Sisa elektronik

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Guni berisi telefon bimbit terpakai di Agbogbloshie, Ghana.

Sisa elektronik atau sampah elektronik (electronic waste) ialah alat elektrik atau elektronik yang dibuang. Bahagian elektronik terpakai yang digunakan, dijual, diperolehi dan dikitar semula, atau dilupuskan juga termasuk dalam kategori ini.

Pelupusan dan pengitaran semula sisa elektronik di negara-negara membangun boleh membawa kesan buruk kepada kesihatan manusia serta alam sekitar akibat pendedahan kepada komponen yang membahayakan seperti plumbum, kadmium dan berilium.[1] Langkah berhati-hati diambil untuk mengelakkan pendedahan yang tidak selamat serta kebocoran bahan seperti logam berat bawaan abu longgokan sampah dan insinerator.[2]

Bahan buangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jenis berbahaya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Komponen Perkakasan yang menggunakannya Kesan ketara kepada kesihatan
Amerisium Sumber radioaktif dalam pengesan asap. Dikenali bersifat karsinogenik.[3]
Plumbum Solder, kaca monitor CRT, bateri asid-plumbum, some formulations of PVC. A typical 15-inch cathode ray tube may contain 1.5 pounds of lead, but other CRTs have been estimated as having up to 8 pounds of lead. Adverse effects of lead exposure include impaired cognitive function, behavioral disturbances, attention deficits, hyperactivity, conduct problems, and lower IQ. These effects are most damaging to children whose developing nervous systems are very susceptible to damage caused by lead, cadmium, and mercury.[4]
Raksa Dijumpai pada lampu pendarfluor (banyak digunakan), tilt switches (loceng pintu mekanik, termostat),[5] serta lampu belakang pada monitor skrin leper . Termasuk kerosakan penderiaan, dermatitis, hilang ingatan dan kemerosotan otot. Pendedahan kepada janin menyebabkan hilang fungsi motor, daya tumpuan serta kebolehan bercakap.[6] Environmental effects in animals include death, reduced fertility, and slower growth and development.
Kadmium Found in light-sensitive resistors, corrosion-resistant alloys for marine and aviation environments, and nickel-cadmium batteries. The most common form of cadmium is found in Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries. These batteries tend to contain between 6 and 18% cadmium. The sale of Nickel-Cadmium batteries has been banned in the European Union except for medical use. When not properly recycled it can leach into the soil, harming microorganisms and disrupting the soil ecosystem. Exposure is caused by proximity to hazardous waste sites and factories and workers in the metal refining industry. The inhalation of cadmium can cause severe damage to the lungs and is also known to cause kidney damage.[7] Cadmium is also associated with deficits in cognition, learning, behavior, and neuromotor skills in children.
Kromium heksavalen Melindungi saduran logam daripada penghakisan. A known carcinogen after occupational inhalation exposure.

There is also evidence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of some chemicals, which have been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, cause cell membrane lesion, cause DNA single-strand breaks, and elevate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels.[8]

Sulfur Dijumpai pada bateri asid-plumbum. Kesan termasuk kerosakan pada hati, buah pinggang dan jantung serta kerengsaan pada mata dan tekak. Asid sulfurik boleh terbentuk melalui sulfur dioksida yang dilepaskan ke persekitaran.
Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) Used as flame retardants in plastics in most electronics. Includes PBBs, PBDE, DecaBDE, OctaBDE, PentaBDE. Health effects include impaired development of the nervous system, thyroid problems, liver problems.[9] Environmental effects: similar effects as in animals as humans. PBBs were banned from 1973 to 1977 on. PCBs were banned during the 1980s.
Asid perfluorooktanoiak (PFOA) Used as an antistatic additive in industrial applications and found in electronics, also found in non-stick cookware (PTFE). PFOAs are formed synthetically through environmental degradation. Studies in mice have found the following health effects: Hepatotoxicity, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, hormonal effects and carcinogenic effects. Studies have found increased maternal PFOA levels to be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) and stillbirth. Increased maternal levels of PFOA are also associated with decreases in mean gestational age (preterm birth), mean birth weight (low birth weight), mean birth length (small for gestational age), and mean APGAR score.[10]
Berilium oksida Bahan pengisi dalam bahan antaramuka terma seperti gris penyimpan haba CPUs dan transistor kuasa,[11] magnetron, tingkap seramik tembus sinar-X, sirip penyejuk dalam tiub hampagas dan laser gas. Occupational exposures associated with lung cancer, other common adverse health effects are beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease, and acute beryllium disease.[12]
Polivinil klorida (PVC) Kerap dijumpai dalam elektronik, sebagai bahan penebat dalam wayar elektrik.[13] In the manufacturing phase, toxic and hazardous raw material, including dioxins are released. PVC such as chlorine tend to bioaccumulate. [14]Over time, the compounds that contain chlorine can become pollutants in the air, water, and soil. This poses a problem as human and animals can ingest them. Additionally, exposure to toxins can result in reproductive and developmental heath effects.[15]

