beserta kebanyakan orang Yahudi memilih buang negeri. Dalam tempoh 10 tahun mereka berpindah ke selatan Perancis untuk mengelakkan diri daripada al-Muwahhidun, namun akhirnya mereka menetap di Fes di Maghribi. Dalam masa ini, dia mengarang ulasannya yang disanjung ramai terhadap Mishnah pada tahun-tahun 1166-1168[9].

Selepas tinggal sementara di Maghribi, dia dan keluarganya tinggal sebentar di Tanah Suci sebelum menetap di Fustat, Mesir sekitar tahun 1168.[10] Tidak lama kemudian, Maimonides membantu dalam usaha menyelamatkan orang-orang Yahudi yang ditawan semasa kepungan Raja Almaric I terhadap sebuah bandar Mesir, Bilbays. Dia mengirim lima pucuk surat kepada masyarakat-masyarakat Yahudi Mesir rendah yang meminta mereka mengumpulkan wang untuk membayar tebusan. Wang-wang itu dikumpulkan dan kemudian diserahkan kepada dua orang hakim yang dihantar ke Palestin untuk berunding dengan Tentera Salib. Tawanan-tawanan itu akhirnya dibebaskan.[11] Berikutan kejayaan ini, keluarga Maimonides memberi simpanan mereka kepada anak bongsu, David, seorang pedagang dengan harapan dia akan mengembangkan kekayaan mereka. Maimonides mengarahkannya supaya hanya mendapatkan barangan di pelabuhan Sudan, Aydhab, tetapi, setelah perjalanan yang sukar dan panjang melalui gurun, David tidak menyukai barangan yang ditawarkan di bandar pelabuhan itu. Jadi dia belayar ke India bertentangan dengan kehendak abangnya memandangkan kekayaan besar dapat ditemui di Timur.[12] Malangnya, David lemas di lautan sekitar 1169-1170 sebelum dia berjaya sampai ke India. Kematian adiknya itu menyebabkan Maimonides jatuh sakit dengan hiba. Di dalam sepucuk surat yang dijumpai di Genizah Kaherah, dia kemudian menjelaskan:

Nasib malang terbesar yang menimpaku sepanjang hayatku-lebih buruk daripada yang lain-adalah kematian wali itu, semoga kenangannya diberkati, yang lemas di lautan India, yang membawa banyak wang milikku, dia dan lain-lain, dan meninggalkan padaku seorang anak perempuan yang masih kecil dan seorang janda. Pada hari aku menerima perkhabaran buruk itu, aku jatuh sakit dan terlantar di pembaringan selama lebih kurang setahun, menderita kesakitan, demam panas dan kemurungan, dan hampir aku berputus asa. Sudah hampir lapan tahun berlalu, namun aku masih menangisi dan tidak mampu menerima hiburan hati. Dan bagaimana harus aku hiburkan hatiku sendiri? Dia membesar dia atas lututku, dia adikku, dia muridku.[13]

Selepas sembuh, dia dilantik menjadi Nagid masyarakat Yahudi Mesir sekitar tahu 1171.[10] Arabis S.D. Goitein percaya bahawa kepemimpinan yang ditunjukkannya semasa menebus tawanan Tentera Salib membawa kepada pelantikannya.[14] Tetapi memandangkan keluarga Maimonides telah melaburkan simapanan mereka dalam usaha niaga David, apabila dia lemas, kesemua wang itu lenyap. Ini memaksa Maimonides menjadi seorang ahli perubatan. Maimonides pernah menjalani latihan sebagai ahli perubatan di Cordoba dan Fes. Dia menerima pengiktirafan meluas dan menjadi tabib istana bagi Wazir Agung al-Fadl, kemudian bagi Sultan Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, selepas kematian baginda pun dia kekal menjadi tabib bagi keluarga diraja itu.[15]. Di dalam penulisannya dia menggambarkan banyak keadaan penyakit termasuklah asma, diabetes, hepatitis dan pneumonia dan menekankan kesederhanaan dan gaya hidup yang sihat.[16] Karya-karyanya mempengaruhi banyak generasi ahli perubatan. Dia berpengetahuan dalam perubatan Yunani dan Parsi, dan mengikuti prinsip-prinsip humorisme dalam tradisi perubatan Galen, tetapi tidak membuta tuli menerima sebaliknya menggunakan pemerhatian dan ujikajinya sendiri.[16] Bagaimana pun, Frank menunjukkan bahawa di dalam penulisan-penulisan perubatannya dia tidak cuba menerokai idea-idea baru sebaliknya mentafsir karya-karya berotoriti supaya semua karya-karya itu dapat diterima.[15] Maimonides mempamerkan dalam interaksinya dengan pesakit sifat-sifat yang pada hari ini dapat disebut sebagai kesedaran antara budaya dan hormat terhadap autonomi pesakit.[17] Di dalam sepucuk surat yang terkenal, dia menggambarkan rutin hariannya: Setelah melawat istana Sultan, dia tiba di rumah dalam keadaan letih dan lapar, di situ "aku mendapati bilik antara telah dipenuhi dengan orang Yahudi dan bukan Yahudi...aku merawat mereka dan menulis preskripsi bagi penyakit mereka...sehingga ke petang...dan aku menjadi sangat lemah tidak bermaya."[18]

