Pilihan raya Presiden Amerika Syarikat 2012

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Pilihan raya Presiden Amerika Syarikat 2012
Amerika Syarikat
← 2008 6 November 2012 2016 →
Jumlah yang mengundi54.9%[1] 3.3%
  President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop.jpg Mitt Romney by Gage Skidmore 6 cropped.jpg
Parti Demokrat Republikan
Undian popular 65,915,795 60,933,504
Peratusan 51.06% 47.2%

Presiden

Barack Obama
Demokrat

Presiden yang dilantik

Barack Obama
Demokrat

Pilihan raya presiden Amerika Syarikat 2012 merupakan pilihan raya presiden ke-57 yang diadakan pada hari Selasa, 6 November 2012. Calon dari parti Demokrat, Presiden Barack Obama, dan pasangannya, Naib Presiden Joe Biden, telah dipilih untuk penggal kedua. Mereka mengalahkan calon dari parti Republikan dan bekas Gabenor Mitt Romney dari Massachusetts dan pasangannya, Paul Ryan dari Wisconsin. Sebagai penyandang presiden, Obama memperoleh pencalonan parti Demokrat tanpa bantahan yang serius. Parti Republikan mengalami persaingan yang sangat sengit dan kompetitif sebelum Romney secara konsisten dan berjaya juga mendapat sokongan ramai pemimpin parti beliau, walaupun dia menghadapi cabaran dari beberapa pesaing yang lebih konservatif. Akhirnya, Romney memenangi pencalonan partinya pada bulan Mei, mengalahkan Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, dan calon lain. Kempen ini memberi tumpuan besar kepada isu-isu domestik, dan perbahasan berpusat di sekitar respons yang sangat baik terhadap Kemelesetan Besar. Isu-isu lain termasuk isu-isu bajet jangka panjang persekutuan, masa depan program insurans sosial, dan Akta Penjagaan Terjangkau, program perundangan Obama. Dasar luar negeri juga dibincangkan, termasuk fasa keluar dari Perang Iraq, perbelanjaan ketenteraan, program nuklear Iran, dan tindak balas yang sesuai terhadap keganasan. Obama mengalahkan Romney, memenangi majoriti undi popular dan Kolej Pemilihan. Obama memenangi 51.1% undi popular berbanding Romney yang 47.2%. Obama adalah penyandang pertama sejak Franklin D. Roosevelt pada tahun 1944 untuk memenangi pemilihan semula dengan undi undi yang lebih sedikit dan peratusan undi popular yang lebih rendah daripada yang telah dimenangi dalam pilihan raya sebelumnya, dan juga merupakan presiden dua penggal pertama sejak Ronald Reagan memenangi kedua-dua pilihan raya presiden dengan majoriti undi popular di seluruh negara. Ini juga merupakan pilihan raya presiden pertama sejak 1944 di mana calon tidak mempunyai pengalaman ketenteraan. Obama tewas di negeri Indiana dan Carolina Utara, namun memenangi seluruh tembok biru / kubu Demokrat serta merampas kerusi negeri Florida dan Ohio yang dimenangi oleh Republikan yang menjadi kubu kuat sejak dari pemilihan tahun 2000 dan 2004.

Keputusan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cartogram—2012 Electoral Vote.svg
Undi popular
Obama
  