Jenis tidak berbahaya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Komponen Kegunaaan
Aluminium hampir semua perkakasan elektronik yang menggunakan lebih dari beberapa watt kuasa (heatsinks), elektrolisis kapasitor.
Tembaga wayar tembaga, papan litar tercetak, komponen petunjuk.
Germanium dalam alatan elektronik bertransistor dari tahun 1950-an hingga 1960-an (bipolar persimpangan transistor).
Aurum Penyaduran bersambung, terutamanya dalam peralatan komputer.
Litium Bateri litium-ion.
Nikel Bateri nikel-kadmium.
Silikon Kaca, transistor, Iitar bersepadu, papan litar tercetak.
Timah solder, lapisan pada komponen petunjuk.
Zink Penyaduran bahagian keluli.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Sakar, Anne. "Dad brought home lead, kids got sick". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 17 Mac 2016. 
  2. ^ Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH. (2012) Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ.
  3. ^ "Americium, Radioactive". TOXNET Toxicology Data Network. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 Oktober 2016. 
  4. ^ Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N.; Huo, Xia; Ho, Shuk-mei (2011-04-01). "Developmental neurotoxicants in e-waste: an emerging health concern". Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 431–438. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002452. ISSN 1552-9924. PMC 3080922Boleh dicapai secara percuma. PMID 21081302. 
  5. ^ "Question 8" (PDF). Diarkibkan (PDF) daripada yang asal pada 26 Mac 2009. 
  6. ^ Chen, A.; Dietrich, K. N.; Huo, X.; Ho, S.-M. (2011). "Developmental Neurotoxicants in E-Waste: An Emerging Health Concern". Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 431–438. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002452. 
  7. ^ "Cadmium (Cd) – Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects". Lenntech.com. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 15 Mei 2014. Dicapai 2 June 2014. 
  8. ^ Liulin, W., Meiling, H., Jing, A., Yufang, Z., Xuetong, W., Yangjun, W., et al. (2011). The cytotoxic and genetoxic effects of dust and soil samples from E-waste recycling area on L02 cells. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 27 (9), 831–839.
  9. ^ Birnbaum, LS; Staskal, DF (2004). "Brominated flame retardants: Cause for concern?" (PDF). Environmental Health Perspectives. 112: 9–17. doi:10.1289/ehp.6559. PMC 1241790Boleh dicapai secara percuma. PMID 14698924. Diarkibkan (PDF) daripada yang asal pada 12 October 2016. 
  10. ^ Wu, K.; Xu, X.; Peng, L.; Liu, J.; Guo, Y.; Huo, X. (2012). "Association between maternal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from electronic waste recycling and neonatal health outcomes". Environment International. 41: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2012.06.018. 
  11. ^ Becker, Greg; Lee, Chris; Lin, Zuchen (July 2005). "Thermal conductivity in advanced chips: Emerging generation of thermal greases offers advantages". Advanced Packaging: 2–4. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 21 June 2000. Dicapai 4 March 2008. 
  12. ^ "Health Effects". United States Department of Labor. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 Oktober 2016. Dicapai 30 Oktober 2016. 
  13. ^ "Why BFRs and PVC should be phased out of electronic devices". 
  14. ^ "Flame retardants & PVC in electronics". 
  15. ^ "Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)". 

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