Maimonides meninggal dunia pada 20 Tevet di Fustat, tempat dia dipercayai dikebumikan sebentar[19] sebelum dikebumikan semula di Tiberias, sebuah bandar di pantai barat Laut Galilee, Galilee rendah, Palestin. Bagaimana pun, lokasi kubur Maimonides tidak sunyi daripada kontroversi dan di kalangan masyarakat Yahudi Kaherah terdapat tradisi yang mempertahankan bahawa kuburnya masih kekal di Mesir.[20]

Maimonides dan isterinya, anak perempuan Mishael ben Yeshayahu Halevi dikurniakan dengan seorang cahaya mata, Avraham, yang diiktiraf sebagai sarjana ulung dan yang mewarisinya sebagai Nagid dan sebagai tabib istana pada usia 18 tahun. Dia amat memuliakan kenangan bapanya, dan sepanjang kariernya dia mempertahankan penulisan bapanya terhadap semua kritikan. Jawatan Nagid dipegang oleh keluarga Maimonides selama empat generasi berturut-turut sehingga akhir kurun ke-14.

Dia dihormati secara meluas sehingga ke Sepanyol dan sebuah patungnya telah didirikan di Cordoba di hadapan satu-satunya saumaah di bandar yang terlepas dari kemusnahan; meskipun tidak lagi berfungsi sebagai rumah ibadah Yahudi, ia terbuka kepada umum.

Pengaruh[sunting | sunting sumber]

Halaman judul The Guide for the Perplexed

Maimonides adalah salah seorang tokoh yang paling berpengaruh dalam falsafah Yahudi zaman pertengahan. Satu ungkapan popular zaman pertengahan yang juga menjadi epitafnya menyatakan Daripada Moshe (ibn Imran) kepada Moshe (ibn Maimon) tiada seorang pun yang serupa dengan Moshe.

Radical Jewish scholars in the centuries that followed can be characterised as "Maimonideans" or "anti-Maimonideans." Moderate scholars were eclectics who largely accepted Maimonides's Aristotelian world-view, but rejected those elements of it which they considered to contradict the religious tradition. Such eclecticism reached its height in the 14th–15th centuries.

The most rigorous medieval critique of Maimonides is Hasdai Crescas' Or Adonai. Crescas bucked the eclectic trend, by demolishing the certainty of the Aristotelian world-view, not only in religious matters, but even in the most basic areas of medieval science (such as physics and geometry). Crescas's critique provoked a number of 15th century scholars to write defenses of Maimonides. A translation of Crescas was produced by Harry Austryn Wolfson of Harvard University, in 1929.

13 prinsip kepercayaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

In his commentary on the Mishneh (tractate Sanhedrin, chapter 10), Maimonides formulates his 13 principles of faith. They summarized what he viewed as the required beliefs of Judaism with regards to:

  1. The existence of God
  2. God's unity
  3. God's spirituality and incorporeality
  4. God's eternity
  5. God alone should be the object of worship
  6. Revelation through God's prophets
  7. The preeminence of Moses among the prophets
  8. God's law given on Mount Sinai
  9. The immutability of the Torah as God's Law
  10. God's foreknowledge of human actions
  11. Reward of good and retribution of evil
  12. The coming of the Jewish Messiah
  13. The resurrection of the dead

These principles were controversial when first proposed, evoking criticism by Rabbi Hasdai Crescas and Rabbi Joseph Albo, and were effectively ignored by much of the Jewish community for the next few centuries. ("Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought," Menachem Kellner). However, these principles became widely held; today, Orthodox Judaism holds these beliefs to be obligatory.[petikan diperlukan] Two poetic restatements of these principles (Ani Ma'amin and Yigdal) eventually became canonized in the "siddur" (Jewish prayer book).

