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Koordinat: 50°46′N 0°17′E / 50.77°N 0.28°E
|Borough of Eastbourne|
Borough of Eastbourne ditunjukkan dalam the United Kingdom
|Luas||44.2 km2 (17.1 bt2)|
89,667 (2001 Census)
|- Kepadatan||Templat:Pop density mi2 to km2|
|Rujukan grid OS||TV608991|
|- London||54 batu (87 km) NNW|
|Daerah Shire||East Sussex|
|Negara berdaulat||United Kingdom|
|Parlimen Eropah||England Tenggara|
|Tapak web||Eastbourne Borough Council|
Eastbourne (say East-born) (pronunciation (bantuan·maklumat)) adalah sebuah bandar besar dan kawasan pilihan raya bandaran East Sussex, dalam Daerah Sussex yang bersejarah, di pantai selatan England, dengan penduduk anggaran 97,992 pada 2009. Kawasan ini telah melihat aktiviti manusia sejak Zaman Batu dan ia tetap menjadi salah satu perkampungan kecil hingga abad ke-19 apabila salah satu dari perkampungan desa secara beransur-ansur bergabung membentuk sebuah bandar. Dibantu oleh ketibaan keretapi pada 1849, Eastbourne menjadi sebuah tempat peranginan tepi laut Victoria perdana dan masih begitu ke hari ini.
Eastbourne terletak di hujung timur South Downs di sisinya curam Beachy Head yang masyhur. Kedudukan diredup bandar utama di belakang curam menyumbang pada judul Eastbourne sebagai tempat terpanas di Great Britain.
Walaupun Eastbourne mempunyai estet-estet perdagangan industri, ia pada asasnya sebuah tempat peranginan tepi laut dan mendapatkan gaji utamanya dari pelancongan. Kemudahannya termasuk empat teater, beberapa taman, sebuah pentas pancaragam dan muzium. Fokus pekerjaan pelancongan adalah empat batu (6 km) dari pantai berpasir batu, dibaris dengan suatu hadapan laut hotel dan rumah tetamu.
Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]
Kawasan di keliling Eastbourne diketahui telah ditetap di sepanjang sejarah. Pelombongan Flint dan artefak Zaman Batu lain telah ditemukan di kawasan desa yang berkelilingan, dan ada tapak Rom dalam sempadan bandar. Pada 1717, sebuah tempat mandi Rom dan bahagian kawasan berturap telah ditemukan di antara jeti kini dan redoubt fortress di perkampungan desa yang kemudian dikenali sebagai Sea Houses, sementara pada 1841, peninggalan sebuah villa Rom telah ditemukan berhampiran dengan tempat masuk ke jeti dan terletak ditanam berhampiran dengan Queens Hotel kini. Sebuah carta Anglo-Saxon, sekitar 963 AM, menjelaskan pentas mendarat dan anak sungai di Bourne. Berikutnya Penaklukan Norman, Hundred dari apanya kini Eastbourne, telah dipegang oleh Robert, Count of Mortain, saudara seibu William yang Penakluk. Domesday Book menyenaraikan sebuah 28 ploughlands, sebuah gereja, sebuah kincir air, perikanan dan kematu garam.
Sebuah carta untuk pasar mingguan telah diizinkan ke Bartholomew de Badlesmere pada 1315–16; ini menambah kedudukannya sebagai Lord of the Manor dan memperbaikikan industri tempatan. Sewaktu Zaman Pertengahan pekan ini dilawat oleh Raja Henry I dan pada 1324 oleh Edward II. Bukti masa silam zaman pertengahan Eastbourne dapat dilihat pada Gereja St Mary abad keempatbelas dan rumah besar digelar Bourne Place. Pada pertengahan abad keenam belas rumah itu menjadi tempat kediaman keluarga Burton, yang memperolehi banyak dari tanah yang mana bandar kini berdiri. Rumah besar ini dimiliki Dukes of Devonshire dan telah dimodelkan semula secara meluas pada zaman George awal apabila ia diganti nama Compton Place. Ia adalah salah satu dari bangunan senarai Grade I di bandar.
Dakwaan terawal Eastbourne sebagai sebuah tempat peranginan tepi laut bermula berikutnya cuti musim panas oleh keemapt-empat anak Raja George III pada 1780 (Putera Edward dan Octavius, dan Puteri Elizabeth dan Sophia).
Pada 1793, berikutnya tinjauan pendapat pertahanan pantai di tenggara, keizinan telah diberikan untuk keposisian infantri dan meriam yang besar untuk mempertahankan teluk di antara Beachy Head dan Hastings dari serangan oleh Perancis. 14 Martello Tower telah dibina di sepanjang pesisir pantai barat Teluk Pevensey, berlanjutan sejauh Tower 73, Wish Tower di Eastbourne. Beberapa dari menara ini terus kekal: Wish Tower adalah suatu ciri penting pinggir laut bandar, dan sebahagian dari Tower 68 membentuk tingkat bawah tanah sebuah rumah di St. Antony's Hill. Di antara 1805 dan 1807, pembinaan mengambil tempat sebuah kubu digelar Eastbourne Redoubt, yang dibina sebagai sebuah berek dan gudang simpanan, dan diawasi dengan 10 meriam.
Eastbourne tetap menjadi sebuah kawasan perkampungan kawasan luar bandar kecil hingga abad ke-19. Empat kampung atau perkampungan desa menduduki tapak bandar moden: Bourne (atau, untuk membezanya dari yang lain dengan nama sama, East Bourne), kini digelar Old Town, dan ini mengelilingi bourne (anak sungai) yang naik di Motcombe Park kini; Meads, di mana Downs bertemu pantai; South Bourne (berhampiran dewan bandar); dan perkampungan memancing hanya dikenali sebagai Sea Houses, yang terletak di timurnya jeti kini.
Pada pertengahan abad ke-19 banyak dari kawasan yang jatuh ke tangan dua pemilik tanah: John Davies Gilbert (keluarga Davies-Gilbert masih memiliki banyak dari tanah di Eastbourne dan East Dean) dan William Cavendish, Earl dari Burlington. Pemegangan keluarga Gilbert bermula pada lewat abad ketujuhbelas dan awal kelapanbelas apabila barrister Nicholas Gilbert mengahwini seorang pewaris Eversfield dan Gildredge. (Keluarga Gildredges memiliki banyak dari Eastbourne pada 1554. Keluarga Gilberts akhirnya membuat Gildredge Manor House milik mereka. Hari ini nama Gildredge terus hidup di taman bereponim.)
Pada 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside. His views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as “the Empress of Watering Places".