51.06%
Romney
  
47.20%
Johnson
  
0.99%
Stein
  
0.36%
Others
  
0.38%
Undi mengikut kerusi yang dipertandingkan
Obama
  
61.71%
Romney
  
38.29%

Analisa keputusan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negeri / daerah yang dimenangi oleh Obama/Biden
Negeri / daerah yang dimenangi oleh Romney/Ryan
Barack Obama
Demokrat
Mitt Romney
Republikan
Gary Johnson
Libertarian
Jill Stein
Green
Lain-lain Margin Jumlah
Negeri atau
Daerah
# % Undi # % Undi # % Undi # % Undi # % Undi # % #
Alabama Alabama 795,696 38.36% 1,255,925 60.55% 9 12,328 0.59% 3,397 0.16% 6,992 0.34% −460,229 −22.19% 2,074,338 AL
Alaska Alaska 122,640 40.81% 164,676 54.80% 3 7,392 2.46% 2,917 0.97% 2,870 0.96% −42,036 −13.99% 300,495 AK
Arizona Arizona 1,025,232 44.59% 1,233,654 53.65% 11 32,100 1.40% 7,816 0.34% 452 0.02% −208,422 −9.06% 2,299,254 AZ
Arkansas Arkansas 394,409 36.88% 647,744 60.57% 6 16,276 1.52% 9,305 0.87% 1,734 0.16% −253,335 −23.69% 1,069,468 AR
California California 7,854,285 60.24% 55 4,839,958 37.12% 143,221 1.10% 85,638 0.66% 115,445 0.89% 3,014,327 23.12% 13,038,547 CA
Colorado Colorado 1,323,101 51.49% 9 1,185,243 46.13% 35,545 1.38% 7,508 0.29% 18,121 0.71% 137,858 5.37% 2,569,518 CO
Connecticut Connecticut 905,083 58.06% 7 634,892 40.73% 12,580 0.81% 863 0.06% 5,542 0.36% 270,191 17.33% 1,558,960 CT
Delaware Delaware 242,584 58.61% 3 165,484 39.98% 3,882 0.94% 1,940 0.47% 31 0.01% 77,100 18.63% 413,921 DE
Washington, D.C. Daerah ColumbiaDaerah Columbia 267,070 90.91% 3 21,381 7.28% 2,083 0.71% 2,458 0.84% 772 0.26% 245,689 83.63% 293,764 DC
Florida Florida 4,237,756 50.01% 29 4,163,447 49.13% 44,726 0.53% 8,947 0.11% 19,303 0.23% 74,309 0.88% 8,474,179 FL
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 1,773,827 45.48% 2,078,688 53.30% 16 45,324 1.16% 1,516 0.04% 695 0.02% −304,861 −7.82% 3,900,050 GA
Hawaii Hawaii 306,658 70.55% 4 121,015 27.84% 3,840 0.88% 3,184 0.73% 185,643 42.71% 434,697 HI
Idaho Idaho 212,787 32.62% 420,911 64.53% 4 9,453 1.45% 4,402 0.67% 4,721 0.72% −208,124 −31.91% 652,274 ID
Illinois Illinois 3,019,512 57.60% 20 2,135,216 40.73% 56,229 1.07% 30,222 0.58% 835 0.02% 884,296 16.87% 5,242,014 IL
Indiana Indiana 1,152,887 43.93% 1,420,543 54.13% 11 50,111 1.91% 625 0.02% 368 0.01% −267,656 −10.20% 2,624,534 IN
Iowa Iowa 822,544 51.99% 6 730,617 46.18% 12,926 0.82% 3,769 0.24% 12,324 0.78% 91,927 5.81% 1,582,180 IA
Kansas Kansas 440,726 37.99% 692,634 59.71% 6 20,456 1.76% 714 0.06% 5,441 0.47% −251,908 −21.72% 1,159,971 KS
Kentucky Kentucky 679,370 37.80% 1,087,190 60.49% 8 17,063 0.95% 6,337 0.35% 7,252 0.40% −407,820 −22.69% 1,797,212 KY
Louisiana Louisiana 809,141 40.58% 1,152,262 57.78% 8 18,157 0.91% 6,978 0.35% 7,527 0.38% −343,121 −17.21% 1,994,065 LA
Maine Maine 401,306 56.27% 4 292,276 40.98% 9,352 1.31% 8,119 1.14% 2,127 0.30% 109,030 15.29% 713,180 ME–a/l
Maryland Maryland 1,677,844 61.97% 10 971,869 35.90% 30,195 1.12% 17,110 0.63% 10,309 0.38% 705,975 26.08% 2,707,327 MD
Massachusetts Massachusetts 1,921,290 60.65% 11 1,188,314 37.51% 30,920 0.98% 20,691 0.65% 6,552 0.21% 732,976 23.14% 3,167,767 MA
Michigan Michigan 2,564,569 54.21% 16 2,115,256 44.71% 7,774 0.16% 21,897 0.46% 21,465 0.45% 449,313 9.50% 4,730,961 MI
Minnesota Minnesota 1,546,167 52.65% 10 1,320,225 44.96% 35,098 1.20% 13,023 0.44% 22,048 0.75% 225,942 7.69% 2,936,561 MN