Karya legal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fail:Mishna tora44.jpg
A recent newly corrected version of Mishneh Torah, Maimonides's main work of Halakha
Rencana utama: Mishneh Torah

With Mishneh Torah, Maimonides composed a code of Jewish law with the widest-possible scope and depth. The work gathers all the binding laws from the Talmud, and incorporates the positions of the Geonim (post-Talmudic early Medieval scholars, mainly from Mesopotamia).

While Mishneh Torah is now considered the fore-runner of the Arbaah Turim and the Shulchan Aruch[petikan diperlukan] (two later codes), it met initially with much opposition[petikan diperlukan]. There were two main reasons for this opposition. Firstly, Maimonides had refrained from adding references to his work for the sake of brevity; secondly, in the introduction, he gave the impression of wanting to "cut out" study of the Talmud[21], to arrive at a conclusion in Jewish law, although Maimonides himself later wrote that this was not his intent. His most forceful opponents were the rabbis of Provence (Southern France), and a running critique by Rabbi Abraham ben David (Raavad III) is printed in virtually all editions of Mishneh Torah. However, it was recognized as a monumental contribution to the systemized writing of Halakha. Throughout the centuries, it has been widely studied and its halakhic decisions have weighed heavily in later rulings.

In response to those who would attempt to force followers of Maimonides and his Mishneh Torah to abide by the rulings of his own Shulchan Aruch or other later works, Rabbi Yosef Karo wrote: "Who would dare force communities who follow the Rambam to follow any other decisor, early or late? ... The Rambam is the greatest of the decisors, and all the communities of the Land of Israel and the Arabistan and the Maghreb practice according to his word, and accepted him as their rabbi."[22]

An oft-cited legal maxim from his pen is: "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death." He argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely according to the judge's caprice.[23]

Falsafah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Through the Guide for the Perplexed and the philosophical introductions to sections of his commentaries on the Mishna, Maimonides exerted an important influence on the Scholastic philosophers, especially on Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus. He was himself a Jewish Scholastic. Educated more by reading the works of Arab Muslim philosophers than by personal contact with Arabian teachers, he acquired an intimate acquaintance not only with Arab Muslim philosophy, but with the doctrines of Aristotle. Maimonides strove to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and science with the teachings of the Torah.

Teologi negatif[sunting | sunting sumber]

The principle, which inspired his philosophical activity, was identical with the fundamental tenet of Scholasticism: there can be no contradiction between the truths which God has revealed, and the findings of the human mind in science and philosophy. Maimonides primarily relied upon the science of Aristotle and the teachings of the Talmud, commonly finding basis in the former for the latter. In some important points, however, he departed from the teaching of Aristotle; for instance, he rejected the Aristotelian doctrine that God's provident care extends only to humanity, and not to the individual.

Maimonides was led by his admiration for the neo-Platonic commentators to maintain many doctrines which the Scholastics could not accept. For instance, Maimonides was an adherent of "negative theology" (also known as "Apophatic theology".) In this theology, one attempts to describe God through negative attributes. For instance, one should not say that God exists in the usual sense of the term; all we can safely say is that God is not non-existent. We should not say that "God is wise"; but we can say that "God is not ignorant," i.e. in some way, God has some properties of knowledge. We should not say that "God is One," but we can state that "there is no multiplicity in God's being." In brief, the attempt is to gain and express knowledge of God by describing what God is not; rather than by describing what God "is."

The Scholastics agreed with him that no predicate is adequate to express the nature of God; but they did not go so far as to say that no term can be applied to God in the affirmative sense. They admitted that while "eternal," "omnipotent," etc., as we apply them to God, are inadequate, at the same time we may say "God is eternal" etc., and need not stop, as Moses did, with the negative "God is not not-eternal," etc. In essence what Maimonides wanted to express is that when people give God anthropomorphic qualities they do not explain anything more of what God is, because we cannot know anything of the essence of God.