An early plan, for a town named Burlington, was abandoned, but on 14 May 1849 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway arrived to scenes of great jubilation. With the arrival of the railway, the town's growth accelerated. Cavendish, now the 7th Duke of Devonshire, hired Henry Currey in 1859 to lay out a plan for what was essentially an entire new town — a resort built "for gentlemen by gentlemen". The town grew rapidly from a population of less than 4,000 in 1851 to nearly 35,000 by 1891. In 1883, it was incorporated as a municipal borough; a purpose-built town hall was opened in 1886.
This period of growth and elegant development continued for several decades. A royal visit by George V and Queen Mary in March 1935 is commemorated by a plaque on chalet number 2 at Holywell.
World War II saw a change in fortunes. Initially, children were evacuated to Eastbourne on the assumption that they would be safe from German bombs, but soon they had to be evacuated again because after the fall of France in June 1940 it was anticipated that the town would lie in an invasion zone. Part of Operation Sealion, the German invasion plan, envisaged landings at Eastbourne. Many people sought safety away from the coast and shut up their houses. Restrictions on visitors forced the closure of most hotels, and private boarding schools moved away. Many of these empty buildings were later taken over by the services. The Royal Navy set up an underwater weapons school, and the Royal Air Force operated radar stations at Beachy Head and on the marshes near Pevensey. Thousands of Canadian soldiers were billeted in and around Eastbourne from July 1941 to the run-up to D-Day. The town suffered badly during the war, with many Victorian and Edwardian buildings damaged or destroyed by air raids. Indeed, by the end of the conflict it was designated by the Home Office to have been ‘the most raided town in the South East region’. The situation was especially bad between May 1942 and June 1943 with hit–and–run raids from fighter–bombers based in northern France.
In the summer of 1956 the town came to national and worldwide attention, when Dr John Bodkin Adams, a general practitioner serving the town's wealthier patients, was arrested for the murder of an elderly widow. Rumours had been circulating since 1935 regarding the frequency of his being named in patients' wills (132 times between 1946 and 1956) and the gifts he was given (including two Rolls Royces). Figures of up to 400 murders were reported in British and foreign newspapers, but after a controversial trial at the Old Bailey which gripped the nation for 17 days in March 1957, Adams was found not guilty. He was struck off for 4 years but resumed his practice in Eastbourne in 1961. According to Scotland Yard's archives, he is thought to have killed up to 163 patients in the Eastbourne area.
After the war, development continued, including the growth of Old Town up the hillside (Green Street Farm Estate) and the housing estates of Hampden Park, Willingdon Trees and Langney. During the latter half of the 20th century, there were controversies over the demolition of Pococks, a 15th century manor house on what is now the Rodmill housing estate, and the granting of planning permission for a 19-storey block at the western end of the seafront. The latter project (South Cliff Tower) was realised in 1965 despite a storm of protest led by the newly formed Eastbourne and District Preservation Committee, which later became Eastbourne Civic Society, and was renamed The Eastbourne Society in 1999. Local conservationists also failed to prevent the construction of the glass-plated TGWU conference and holiday centre, but were successful in purchasing Polegate Windmill, thus saving it from demolition and redevelopment.
Pada 1981, sebahagian besar bandar telah digantikan dengan kedai-kedai bahagian dalam Arndale Centre. Kebanyakan dari pemanjangan megambil tempat di pinggir utara dan timur bandar, akhirnya menelan kampung-kampung keliling. Meskipun, bahagian yang lebih kaya barat telah berada di bawah kekangan oleh Downs dan tetapi secara besarnya tidak berubah.
Pada 1990an, kedua-dua mereka berkembang dan kontroversi bertambahan secara pantas apabila pelan baru telah dilancarkan untuk membangun kawasan yang digelar Crumbles, sebuah bank shingle di pantai di timur pusat bandar. Kawasan ini, kini digelar sebagai Sovereign Harbour, mengandungi sebuah marian, kedai-kedai, dan pelbagai ribu rumah, bersama dengan flat dan pangsapuri mewah, terdahulunya rumah pada banyak tumbuh-tumbuhan jarang. Continued growth in other parts of the town, and the taming of the central marshland into farmland and nature reserves, has turned Eastbourne into the centre of a conurbation, with the appearance from above of a hollow ring. Currently under review is the demolition of some of the town centre, to extend the existing Arndale shopping centre, and the adaptation of several existing roads to form an inner ring road. In 2009 the new Towner Arts centre was opened abutting the listed Congress Theatre built in 1963.
Geografi dan cuaca[sunting | sunting sumber]
The South Downs dominate Eastbourne and can be seen from most of the town. These were originally chalk deposits laid down under the sea during the Upper Cretaceous period, and were later lifted by the same tectonic plate movements that formed the European Alps, during the middle Tertiary period. The chalk can be clearly seen along the eroded coastline to the West of the town, in the area known as Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters, where continuous erosion keeps the cliff edge vertical and white. The chalk contains many fossils such as ammonites and nautilus.
A part of the South Downs, Willingdon Down is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest. This is of archaeological interest due to a Neolithic camp and burial grounds. The area is also a nationally uncommon tract of chalk grassland rich in species. Another SSSI which partially falls with the Eastbourne district is Seaford to Beachy Head. This site, of biological and geological interest, covers the coastline between Eastbourne and Seaford, plus the Seven Sisters country park and the Cuckmere valley.
The town of Eastbourne is built on geologically recent alluvial drift, the result of the silting up of a bay. This changes to Weald clay around the Langney estate.
Several nature trails lead to areas such as the nearby villages of East Dean and Birling Gap, and landmarks like the Seven Sisters, Belle Tout lighthouse and Beachy Head.
Eastbourne holds the record for the highest recorded amount of sunshine in a month, 383.9 hours in July 1911, and promotes itself as "The Sunshine Coast". Other resorts, such as Jersey, Bournemouth and Weymouth lay claim to being the sunniest place in Britain too, using different criteria of "sunniest place".
|Data iklim untuk Eastbourne, England|
|Purata tinggi °C (°F)||7.8
|Purata rendah °C (°F)||3.6
|Kerpasan mm (inci)||81.4
|Purata hari hujan||12.6||9.7||10.1||8.4||8.3||7.8||6.9||7.0||9.5||11.1||11.3||12.0||114.7|
|Jam cahaya matahari||64.8||83.3||127.4||187.5||235.0||234.3||243.7||239.6||168.6||125.6||83.7||55.2||1,848.6|
|Sumber: Met Office |
Kawasan dan subbandar[sunting | sunting sumber]
Within Eastbourne's limits are:
- Langney: Langney Rise, Shinewater, Kingsmere, Langney Village, The Marina, Langney Point.
- Hampden Park: Hampden Park Village, Willingdon Trees, Winkney Farm, Ratton.
- Inner areas: Rodmill, Ocklynge, Seaside, Bridgemere, Roselands, Downside.