Mississippi Mississippi 562,949 43.79% 710,746 55.29% 6 6,676 0.52% 1,588 0.12% 3,625 0.28% −147,797 −11.50% 1,285,584 MS
Missouri Missouri 1,223,796 44.38% 1,482,440 53.76% 10 43,151 1.56% 7,936 0.29% −258,644 −9.38% 2,757,323 MO
Montana Montana 201,839 41.70% 267,928 55.35% 3 14,165 2.93% 116 0.02% −66,089 −13.65% 484,048 MT
Nebraska Nebraska 302,081 38.03% 475,064 59.80% 5 11,109 1.40% 6,125 0.77% −172,983 −21.78% 794,379 NE–a/l
Nevada Nevada 531,373 52.36% 6 463,567 45.68% 10,968 1.08% 9,010 0.89% 67,806 6.68% 1,014,918 NV
New Hampshire New Hampshire 369,561 51.98% 4 329,918 46.40% 8,212 1.16% 324 0.05% 2,957 0.42% 39,643 5.58% 710,972 NH
New Jersey New Jersey[2] 2,125,101 58.38% 14 1,477,568 40.59% 21,045 0.58% 9,888 0.27% 6,690 0.18% 647,533 17.81% 3,640,292 NJ
New Mexico New Mexico 415,335 52.99% 5 335,788 42.84% 27,788 3.55% 2,691 0.34% 2,156 0.28% 79,547 10.15% 783,758 NM
New York (state) New York[3] 4,485,741 63.35% 29 2,490,431 35.17% 47,256 0.67% 39,982 0.56% 17,749 0.25% 1,995,310 28.18% 7,081,159 NY
North Carolina North Carolina 2,178,391 48.35% 2,270,395 50.39% 15 44,515 0.99% 12,071 0.27% −92,004 −2.04% 4,505,372 NC
North Dakota North Dakota 124,827 38.69% 188,163 58.32% 3 5,231 1.62% 1,361 0.42% 3,045 0.94% −63,336 −19.63% 322,627 ND
Ohio Ohio[4] 2,827,709 50.67% 18 2,661,437 47.69% 49,493 0.89% 18,573 0.33% 23,635 0.42% 166,272 2.98% 5,580,847 OH
Oklahoma Oklahoma 443,547 33.23% 891,325 66.77% 7 −447,778 −33.54% 1,334,872 OK
Oregon Oregon 970,488 54.24% 7 754,175 42.15% 24,089 1.35% 19,427 1.09% 21,091 1.18% 216,313 12.09% 1,789,270 OR
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 2,990,274 51.97% 20 2,680,434 46.59% 49,991 0.87% 21,341 0.37% 11,630 0.20% 309,840 5.39% 5,753,670 PA
Rhode Island Rhode Island 279,677 62.70% 4 157,204 35.24% 4,388 0.98% 2,421 0.54% 2,359 0.53% 122,473 27.46% 446,049 RI
South Carolina South Carolina 865,941 44.09% 1,071,645 54.56% 9 16,321 0.83% 5,446 0.28% 4,765 0.24% −205,704 −10.47% 1,964,118 SC
South Dakota South Dakota 145,039 39.87% 210,610 57.89% 3 5,795 1.59% 2,371 0.65% −65,571 −18.02% 363,815 SD
Tennessee Tennessee 960,709 39.08% 1,462,330 59.48% 11 18,623 0.76% 6,515 0.26% 10,400 0.42% −501,621 −20.40% 2,458,577 TN
Texas Texas 3,308,124 41.38% 4,569,843 57.17% 38 88,580 1.11% 24,657 0.31% 2,647 0.03% −1,261,719 −15.78% 7,993,851 TX
Utah Utah 251,813 24.75% 740,600 72.79% 6 12,572 1.24% 3,817 0.38% 8,638 0.85% −488,787 −48.04% 1,017,440 UT
Vermont Vermont 199,239 66.57% 3 92,698 30.97% 3,487 1.17% 594 0.20% 3,272 1.09% 106,541 35.60% 299,290 VT
Virginia Virginia 1,971,820 51.16% 13 1,822,522 47.28% 31,216 0.81% 8,627 0.22% 20,304 0.53% 149,298 3.87% 3,854,489 VA
Washington (negeri) Washington 1,755,396 56.16% 12 1,290,670 41.29% 42,202 1.35% 20,928 0.67% 16,320 0.52% 464,726 14.87% 3,125,516 WA
West Virginia West Virginia 238,269 35.54% 417,655 62.30% 5 6,302 0.94% 4,406 0.66% 3,806 0.57% −179,386 −26.76% 670,438 WV
Wisconsin Wisconsin[5] 1,620,985 52.83% 10 1,407,966 45.89% 20,439 0.67% 7,665 0.25% 11,379 0.37% 213,019 6.94% 3,068,434 WI
Wyoming Wyoming 69,286 27.82% 170,962 68.64% 3 5,326 2.14% 3,487 1.40% −101,676 −40.82% 249,061 WY
Jumlah keseluruhan 65,915,795 51.06% 332 60,933,504 47.20% 206 1,275,971 0.99% 469,627 0.36% 490,510 0.38% 4,982,291 3.86% 129,085,410 US