Maimonides' use of apophatic theology is not unique to this time period or to Judaism. For example, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite and Maximus the Confessor, Eastern Christian theologians, developed apophatic theology for Christianity nearly 900 years earlier. See Negative theology for uses in other religions.

Ramalan[sunting | sunting sumber]

He agrees with "the philosophers" in teaching that, man's intelligence being one in the series of intelligences emanating from God, the prophet must, by study and meditation, lift himself up to the degree of perfection required in the prophetic state. But here, he invokes the authority of "the Law," which teaches that, after that perfection is reached, there is required the "free acts of God," before the man actually becomes a prophet.

Masalah kejahatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maimonides wrote on theodicy (the philosophical attempt to reconcile the existence of a God with the existence of evil in the world). He took the premise that an omnipotent and good God exists. He adopts the Aristotelian view that defines evil as the lack of, or the reduced presence of a God, as exhibited by those who exercise the free choice of rejecting belief.

Astrologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maimonides answered an inquiry concerning astrology, addressed to him from Marseille. He responded that man should believe only what can be supported either by rational proof, by the evidence of the senses, or by trustworthy authority. He affirms that he had studied astrology, and that it does not deserve to be described as a science. The supposition that the fate of a man could be dependent upon the constellations is ridiculed by him; he argues that such a theory would rob life of purpose, and would make man a slave of destiny. (See also fatalism, predestination.)

Kepercayaan benar lawan kepercayaan perlu[sunting | sunting sumber]

In "Guide for the Perplexed" Book III, Chapter 28,[24] Maimonides explicitly draws a distinction between "true beliefs," which were beliefs about God that produced intellectual perfection, and "necessary beliefs," which were conducive to improving social order. Maimonides places anthropomorphic personification statements about God in the latter class. He uses as an example the notion that God becomes "angry" with people who do wrong. In the view of Maimonides (taken from Avicenna) God does not actually become angry with people, as God has no human passions; but it is important for them to believe God does, so that they desist from sinning.

Kebangkitan, keabadian diperolehi, dan hidup selepas mati[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maimonides distinguishes two kinds of intelligence in man, the one material in the sense of being dependent on, and influenced by, the body, and the other immaterial, that is, independent of the bodily organism. The latter is a direct emanation from the universal active intellect; this is his interpretation of the noûs poietikós of Aristotelian philosophy. It is acquired as the result of the efforts of the soul to attain a correct knowledge of the absolute, pure intelligence of God.

The knowledge of God is a form of knowledge, which develops in us the immaterial intelligence, and thus confers on man an immaterial, spiritual nature. This confers on the soul that perfection in which human happiness consists, and endows the soul with immortality. One who has attained a correct knowledge of God has reached a condition of existence, which renders him immune from all the accidents of fortune, from all the allurements of sin, and even from death itself. Man, therefore is in a position not only to work out his own salvation and immortality.

The resemblance between this doctrine and Spinoza's doctrine of immortality is so striking as to warrant the hypothesis that there is a causal dependence of the latter on the earlier doctrine. The differences between the two Jewish thinkers are, however, as remarkable as the resemblance. While Spinoza teaches that the way to attain the knowledge which confers immortality is the progress from sense-knowledge through scientific knowledge to philosophical intuition of all things sub specie æternitatis, Maimonides holds that the road to perfection and immortality is the path of duty as described in the Torah and the rabbinic understanding of the oral law.

Religious Jews not only believed in immortality in some spiritual sense, but most believed that there would at some point in the future be a messianic era, and a resurrection of the dead. This is the subject of Jewish eschatology. Maimonides wrote much on this topic, but in most cases he wrote about the immortality of the soul for people of perfected intellect; his writings were usually not about the resurrection of dead bodies. This prompted hostile criticism from the rabbis of his day, and sparked a controversy over his true views.

Rabbinic works usually refer to this afterlife as "Olam Haba" (the World to Come). Some rabbinic works use this phrase to refer to a messianic era, an era of history right here on Earth; in other rabbinic works this phrase refers to a purely spiritual realm. It was during Maimonides's lifetime that this lack of agreement flared into a full-blown controversy, with Maimonides charged as a heretic by some Jewish leaders.