- Town centre: Town centre, Little Chelsea, Meads, Holywell, Old Town, Upperton.
- Sovereign Harbour: North Harbour, South Harbour.
The seafront at Eastbourne is distinctive in having few shop fronts opening onto it, the road being almost entirely populated by Victorian hotels. This is because much of Eastbourne has traditionally belonged to the Duke of Devonshire, who retains the rights to these buildings and does not allow them to be developed into shops. Along with its pier and bandstand, this serves to preserve the front in a somewhat timeless manner.
The Sovereign Harbour district is a marina/harbour development which was given the go ahead in 1988. An Act of Parliament had to be in force to allow breaking through of the foreshore owned by the crown. A whole new village was formed at the edge of the main town, comprising restaurants, shops and housing.
There was a community known as Norway, Eastbourne in the triangle now bounded by Wartling Road, Seaside and Lottbridge Drove. The name being a corruption of North Way, as this was the route to the North. The area is now a housing estate and the only evidence there was a Norway are a Norway Road and the local church whose sign reads "St Andrew's Church, Norway".
The former fishing hamlet of Holywell (local pronunciation ‘holly well’) was situated by the cliff on a ledge some 400 metres to the southwest of the public garden known as the Holywell Retreat. It was approached from what is now Holywell Road via the lane between the present Helen Gardens and St Bede’s School which leads to the chalk pinnacle formerly known locally as ‘Gibraltar’ or 'The Sugar Loaf'. The ground around the pinnacle was the site of lime kilns also worked by the fishermen. The fishing hamlet at Holywell was taken over by the local water board in 1896 to exploit the springs in the cliffs. The water board's successors still own the site, and there is a pumping station but little evidence of the hamlet itself, as by now even most of the foundations of the cottages have gone over the cliff.
Eastbourne's greater area comprises the town of Polegate, and the civil parishes of Willingdon and Jevington, Stone Cross, Pevensey, Westham, and Pevensey Bay village. All are part of the Wealden District.
Beachy Head[sunting | sunting sumber]
Beachy Head cliff, to the west of the town, is an infamous suicide spot. Statistics are not officially published to reduce suicidal mimicry, but unofficial statistics show it to be the third most common suicide spot.
The lighthouse at the foot of the cliff came into operation in October 1902. Although originally manned by two keepers, it has been remotely monitored by Trinity House via a landline since June 1983. Prior to its construction, shipping had been warned by the Belle Tout lighthouse on the cliff top some 1,500 metres to the west. Belle Tout lighthouse was operational from 1834 to 1902, and closed because its light was not visible in mist and low cloud. It became a private residence, but was severely damaged in World War II by Canadian artillery. In 1956, it was rebuilt as a house and remains a dwelling to this day. In March 1999, the structure was moved 55 kaki (17 m) back from the cliff edge to save it from plunging into the sea.
Angkutan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Jalan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne is connected to London by the A22 road, traffic for Brighton and Hove and Hastings uses the nearby A27 road.
The most common form of transport throughout the town is the car, exacerbated by the number of tourists and commuters travelling in and out. Of the total daily commute, 62.4% travel by car, 13.5% by foot and 6% of the journeys are taken by bus. As part of the Council transport plan measures are being taken to reduce the amount of car usage, which has had positive results in Eastbourne, when compared to the rest of the county.
Bas[sunting | sunting sumber]
Bus services within Eastbourne have been provided by Stagecoach Group since November 2008, when the company acquired the former Eastbourne Buses and subsequently the independent company Cavendish Motor Services. The services operate under the name Stagecoach in Eastbourne.
Eastbourne Buses was the main operator of bus services in the borough until November 2008: it was one of the few surviving municipal bus companies. Following complaints about the poor service provided by independent operators, the County Borough of Eastbourne in 1903 became the first local authority in the world authorised to run motor buses. This long history was a source of pride for the council, and the company Eastbourne Buses, which was formed after bus deregulation and remained part-owned by the Borough Council.
As well as local journeys within the town, Stagecoach also runs routes to Polegate, Hailsham, Tunbridge Wells, Uckfield and East Grinstead at various frequencies, while the two routes to Hastings via Bexhill are run by Stagecoach South East from Hastings. The other main operator into Eastbourne is Brighton & Hove, owned by Go-Ahead Group, which runs frequent services seven days a week from Brighton via Seaford and Newhaven. Limited numbers of additional buses are run by the Cuckmere Community Bus service, and a regular National Express coach service operates daily from London's Victoria Coach Station.
Kereta api[sunting | sunting sumber]
The main railway station is situated in the town centre and is served by the East Coastway Line. The present station (the town's third), design by F.D. Bannister, dates from 1886. It was originally on what was termed the Eastbourne Branch from Polegate. There was a rarely-used triangular junction between Polegate and the now-closed Stone Cross which allowed trains to bypass the Branch; the track has now been lifted. Also on the erstwhile Branch is Hampden Park railway station to the north of the town.
Regular services along the coast have invariably served Eastbourne. All trains, because of the layout, have to pass through Hampden Park once in each direction. This has the effect of making the Hampden Park level crossing very busy. Indeed, it is thought to be the busiest in the country.
Regular services are to London Victoria, Gatwick Airport, Hastings and Ashford International and a commuter service to Brighton. Trains leave from London Victoria to Eastbourne with a journey time of 1hr 36mins.
Tram[sunting | sunting sumber]
A miniature tramway once ran a mile across "the Crumbles" (then undeveloped) from near Princes Park / Wartling Road towards Langney Point. It opened in 1954 but ceased operation in 1970, relocating to Seaton in Devon after the owners had fallen out with the council; it is now the Seaton Tramway.
Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pelancongan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne is a seaside town, consequently tourism provides an important source of income and employment. The town is normally a short break resort, although hotels can be full during special events such as the International Women's Open tennis. A 1998 study calculated an annual figure of £48 million of income creation and just over 4000 jobs were directly attributable to tourists. A further £18 million is generated by business conference visitors and foreign language students.
Eastbourne Council has developed a seafront strategy in order to boost the tourism economy. Already underway are grants provided for general improvements to accommodation. The regeneration of Seaside, the road running parallel to the coastline, is now complete. The new A22 and Polegate bypass provide a speedier link into the main town. The seafront strategy further outlines priorities for the future, improvements to online bookings and more conference hosting promotion. The International Children's Conference is scheduled to be held in 2010. National marketing campaigns, some based on Eastbourne as a gateway to the South Downs National Park, are in progress.
Industri[sunting | sunting sumber]
There are several large industrial estates on the outskirts of the town, particularly in the Hampden Park area; these include tyre making, wholesale, manufacturing, and catering businesses.
Pelabuhan[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Sovereign Harbour development is a recent source of revenue for the town with an influx of visitors arriving via the harbour. The locks have recorded rates of up to 315 boats per hour.