Keputusan bagi daerah di Maine dan Nebraska[sunting | sunting sumber]

[6][7]

Daerah Obama % Romney % Johnson % Stein % Terry % Margin % Jumlah
Kongres daerah Maine pertama 223,035 59.57% 142,937 38.18% 4,501 1.20% 3,946 1.05% 80,098 21.39% 374,419
Kongres daerah Maine kedua 177,998 52.94% 149,215 44.38% 4,843 1.44% 4,170 1.24% 28,783 8.56% 336,226
Kongres daerah Nebraska pertama 108,082 40.83% 152,021 57.43% 3,847 1.45% 762 0.29% −43,939 −16.60% 264,712
Kongres daerah Nebraska kedua 121,889 45.70% 140,976 52.85% 3,393 1.27% 469 0.18% −19,087 −7.16% 266,727
Kongres daerah Nebraska ketiga 72,110 27.82% 182,067 70.24% 3,869 1.49% 1,177 0.45% −109,957 −42.42% 259,223

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Federal Elections 2012: Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. m/s. 5. Dicapai pada 7 Disember 2015.
  2. ^ "2012 Election Information". Dicapai pada February 25, 2013.
  3. ^ "NYS Board of Elections President and Vice-President Election Returns Nov. 6, 2012" (PDF). Dicapai pada May 2, 2013.
  4. ^ "Final Results". Diarkib daripada yang asal pada Julai 29, 2013. Dicapai pada Februari 25, 2013.
  5. ^ "Wisconsin Fall 2012 General Election Results". Dicapai pada January 18, 2013.
  6. ^ "State of Maine Certificate of Ascertainment of Electors" (PDF). Dicapai pada December 18, 2012.
  7. ^ "Official Results of Nebraska General Election – November 6, 2012" (PDF). Dicapai pada December 26, 2012.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]