Some Jews at this time taught that Judaism did not require a belief in the physical resurrection of the dead, as the afterlife would be a purely spiritual realm. They used Maimonides's works on this subject to back up their position. In return, their opponents claimed that this was outright heresy; for them the afterlife was right here on Earth, where God would raise dead bodies from the grave so that the resurrected could live eternally. Maimonides was brought into this dispute by both sides, as the first group stated that his writings agreed with them, and the second group portrayed him as a heretic for writing that the afterlife is for the immaterial spirit alone. Eventually, Maimonides felt pressured to write a treatise on the subject, the "Ma'amar Tehiyyat Hametim" "The Treatise on Resurrection."

Chapter two of the treatise on resurrection refers to those who believe that the world to come involves physically resurrected bodies. Maimonides refers to one with such beliefs, as being an "utter fool" whose belief is "folly".

If one of the multitude refuses to believe [that angels are incorporeal] and prefers to believe that angels have bodies and even that they eat, since it is written (Genesis 18:8) 'they ate', or that those who exist in the World to Come will also have bodies—we won't hold it against him or consider him a heretic, and we will not distance ourselves from him. May there not be many who profess this folly, and let us hope that he will go no farther than this in his folly and believe that the Creator is corporeal.

However, Maimonides also writes that those who claimed that he altogether believed the verses of the Hebrew Bible referring to the resurrection were only allegorical were spreading falsehoods and "revolting" statements. Maimonides asserts that belief in resurrection is a fundamental truth of Judaism about which there is no disagreement, and that it is not permissible for a Jew to support anyone who believes differently. He cites Daniel 12:2 and 12:13 as definitive proofs of physical resurrection of the dead when they state "many of them that sleep in the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence" and "But you, go your way till the end; for you shall rest, and will arise to your inheritance at the end of the days."

While these two positions may be seen as in contradiction (non-corporeal eternal life, versus a bodily resurrection), Maimonides resolves them with a then unique solution: Maimonides believed that the resurrection was not permanent or general. In his view, God never violates the laws of nature. Rather, divine interaction is by way of angels, whom Maimonides often regards to be metaphors for the laws of nature, the principles by which the physical universe operates, or Platonic eternal forms. [This is not always the case. In Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah Chaps. 2-4, Maimonides describes angels that are actually created beings.] Thus, if a unique event actually occurs, even if it is perceived as a miracle, it is not a violation of the world's order.[25]

In this view, any dead who are resurrected must eventually die again. In his discussion of the 13 principles of faith, the first five deal with knowledge of God, the next four deal with prophecy and the Torah, while the last four deal with reward, punishment and the ultimate redemption. In this discussion Maimonides says nothing of a universal resurrection. All he says it is that whatever resurrection does take place, it will occur at an indeterminate time before the world to come, which he repeatedly states will be purely spiritual.

He writes "It appears to us on the basis of these verses (Daniel 12:2,13) that those people who will return to those bodies will eat, drink, copulate, beget, and die after a very long life, like the lives of those who will live in the Days of the Messiah." Maimonides thus disassociated the resurrection of the dead from both the World to Come and the Messianic era.

In his time, many Jews believed that the physical resurrection was identical to the world to come; thus denial of a permanent and universal resurrection was considered tantamount to denying the words of the Talmudic sages. However, instead of denying the resurrection, or maintaining the current dogma, Maimonides posited a third way: That resurrection had nothing to do with the messianic era (here in this world) or with Olam Haba (עולם הבא) (the purely spiritual afterlife). Rather, he considered resurrection to be a miracle that the book of Daniel predicted; thus at some point in time we could expect some instances of resurrection to occur temporarily, which would have no place in the final eternal life of the righteous.

The Oath of Maimonides[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Oath of Maimonides is a document about the medical calling and recited as a substitute for the Oath of Hippocrates. The Oath is not to be confused with a more lengthy Prayer of Maimonides. These documents may not have been written by Maimonides, but later.[15] The Prayer appeared first in print in 1793 and has been attributed to Marcus Herz, a German physician, pupil of Immanual Kant.[26]

Maimonides dan ahli Pemoden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maimonides remains the most widely debated Jewish thinker among modern scholars. He has been adopted as a symbol and an intellectual hero by almost all major movements in modern Judaism, and has proven immensely important to philosophers such as Leo Strauss; and his views on the importance of humility have been taken up by modern humanist philosophers, like Peter Singer and Iain King. In academia, particularly within the area of Jewish Studies, the teaching of Maimonides has been dominated by traditional, generally Orthodox scholars, who place a very strong emphasis on Maimonides as a rationalist. The result of this is many sides of Maimonides's thought, for example his opposition to anthropocentrism, have been obviated. There is some movement in postmodern circles, e.g. within the discourse of ecotheology, to claim Maimonides for other purposes. Maimonides's reconciliation of the philosophical and the traditional has given his legacy an extremely diverse and dynamic quality.