Budaya[sunting | sunting sumber]
Plak biru dan pemastautin terkenal lain[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pada 1993, berikutnya cadangan kepada Majlis Kawasan Pilihanraya Bandaran oleh Eastbourne Civic Society (kini Eastbourne Society), suatu projek usaha sama yang didirikan untuk mendirikan plak-plak biru pada bangunan-bangunan berkaitan dengan orang-orang yang masyhur. Prinsip-prinsip untuk pilihan telah secara luas ini telah didirikan oleh English Heritage untuk sebarang plak di London. yang pertama telah didirikan pada November 1994 di Jalan Milnthorpe di bekas rumah Sir Ernest Shackleton, penjelajah Antarctic. Projek ini berlanjutan, tetapi kini hanya dalam tangan Eastbourne Society. Oleh itu sejauhnya, plak-plak berikut di bawah skema di atas berada dalam posisi.
|Mabel Lucie Attwell||1879–1964||Artist||Ocklynge Manor, 11 Mill Road|
|Lewis Carroll||1832–1898||Penulis||7 Lushington Road|
|Cyril Connolly||1903–1974||Wartawan, pengkritik dan pengarang||48 St John’s Road|
|Charles Dickens||1812–1870||Penulis||Pilgrims, 4–6 Borough Lane|
|Jeffery Farnol||1878–1952||Penulis||14 Denton Road|
|Eric Ravilious||1903–1942||Artis||11 Glynde Avenue|
|Sir Ernest Shackleton||1874–1922||Penjelajah Antarctic||14 Milnthorpe Road|
Artis dan pengilustrasi Mabel Lucie Attwell disenaraikan di bawah nama perkahwinannya Mrs H Earnshaw di Ocklynge Manor idalamKelly's Directories of Eastbourne untuk 1935 dan 1936. Lewis Carroll, pengarang Alice in Wonderland, menggunakan hari-hari petama 19 masa cuti musim panas di Eastbourne di 1877, pada mulanya di Lushington Road. Plak Cyril Connolly di St John’s Road memperingati tempat kediaman lelaki ini pada surat-surat semblilan tahun terakhir hidupnya. Plak ini memuliakan Charles Dickens mencatatkan lawatan pengarang ini sewaktu 1830an, apabila dia tinggal sebagai tetamu artis zaman Victoria Augustus Egg, RA, yang menyewakan rumah di Borough Lane. Pengarang Jeffrey Farnol meninggal dunia di rumahnya di Denton Road pada 1952. Eric Ravilious adalah pelukis masyhur paling terkenal, pengilustrasi dan pengukir buku. Sementara berkhidmat sebagai artis perang, dia gagal untuk kembali dari misi penyelamatan udara-laut di Iceland pada 1942. Plak di Glynde Avenue beada di rumah zaman kanak-kanaknya. Plak biru Sir Ernest Shackleton’s di Milnthorpe Road adalah yang pertama didirikan di bandar ini. Penjelajah polar tinggal di sana dari 1916 hingga 1922.
|Pupils of St Cyprian's School|
|Sir Cecil Beaton||1904–1980||Jurugambar dan pereka bentuk||65 Summerdown Road|
|Cyril Connolly||1903–1974||Penulis dan Wartawan|
|Henry C Longhurst||1909–1978||Wartawan dan AP|
|George Orwell (Eric Blair)||1903–1950||Penulis|
St Cyprian's School (1899–1939) in Summerdown Road was the preparatory school attended by a number of pupils in addition to those listed who enjoyed success in later life.
Tambahan pada plak-plak yang membentuk sebahagian dari skema di atas, plak dan peringatan yang berikut telah didirikan secara peribadi.
|Charlie Chester||1914–1997||Ahli komedi, penyajak dan artis||Inside Royal Hippodrome|
|Tommy Cooper||1921–1984||Ahli komedi dan tukang sakti||7 Motcombe Lane|
|Nelson Victor Carter||1887–1916||Pemegang Victoria Cross||33 Greys Road|
|Professor Thomas Huxley||1825–1895||Ahli biologi||Hodesley, 10 Staveley Road|
|Professor Frederick Soddy||1877–1956||Physicist and radiochemist||Eastbourne College, Blackwater Road|
|6 Bolton Road|
Bintang radio Charlie Chester telah dilahirkan Cecil Victor Manser, anak lelaki pelukis tanda pawagam tempatan yang disenaraikan dalam Buku Biru Eastbourne 1914 di 5 Tideswell Road. Sebuah bayang besi Tommy Cooper, dilengkap dengan ciri-ciri topi fez dan tangkal sakti ahli komedi, dapat dilihat di apanya kotej hujung minggunya di Motcombe Lane. Nelson Victor Carter, lahir di Eastbourne pada 1887, telah dianugerahkan posthumously Victoria Cross sementara berkhidmat dengan Royal Sussex Regiment di Western Front pada 1916. Pingatnya dipaparkan di Eastbourne Redoubt. Rumah di Greys Road di mana dia tinggal dengan isterinya membawa plak dalam kemuliaannya. Ahli biologi Profesor Thomas Huxley bermastautin di Staveley Road pada 1890. Frederick Soddy, ahli kimia radio terkemuka dan pemenang hadiah Nobel, lahir di 6 Bolton Road dan dididik di Eastbourne College. Plak lebih besarnya dapat dilihat di School House di Blackwater Road. Plak gangsa membawa inskripsi “Pada 1867 bangunan ini adalah rumah pertama Eastbourne College” dapat dilihat di Spencer Court (bekasnya Ellesmere Villas), 1 Spencer Road. Ia telah didirikan oleh Arnold Embellishers—suatu masyarakat charitable berkaitan dengan Eastbourne College—untuk menandakan ulang tahun ke-140 penemuan sekolah. The novelist and children's writer Annie Keary died in the town in 1879.
Berikutnya kehilangan RMS Titanic, suatu rayuan telah dilancarkan pada 1912 untuk sebuah plak dengan mulianya James Wesley Woodward, seorang bekas pemain cello dengan Eastbourne Municipal Orchestra, yang kehilangan hidupnya apabila liner tenggelam dalam maiden voyangenya. Pada 1913, selepas banyak ketidaksetujuan ke atas lokasi, batu marmar dan plak gangsa diletak di Grand Parade berhadapan dengan Eastbourne Bandstand. Ia dapat dilihat di tingkat bawah, berhadapan dengan mimbar pentas pancaragam kini.