Penghormatan dan peringatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Plaque of Maimonides at Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

Maimonides has been memorialized in numerous ways. For example, one of the Learning Communities at the Tufts University School of Medicine bears his name. There is also Maimonides School in Brookline, Massachusetts, the Brauser Maimonides Academy in Hollywood, Florida,[1] and Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York. In 2004, conferences were held at Yale, Florida International University, Penn State, and the Rambam hospital in Haifa. To commemorate the 800th anniversary of his death, Harvard University issued a memorial volume. [2] In 1953, the Israel Postal Authority issued a postage stamp of Maimonides, pictured. In March 2008, during the Euromed Conference of Ministers of Tourism, The Tourism Ministries of Israel, Morocco and Spain agreed to work together on a joint project that will trace the footsteps of the Rambam and thus boost religious tourism in the cities of Córdoba, Fez and Tiberias [3]. Rambam Hospital in Haifa, Israel, is named for him.

Karya dan bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Manuscript page by Maimonides. Judeo-Arabic language in Hebrew letters.

Karya falsafah dan Keyahudian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maimonides composed works of Jewish scholarship, rabbinic law, philosophy, and medical texts. Most of Maimonides's works were written in Judeo-Arabic. However, the Mishneh Torah was written in Hebrew. His Judaism texts were:

  • Commentary on the Mishna (Hebrew Pirush Hamishnayot), written in Judeo-Arabic. This text was one of the first commentaries of its kind; its introductory sections are widely quoted.
  • Sefer Hamitzvot (trans. The Book of Commandments).
  • Sefer Ha'shamad (letter of Martydom)
  • Mishneh Torah, also known as Sefer Yad ha-Chazaka, a comprehensive code of Jewish law;
  • Guide for the Perplexed, a philosophical work harmonising and differentiating Aristotle's philosophy and Jewish theology. Written in Judeo-Arabic. The first translation of this work into Hebrew was done by Samuel ibn Tibbon
  • Teshuvot, collected correspondence and responsa, including a number of public letters (on resurrection and the afterlife, on conversion to other faiths, and Iggereth Teiman - addressed to the oppressed Jewry of Yemen).
  • Treatise on Logic (Arabic: Makala Fi-Sinat Al-Mantik) has been printed 17 times, including editions in Latin (1527), German (1805, 1822, 1833, 1828), French (1935), and English (1938), and in an abridged Hebrew form.

Karya perubatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maimonides wrote ten known medical works in Arabic that have been translated by the Jewish medical ethicist Fred Rosner into contemporary English.[16]

  • Extracts from Galen, or The Art of Cure, is essentially an extract of Galen's extensive writings.
  • Commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates is interspersed with his own views.
  • Medical Aphorisms of Moses titled Fusul Musa in Arabic ("Chapters of Moses," Pirkei Moshe in Hebrew) contains 1500 aphorisms and many medical conditions are described.
  • Treatise on Hemorrhoids discusses also digestion and food.
  • Treatise on Cohabitation contains recipes as aphrodisiacs and anti-aphrodisiacs.
  • Treatise on Asthma discusses climates and diets and their effect on asthma and emphasizes the need for clean air.
  • Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes is an early toxicology textbook that remained popular for centuries.
  • Regimen of Health is a discourse on healthy living and the mind-body connection.
  • Discourse on the Explanation of Fits advocates healthy living and the avoidance of overabundance.
  • Glossary of Drug Names represents a pharmacopeia with 405 paragraphs with the names of drugs in Arabic, Greek, Syrian, Persian, Berber, and Spanish.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. "H-Net". http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=227091077594594. 
  2. "Maimonides Islamic Influences". Plato. Stanford. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/maimonides-islamic/. 
  3. Moses (1138-1204)
  4. Isaac Newton: “Judaic monotheist of the school of Maimonides”
  5. Bar Ilan CD-ROM
  6. Maimonides (1135-1204) - ReligionFacts
  7. Moreh Nevukhim 1:58
  8. 8.0 8.1 1954 Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 18, p. 140.
  9. Seder HaDoros (year 4927) quotes Maimonides as saying that he began writing his commentary on the Mishna when he was 23 years old, and published it when he was 30. Because of the dispute about the date of Maimonides's birth it is not clear which year it was actually published
  10. 10.0 10.1 Goitein, S.D. Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders. Princeton University Press, 1973 (ISBN 0-691-05212-3), p. 208
  11. Cohen, Mark R. Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt. Princeton University Press, 2005 (ISBN 0-691-09272-9), pp. 115–116
  12. The "India Trade" (a term devised by the Arabist S.D. Goitein) was a highly lucrative business venture where Jewish merchants from Egypt, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East would import and export goods ranging from pepper to brass from various ports along the Malabar Coast between the 11th–13th centuries. For more info, see the "India Traders" chapter in Goitein, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders, 1973 or Goitein, India Traders of the Middle Ages, 2008.
  13. Goitein, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders, p. 207
  14. Cohen, Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt, p. 115
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Julia Bess Frank (1981). "Moses Maimonides: Rabbi of Medicine" (PDF). The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 54 (1): 79–88. PMC 2595894. PMID 7018097. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=2595894&blobtype=pdf. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Fred Rosner (2002). "The Life o Moses Maimonides, a Prominent Medieval Physician". Einstein Quart J Biol Med 19 (3): 125–128. http://www.aecom.yu.edu/uploadedFiles/EJBM/19Rosner125.pdf. 
  17. Gesundheit B, Or R, Gamliel C, Rosner F, Steinberg A (April 2008). "Treatment of depression by Maimonides (1138–1204):Rabbi, Physician, and Philosopher". Am J Psychiatry 165 (4): 425–428. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07101575. PMID 18381913. http://www.jewishmedicalethics.org/data/treatment%20of%20depression%20by%20maimonides%20rabbi%20physician%20and%20philosopher.pdf. 
  18. Responsa Pe’er HaDor, 143.
  19. [The Life of Maimonides http://www.jnul.huji.ac.il/v-exhibitions/rambam/eng/life.html] Jewish National and University Library
  20. [The End of the Exodus from Egypt http://www.hsje.org/The%20end%20of%20the%20Exodus%20from%20Egypt.pdf] HaAretz Daily Newspaper Israel: Amiram Barkat, April 21, 2005
  21. Last section of Maimonides's Introduction to Mishneh Torah
  22. Templat:PDFLink
  23. Moses Maimonides, The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290, at 269–71 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967).
  24. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp164.htm Guide for the Perplexed, on sacred-texts.com
  25. Commentary on the Mishna, Avot 5:6
  26. Oath and Prayer of Maimonides

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abraham Joshua Heschel, Maimonides (suatu biografi)
  • Marvin Fox Interpreting Maimonides, Univ. of Chicago Press 1990.
  • Julius Guttman, Philosophies of Judaism Translated by David Silverman, JPS, 1964
  • Maimonides' Principles: The Fundamentals of Jewish Faith, in "The Aryeh Kaplan Anthology, Volume I," Mesorah Publications 1994
  • Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought, Menachem Kellner, Oxford University press, 1986
  • Maimonides Thirteen Principles: The Last Word in Jewish Theology? Marc. B. Shapiro, The Torah U-Maddah Journal, Vol. 4, 1993, Yeshiva University
  • A History of Jewish Philosophy Isaac Husik, Dover Publications, Inc., 2002. Originally published in 1941 by the Jewish Publication of America, Philadelphia, pp. 236–311
  • Persecution and the Art of Writing, Leo Strauss, University of Chicago Press, 1988 reprint
  • "How to Begin to Study the Guide," Leo Strauss, from The Guide of the Perplexed, Vol. 1, Maimonides, translated from the Arabic by Shlomo Pines, University of Chicago Press, 1974
  • Rabbi Yaakov Feldman, Shemonah Perakim: The Eight Chapters of the Rambam, Targum Press, 2008.
  • Joel L. Kraemer, "Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization's Greatest Minds", Doubleday, 2008.
  • Marc B. Shapiro, Studies in Maimonides and His Interpreters (Scranton (PA), University of Scranton Press, 2008), 200 pp.

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