Sebuah plak biru ditugaskan oleh kakitangan bekas St Mary’s Hospital, 1794–1990, telah didirikan di Letheran Place pada 2003. Ia memperingati askar-askar, penghuni, pesakit dan kakitangan dan bekerja di tapak itu. Pemastautin terkemuka lain termasuk Charles Webb penulis The Graduate, yang memindah ke Eastbourne dengan isterinya pada 2006, di mana mereka dirumahkan oleh khidmat sosial. Pemain piano Russ Conway tinggal di Eastbourne untuk beberapa tahun  dan jua Henry Allingham, secara ringkas orang tertua di dunia apabila dia meninggal dunia pada 2009 berusia 113. Percy Sillitoe, pengarah MI5, juga tinggal di bandar pada 1950an.
Media[sunting | sunting sumber]
The seafront and the iconic cliff at Beachy Head has been used for many scenes in feature films. The 2006 Academy Award-nominated film Notes on a Scandal includes scenes filmed at Beachy Head, Cavendish Hotel and 117 Royal Parade. One of the Harry Potter films also filmed scenes at Beachy Head. Scenes from Half a Sixpence (1969) were filmed on the pier and near to the bandstand. The seafront area was also used for the film Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging directed by Gurinder Chadha. A sequence of a rainy day at the seaside for the Doel family has as its backdrop the Wish Tower, the bandstand, the Cavendish Hotel and the pier in the 1987 British/American drama film 84 Charing Cross Road directed by David Hugh Jones.
Eastbourne has two cinemas—the Curzon Cinema and Cineworld. The Curzon Cinema is a small, family-run, independent cinema in Langney Road, in the town centre. Cineworld is a large multiplex cinema with six screens, located in The Crumbles Retail Park, near Sovereign Harbour.
Television too has used Eastbourne as a backdrop. The series Little Britain had the character Emily Howard strolling along the promenade. Other brief appearances were made in the television series Agatha Christie's Marple, French & Saunders and Foyle's War. One scene in Bang Bang, It's Reeves and Mortimer, was shot in and based around what is now known as "D2L" on Seaside Road. An ITV Christmas drama premiere entitled Christmas at the Riviera was also set in and around Eastbourne. The town was used as a location for the BBC's 2009 series, Psychoville. BBC South East Today and ITV Meridian are the two regional news channels.
Local radio station Sovereign Radio broadcasts to Eastbourne from nearby Hailsham. There are two other regional radio stations, Heart Sussex, (previously Southern FM) which broadcasts across Sussex from Portslade and BBC Sussex which broadcasts from Brighton. There is also a BBC shop in Eastbourne, situated on Terminus Road. Capital Radio afternoon presenter Chris Brooks started his career on Eastbourne Hospital Radio.
Taman[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne has numerous parks and gardens, although there are several smaller open spaces including Upperton Gardens, the famous Carpet Gardens and the Western Lawns.
The first public park in Eastbourne was Hampden Park, originally owned by Lord Willingdon and opened on 12 August 1902. Facilities include: football pitches, rugby club, indoor bowls, a large lake (formerly a Decoy pond), lakeside cafe, children's recreation area, tennis courts, BMX and skate facility, disc golf course (target) and woodland.
The largest and newest park is Shinewater Park, located on the west side of Langney and opened in 2002. There is a narrow gauge railway, large fishing lake, basketball, football pitches, a BMX and skate park and children's playground.
Gildredge Park and Manor Gardens: A large open park located between the town centre and Old Town, Gildredge Park is very popular with families and has a children's playground, cafe, tennis courts, disc golf course (target) and bowls lawns. The smaller, adjoining, Manor Gardens combines both lawns and shady areas as well as a rose garden.
Until 2005, Manor Gardens was the home of the Towner Gallery. This gallery incorporated a permanent exhibition of local art and historical items, plus temporary art exhibitions of regional and national significance. It was relocated to a new, £8.6 million purpose-built facility adjacent to the Congress Theatre, Devonshire Park which opened on 4 April 2009.
Princes Park obtained its name during a visit by the Duke of Windsor as Prince of Wales in 1931. Located at the eastern end of the seafront, it has a children's playground with paddling pool, cafe, bowls and a large lake, noted for its swans. The lake is used by a nearby water–sports centre, which offers kayak and windsurfing training. Princes Park lake is also home to Eastbourne Model Powerboat Club and Eastbourne Model Yacht Club. Close by are tennis and basketball courts and a football pitch. At the north of the park is Eastbourne United F.C.
Devonshire Park, home to the pre–Wimbledon ladies tennis championships, is located just off the seafront in the towns cultural district.
Other parks include: Helen Gardens and the Italian Gardens at the western end of the seafront, Sovereign Park between the main seafront and the marina and Motcombe Gardens in Old Town.
Teater[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne has four council-owned theatres; the Grade II* listed Congress Theatre, the Grade II listed Devonshire Park Theatre, the Grade II listed Winter Garden and the Grade II listed Royal Hippodrome Theatre. The Devonshire Park Theatre is a fine example of a Victorian theatre with ornate interior decorations, and the Royal Hippodrome has the longest running summer show in Britain. Other theatre venues in the town include the volunteer-run Underground Theatre, in the basement of the town's Central Library, and The Lamb Theatre, based at the Lamb Inn in Old Town, and launched in August 2009.
Muzik[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne is home to some modern bands such as Toploader, Easyworld, Rooster, The Mobiles, Drum & Bass producer Dub One and Hip Hop producer Evil Ed. The classical composer Claude Debussy and his young lover Emma Bardac, the wife of a Parisian banker, resided in Eastbourne in 1904 after fleeing France to avoid scandal. Whilst in Eastbourne he completed the Orchestral piece La Mer. The London Philharmonic Orchestra makes regular appearances and has an annual season at the Congress Theatre.
Eastbourne Bandstand lies between the Wish Tower and the pier. It stages the 1812 Firework Concerts, Rock N Roll nights, Big Band concerts, Promenade concerts and Tribute Nights with tributes to artists such as ABBA, Elvis Presley and Queen. There was once a second similar bandstand (also built in 1935) in the "music gardens" near the redoubt fortress. The bandstand was removed to make way for the Pavilion Tearooms but the colonnades built around it are still there (behind the tea rooms). Before 1935 each of these sites had a smaller "birdcage" bandstand; the one in the music gardens having been moved from a rather precarious position opposite the Albion Hotel. The "kiosk" in the music gardens was originally one of the toll kiosks at the entrance to the pier.
Recreation[sunting | sunting sumber]
As a seaside resort, the natural focus of leisure activity is the 4 batu (6.4 km) of shingle beach which stretches from the harbour in the east to Beachy Head in the west. In a 1998 survey 56% of visitors said that the beach and seafront was one of Eastbourne best features, although 10% listed the pebbled beach as a dislike. The majority of the seafront consists of hotels, from petite guest houses to grand buildings.
Located halfway along the beach lies Eastbourne Pier, opened in 1870. In 1877 the landward half was swept away in a storm. It was rebuilt at a higher level, creating a drop towards the end of the pier. The pier is effectively built on stilts that rest in cups on the seabed allowing the whole structure to move during rough weather.
Other recreation facilities include two swimming pools, three fitness centres and other smaller sports clubs including scuba diving.
A children's adventure park is sited along the seafront. There are various other establishments scattered around the town such as crazy golf, go–karting and Laser Quest.
Sukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne's Devonshire Park is the venue for the International Women's Open, a Women's tennis tournament traditionally seen as the warm-up to Wimbledon. The tournament has been held in the town since 1975, and although in 2007 the Lawn Tennis Association was considering relocating it to London, they instead opted to merge it with the Nottingham Open, a men's event normally held at the same time, starting with the 2009 tournament.
On a national level, Eastbourne is home to three senior football clubs all bearing the town's name. Eastbourne Borough F.C. play in the Blue Square Premier, having been promoted from the Blue Square South at the end of the 2007–08 season, Eastbourne Town F.C. won promotion in 2006–07 to Ryman League Division One South while Eastbourne United F.C. play in Sussex County League Division 1. The Eastbourne Eagles are a speedway club located at Arlington Stadium, just outside the town. They compete in the Speedway Elite League, the highest level of speedway in England. The sport was staged prior to the war and included occasional team matches. The Eagles featured in the original National League Division Three in 1947 but the team transferred to Hastings in 1948. The track staged meetings over the years at the lower level but failed to gain entry to the Provincial League in the early 1960s. The track became involved in League speedway again in the 1970s and has operated continuously since. The Stadium also sees stock-car racing on Wednesday evenings in the summer months.
Eastbourne is represented at a local level in many other sports including cricket, hockey, rugby, lacrosse and golf. There is an annual extreme sports festival held at the eastern end of the seafront.
In addition to the town's own sporting teams, Eastbourne plays host to the University of Brighton's sports teams including the successful Women's Football Team who in the 2006–07 season were second only to Loughborough University Women's Football Team in the British Universities Sports Association (B.U.S.A.) championships, and then went on to represent the UK in the European University Sports Association championships.[petikan diperlukan]
There was once a small race-course at Bullock Down near Beachy Head.
Pelancongan[sunting | sunting sumber]
In 2009, Eastbourne gained a new cultural centre, replacing the Manor House (which has now been sold) as home of the Towner Art Gallery; it is located in the cultural district next to the Congress Theatre and Devonshire Park. One feature that has always been heavily promoted is Eastbourne's floral displays, most notably the Carpet Gardens along the coastal road near the pier. These displays, and the town as a whole, frequently win awards — such as the 'Coastal Resort B' Kategori in the 2003 Britain in Bloom competition. The pier is an obvious place to visit and is sometimes used to hold events, such as the international birdman competition held annually, although cancelled in 2005 due to lack of competitors. An annual raft competition takes place where competitors, usually local businesses, circumnavigate the pier in a raft made by themselves, while being attacked by a water-cannon.
A major event in the tourist calendar of Eastbourne is the annually held 4 day, international air show, 'Airbourne'. Started in 1993, based around a long relationship with the Red Arrows display team, the event features Battle of Britain memorial flights and aircraft from the RAF, USAF and many others.
The famous Chinese State Circus performs once a year in Princes Park.
Eastbourne Redoubt on Royal Parade is one of three examples of a type of fortress built to withstand potential invasion from Napoleon's forces in the early nineteenth century. It houses collections from The Royal Sussex Regiment, The Queen's Royal Irish Hussars, and the Sussex Combined Services Collection; including four Victoria Crosses and General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Steyr Automobile 1500A Afrika Korps Staff Car. Another museum is How We Lived Then, a museum of shops and local history, with exhibits representing complete scenarios such as shops and houses with life sized dummies. The museum contains more than 100,000 exhibits, covering the period from the 1800s to World War II.
Eastbourne can claim some notable regular visitors. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels were often in the area; the latter's ashes were scattered from Beachy Head at his request.
Pentadbiran[sunting | sunting sumber]
The political allegiance in Eastbourne swings between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats, the balance of power changing frequently. As of 2007, the Conservatives have the majority vote at national and county levels, but the May 2007 local elections gave the Liberal Democrats a large majority in the Borough Council.
At local level, the town is served by Eastbourne Borough Council. The district is divided into nine wards; Devonshire, Hampden Park, Langney, Meads, Old Town, Ratton, St Anthony's, Sovereign and Upperton. Each ward returns three councillors, giving a total of twenty-seven representatives. A Mayor is chosen traditionally from the ruling party but adopting a non-political and ceremonial role. Up to May 2006, elections were held yearly, with one seat per ward coming up for election. From May 2007, this was replaced by an election every four years, with all three seats per ward being contested.
The 2007 election had a turnout of 42.26%, resulting in a council made up of 20 Liberal Democrat and 7 Conservative councillors. The Mayor of Eastbourne is Councillor Carolyn Heaps and the Leader of the Council is Councillor David Tutt.
The next level of government is the East Sussex County Council with responsibility for Education, Libraries, Social Services, Civil Registration, Trading Standards and Transport. Elections for the County Council are held every four years. Out of the 49 seats, nine are filled by the Eastbourne wards. These wards are the same as the Borough wards, with one councillor elected per ward.
The 2005 East Sussex County Council election resulted in 29 Conservatives, 15 Liberal Democrats, 5 Labour and 1 Independent, of which Eastbourne provided 5 Liberal Democrats and 4 Conservatives. The turnout was 64%. Some Borough Councillors are also elected as County Councillors.
The Parliament Constituency of Eastbourne covers a greater area than the nine local wards, extending to the north and the east, including additional areas such as Willingdon, Wannock, East Dean and Friston. The Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Eastbourne is Stephen Lloyd, who took the seat from the sitting Conservative MP Nigel Waterson with a 3.8% swing on a turnout of 67% in the 2010 General Election.
Eastbourne has never been represented by a woman. A previous MP for Eastbourne was Ian Gow, who was murdered by the Provisional Irish Republican Army using a bomb planted under his car seat while at his home in Sussex.
At European level, Eastbourne is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament. The June 2004 election returned 4 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, 2 UK Independence, 1 Labour and 1 Green, none of whom live in East Sussex.
Demografi[sunting | sunting sumber]
The population of Eastbourne is growing, and is expected to continue this growth. This is demonstrated by comparing the 2007 estimated population of 94,816 with the 2001 census population of 89,667.
For many people, Eastbourne is most readily associated with the elderly, as it has historically been a popular retirement destination, and it is often referred to in age–related jokes. The 2001 census showed that it still has a larger than average over–60 population (just over a quarter of the population are of retirement age as opposed to the UK average of 18.4%).
2007 Ethnicity Estimates
- 89.3%Orang Putih British
- 3.3% Orang Putih lain
- 2.1% Asia
- 1.4% Bangsa Kacukan
- 1.3% Hitam
- 1.1% Orang Ireland Putih
- 0.8% Cina
- 0.7% Lain
Ethnically, the town is 93.7% white, with small minority groups including Chinese, Thai and Korean; white minority groups include Russian, Latvian, Ukrainian, Greek (mainly from Cyprus), Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Venezuelan, Polish and Estonian.
Up until recently, Chinese had been the town's single largest ethnic minority group for forty years. 2007 saw the number of people of Indian origin in Eastbourne eclipse this.
Eastbourne is home to a large Greek Cypriot community, a significant number of whom can be found around the Susans Road and Seaside Road area, which consequently has many Greek restaurants, kebab houses and a Greek Orthodox church. Many of the town's fish and chip shops are Greek-owned.
Kadar jenayah di Eastbourne (tiap 1000 penduduk) 2005–2006
|Kesalahan||Mengikut tempatan||Mengikut negara|
|Pencurian sebuah kenderaan motor||2.41||4.04|
|Pencurian dari sebuah kenderaan motor||8.43||9.59|
|Keganasan terhadap seorang individu||26.61||19.97|
Pendidikan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Sekolah bebas[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne’s reputation for health, enhanced by bracing air and sea breezes contributed to the establishment of many independent schools in the 19th century and in 1871, the year which saw the arrival of Queenwood Ladies College, the town was just beginning a period of growth and prosperity. By 1896, Gowland’s Eastbourne Directory listed 76 private schools for boys and girls. However, economic difficulties during the inter-war years saw a gradual decline in the number of independent schools.
In 1930, the headmistress of Clovelly-Kepplestone, a well-established boarding school for girls on the seafront, referred to "heavy financial losses experienced by schools in the past few years". In 1930, this school was forced to merge its junior and senior departments; in 1931, one of its buildings was sold off, and in 1934 the school closed altogether. Finally, indicative of the changes that would later befall many of the larger buildings in the town, the school was demolished to make way for a block of flats, which was completed in 1939.
The Eastbourne (Blue Book) Directory for 1938 lists 39 independent schools in the town. With the fall of France in June 1940, and the risk of invasion, most left - the majority never to return. By 2007, the number had reduced to just four: St. Andrew's School, Eastbourne College, St Bede’s Preparatory School and Moira House Girls' School.
Sekolah kerajaan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Eastbourne has six state secondary schools which undergo regular inspections by the official body Ofsted, whose role it is to ‘inspect and regulate care for children and young people, and inspect education and training for learners of all ages’ The schools are Ratton School, The Cavendish School, Eastbourne Technology College, The Bishop Bell C of E School, The Causeway School and Willingdon Community School. Inspectors’ reports on each school can be viewed via the Ofsted website. Further information is available via the websites of the individual schools.
Eastbourne has seventeen state primary schools. They are: Stafford Junior School, Ocklynge Primary School, Willingdon Primary School, Hampden Park Infant School, Pashley Down Infant School, Roselands Infant School, Bourne Primary School, Highfield Junior School, Oakwood Community School, St. Thomas a Becket Catholic Infant School, St. Thomas a Becket Catholic Junior School, Tollgate Community School, West Rise Infant School, West Rise Junior School, St. Andrew's C of E Junior School, St. John's Meads C of E Primary School, Motcombe Community School, Shinewater Primary School.
Many of Eastbourne's state schools have twinning arrangements with schools in Germany and France, allowing students to exchange with those from abroad.
Universiti Brighton[sunting | sunting sumber]
Parts of the University of Brighton are based in the Meads area of the town, and the University also owns playing fields in Willingdon, which are not presently being used.
Sekolah bahasa[sunting | sunting sumber]
Several language colleges and schools are based in the town. Language students are therefore a common sight on Eastbourne's streets, coming mainly from Germany, Spain, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland. Most of the language students visit Eastbourne during their summer holidays and stay with host families, who are paid for hosting the students. Language schools are divided into two categories: Accredited and Non-Accredited. The British Council awards accreditation following inspections to ensure high standards of quality. Eight institutions run accredited courses in Eastbourne - seven in the private sector and one in the state sector.
Sarjana terkenal[sunting | sunting sumber]
There have been some notable scholars passing through the Eastbourne education system. Aleister Crowley, occultist and mystic attended Eastbourne College. Aleister Crowley later edited a chess column for the Eastbourne Gazette. Polar explorer Lawrence Oates attended South Lynn School in Mill Gap Road. George Mallory, the noted mountaineer, attended Glengorse Preparatory School in Chesterfield Road between 1896–1900. On 8 June 1924, Mallory and his climbing companion Andrew Irvine were last seen moving towards the summit of Mount Everest, and may have been the first climbers ever to reach the top. Mallory’s body was discovered on 1 May 1999 on the north slope of the mountain at an altitude of 26,760 ka (8,160 m) Count László Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós, the basis of the lead character of The English Patient, was educated by a private tutor at Berrow, 17 Carew Road, from 1911 to 1914. He was a member of the pioneering Eastbourne Flying Club.
Douglas Bader, who became a successful World War II fighter pilot despite having lost both legs in a flying accident, attended Temple Grove Preparatory School in Compton Place Road. The philosopher A. J. Ayer was a pupil at Ascham St. Vincent's School in Carlisle Road. In addition to Orwell, Connolly, Beaton, Maxwell and Longhurst listed on the St Cyprian's School blue plaque, the writers Alaric Jacob, E. H. W. Meyerstein and Alan Hyman also attended St Cyprian's. The biographer and historian Philip Ziegler was at the school as was the music historian Dyneley Hussey and politician, historian and diarist Alan Clark.
Other politicians were Richard Wood who had lost both legs in the war, and David Ormsby-Gore later ambassador to the USA. Artists Cedric Morris and David Kindersley also attended the school as did military figures such as General Sir Lashmer Whistler and Major General Robert Foot VC. Pupils with sporting connections include the amateur jockey Anthony Mildmay and Seymour de Lotbiniere Director of Outside Broadcasts at the BBC. Jagaddipendra Narayan was a reigning Maharaja of Cooch Behar while at the school. Other former pupils whose exceptional lives are worthy of mention are the war-blinded life peer Lord Fraser and the submarine commander Rupert Lonsdale.
Modern celebrities who studied in the town include Prunella Scales and Eddie Izzard.
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Senarai tempat beribadah di Eastbourne
- Senarai Sekolah di East Sussex
- Kategori tokoh dari Eastbourne
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
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- ^ a b Stevens, Lawrence (1987), A Short History of Eastbourne, Eastbourne: Eastbourne Local History Society, ISBN 0 9504560 7 1
- ^ a b c d The book of Eastbourne, Eastbourne: Produced for the 99th annual meeting of the British Medical Association, 1931
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- ^ "Gildredge, sebuah rumah dan estet silam," berkata sejarawan Sussex Mark Antony Lower, "memberikan nama kepada suatu keluarga antikuiti penting, yang subsequently had their chief residence at Eastbourne, dan memberikan nama mereka kepada rumah besar Eastbourne-Gildredge."
- ^ Archive of the Davies-Gilbert Family of Eastbourne, East Sussex, East Sussex Record Office, The National Archives, nationalarchives.gov.uk
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|isbn=value: checksum (bantuan)
- ^ a b Ockenden, Michael (2006), Canucks by the Sea, Eastbourne: Eastbourne Local History Society, ISBN 0 9547647 1 4
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- ^ Eastbourne Society Newsletter (164) Missing or empty
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- ^ a b Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter (143) Missing or empty
- ^ Watson, Claire (2 Ogos 2007), Blue plaque for VC hero, Eastbourne Herald, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 11 Oktober 2007, dicapai pada 28 April 2007
- ^ Eastbourne Society Newsletters (120, 130, 136, 149, 153, 155, 160, 161, 164) Missing or empty
- ^ "Eastbourne College article", Eastbourne Herald, 5 Oktober 2007
- ^ Eastbourne Society Newsletter (155) Missing or empty
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- ^ 84 Charing Cross Road, Colombia Pictures, ISBN 5 035822 111134
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- ^ "Eastbourne and District Model Yacht Club". Dicapai pada 15 Mei 2010.
- ^ Butiran daripada pangkalan data bangunan disenaraikan (469319) Congress Theatre. Images of England. English Heritage..English Heritage
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- ^ Oldest town inn begins new life as theatre, Eastbourne Herald, dicapai pada 16 Oktober 2009[pautan mati kekal]
- ^ Toploader, Much Music, dicapai pada 1 Julai 2007
- ^ Easyworld, BBC Hampshire, dicapai pada 1 Julai 2007
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- ^ Johnson, S L (1889), Panoramic Map of Eastbourne, London: Stationers’ Hall
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- ^ Calls for airshow to be grounded, BBC News, 3 Januari 2006, dicapai pada 24 Jun 2007
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- ^ Kerrigan, Michael (1998), Who lies where (A guide to famous graves), London, England: Fourth Estate Ltd, ISBN 1-85702-258-0
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- ^ Local Elections, Eastbourne Borough Council, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 7 Februari 2007, dicapai pada 25 Januari 2007
- ^ How Local Elections Work, Eastbourne Borough Council, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 28 Julai 2012, dicapai pada 25 Januari 2007
- ^ Contacting your Borough Councillor, Eastbourne Borough Council, 27 Jun 2008, diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 30 April 2010, dicapai pada 25 Februari 2009
- ^ East Sussex County Councillors, Eastbourne Borough Council, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 7 Februari 2007, dicapai pada 25 Januari 2007
- ^ County Council Election Results, East Sussex County Council, 5 Mei 2005, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 4 Jun 2009, dicapai pada 25 Januari 2007
- ^ Eastbourne result, General Election 2010, BBC Online Network, 7 Mei 2010
- ^ 1990-92: Start of the talks process, BBC Online Network, 18 Mac 1999
- ^ UK MEP's, UK Office of the European Parliament, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 24 Januari 2007, dicapai pada 25 Januari 2007 Unknown parameter
- ^ "Population Pyramid - Eastbourne", Census 2001, National Statistics, dicapai pada 2 Januari 2007
- ^ "Neighbourhood Statistics - Eastbourne", 2007 Estimate, National Statistics, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 5 Mei 2010, dicapai pada 14 Oktober 2010
- ^ [pautan mati]"Dataset: Recorded crime by key offences, 2003/04-2006/07 - districts". East Sussex in Figures. East Sussex County Council. Dicapai pada 8 Ogos 2008.[pautan mati]
- ^ Petrie Carew, Dorothea (1967), Many Years Many Girls, Dublin: The Author
- ^ a b Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter (79) Missing or empty
- ^ Ofsted, Ofsted, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ Ratton School, Ratton School, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ The Causeway School, The Causeway School, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 9 Januari 2009, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ Cavendish School, Cavendish School, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ The Bishop Bell Church of England Mathematics and Computing Specialist School, The Bishop Bell School, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 8 Jun 2008, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ Willingdon Community School, Willingdon Community School, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ Eastbourne Technology College, Eastbourne Technology College, dicapai pada 8 Jun 2008
- ^ British Council, British Council, dicapai pada 27 Jun 2009
- ^ EducationUK, Education UK, dicapai pada 23 Februari 2010
- ^ Sussex Downs College, Education UK, diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 4 Februari 2010, dicapai pada 21 April 2010
- ^ Crowley, Aleister, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, m/s. 93, dicapai pada 30 Jun 2007
- ^ Eastbourne Society Newsletter (163) Missing or empty
- ^ Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter (145) Missing or empty
- ^ Brickhill, Paul (1954), Reach for the Sky: The Story of Douglas Bader DSO, DFC., London: Odhams Press Ltd, ISBN 0 00 211701 0
- ^ Ben Rogers A.J. Ayer: A Life 2002 Grove Press ISBN 0-8021-3869-1
- ^ St Cyprian's Chronicle 1914-1930 (at Eastbourne Reference Library)
- ^ Pickering, David, Scales, Prunella, The Museum of Broadcast Communications., dicapai pada 1 Julai 2007
- ^ Eddie Izzard, www.eddieizzard.com, dicapai pada 25 Februari 2009
Pautan laur[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Eastbourne di Curlie
- Eastbourne Borough Council Official site
- Visit Eastbourne Official tourism site
- Eastbourne Bandstand Diarkibkan 2008-08-28 di Wayback Machine
- Eastbourne Redoubt Fortress Military Museum Diarkibkan 2011-06-18 di Wayback Machine
- Tower 73 The Wish Tower Diarkibkan 2010-10-31 di Wayback Machine
- CS1 errors: ISBN
- CS1: abbreviated year range
- CS1 errors: missing title
- Rencana dengan pautan luar mati dari June 2010
- Rencana dengan pautan luar mati dari March 2010
- Articles with OS grid coordinates
- Semua rencana dengan kenyataan tidak bersumber dari October 2008
- EngvarB from August 2010
- Guna tarikh dmy dari August 2010
- Kerajaan tempatn di Sussex Timur
- Tempat peranginan di England
- Bandar di East Sussex
- Rencana termasuk sebutan dirakam (UK English)
- Daerah bukan-metropolitan Sussex Timur
- Daerah kerajaan tempatan England Tenggara